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Cornell  University 

The  original  of  this  book  is  in 
the  Cornell  University  Library. 

There  are  no  known  copyright  restrictions  in 
the  United  States  on  the  use  of  the  text. 


3   1924  078  39 


y^  J).c^$^^'^^/ 









Embellished  with  upwards  of  One  Hundred  Portraits  of  Citizens. 

BUFFALO,    N.  Y. 


Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1876, 

Hy  Andrew  W.  Young, 
In  I  he  office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington. 


After  the  lapse  of  a  period  much  longer  than  was  anty:ipated,  the  writer 
offers  to  the  public  the  result  of  his  protracted  labors.  Although  he  has 
no  assurance  that  the  work  will  fully  meet  the  expectations  of  all  for 
whom  it  has  been  written,  he  indulges  the  hope  that  it  will  receive  a 
good  measure  of  the  popular  favor.  But  how  much  soever  it  may  fall 
short  of  universal  commendation,  he  has  the  satisfaction  to  believe,  that 
its  supposed  defects  will  not  be  ascribed  to  any  lack  of  effort,  on  his 
part,  to  fulfill  the  pledge  of  his  "  best  endeavors  to  produce  a  history 
which  should  meet  the  expectations  of  the  people,  and  reflect  honor 
upon  the  county."  This  has  certainly  been  his  paramount  object,  irre- 
spective of  the  time  deemed  necessary  for  its  accomplishment. 

The  author  takes  occasion  here  to  suggest  to  the  reader  the  advantage  of 
a  careful  reading  of  the  Introduction  before  proceeding  to  the  perusal  of 
the  History.  Portions  of  the  work  which  might  othenvise  appear  somewhat 
obscure,  will  be  rendered  quite  intelligible  by  the  previous  reading  of  the 
explanations  in  the  introductory  pages. 

/  '  ^/?  r,  , 



Apologetic  and  Explanatory. 

Seldom  has  a  publication  made  its  advent  so  long  after  its  inception  as 
this  history  of  Chautauqua  county.  Fifty  years  ago>-a  distinguished  citizen  of 
the  county  conceived  the  idea  of  such  a  history,  and  commenced  the, collec- 
tion of  material.  This  labor  was,  for  many  years,  unremittingly  continued, 
so  far  as  his  professional  and  public  duties  permitted.  His  removal  from  the 
state  and  other  causes  conspired  to  hinder  the  progress  of  the  work,  until  dis- 
ease and  the  infirmities  of  age  forbade  the  accomplishment,  by  his  own  hands, 
of  his  favorite  and  long-cherished  object ;  and  the  people  oif  the  county,  who 
had  long  awaited  its  appearance,  abandoned  the  hope  of  its  pubhcation. 

At  this  juncture,  the  name  of  the  author,  then  in  a  distant  state,  was  com- 
municated, by  a  friend,  to  the  projector  of  the  work.  A  coprespondence  en- 
sued, which  resulted  in  an  engagement,  on- my  part,  to^'iiss^e  the  entire  re- 
sponsibility of  its  publication.  It  was  a  great,  and.  pecuniarily,  a  hazardous 
undertaking.  To  examine  more  than  twenty  large  volumes  of  manuscript 
and  printed  scraps  from  county  newspapers,  and  a  large  number  of  printed 
volumes,  for  such  matter  as  could  be  made  available  in  the  compilation  of  the 
work ;  and  to  collect,  in  person,  an  equal  amount  of  additional  matter  from 
the  twenty-six  towns  in  the  county,  was  a  task  which  few  who  had  a  just  con- 
ception of  its  magnitude  would  have  readily  assumed. 

An  important  characteristic  of  a  work  is  accuracy.  Yet  in  publications  of 
no  other  kind  than  this  is  it  so  difficult.  Few  of  the  earlier  settlers  remain  ; 
and  the  recollections  of  these  few  are  so  diverse  and  conflicting  as  to  render 
them  unreliable,  unless  confirmed  by  the  concurrent  statements  of  others. 
The  collections  of  matter  for  several  works  containing  historical  sketches  of 
this  county,  appear  to  have  been  too  hastily  and  carelessly  made.  One  of 
them,  though  a  valuable  work,  abounds  with  errors.  Several  appear  in  the 
sketch  of  a  single  town,  and  more  or  less  in  the  sketches  of  many  other  towns. 
Probably  to  save  time  and  labor,  most  of  these  erroneous  statements  have 
been  taken,  on  trust,  from  the  first  person  applied  to  for  information,  and, 


without  further  inquiry,  inserted  in  the  forthcoming  publication  ;  and,  through 
that  and  succeeding  histories,  they  will  be  transmitted  to  future  generations. 

A  large  portion  of  this  History  is  based  on  the  collections  of  Judge  Foote. 
These  were  commenced  long  before  there  were  any  i?//:^  settlers  in  the  county  ; 
and  they  consist  chiefly  of  the  experience  and  observation  of  the  persons  from 
whom  they  were  obtained,  and  before  their  memories  were  impaired  by  time 
or  age.  A  large  portion  of  this  matter  has  been  examined  by  some  c^f  the 
early  and  well  informed  settlers  still  living,  and  has  been  found  singularly  free 
from  inaccuracies.  In  the  collection  of  new  material,  unusual  pains  have 
been  taken  to  guard  against  errors.  To  ascertain  the  truth  in  the  hundreds 
of  disputed  cases,  has  required  an  amount  of  labor  of  which  few  can  form  a 
just  conception.  And  after  the  county  had  been  several  times  traversed,  and 
the  newly  collected  matter  written  out,  I  was  unwilling  to  permit  it  to  be  print- 
ed until  I  had  again  visited  every  town,  and  submitted  the  manuscript  to  my 
informants  and  others  for  examination.  Any  person,  therefore,  who  questions 
the  truth  of  any  statement,  has  reason  to  doubt  the  correctness  of  his  own 
memory,  or  of  the  source  from  which  his  information  was  obtained.  Yet  it 
would  be  a  marvel  if  no  inaccuracies  should  be  discovered.  Persons,  not  a 
few,  have  erred  in  relating  transactions  which  occurred  under  their  own  ob- 
servation, or  in  which  they  had  themselves  participated.  If,  with  all  the  pains 
taken  to  insure  a  correct  history,  the  object  has  not  been  attained,  it  may  be 
confidently  pronounced  unattainable.  In  family  sketches,  inaccuracies  are 
most  likely  to  appear.  Persons  intimately  acquainted  with  families  they  have 
described,  have  not  in  all  cases  been  quite  correct ;  and  some  sketches 
received  in  manuscript  have  not  been  entirely  legible.  Sundry  errors, 
discovered  since  the  body  of  the  book  was  printed,  are  corrected  on 
pages  immediately  preceding  the  Index,  at  the  end  of  the  work. 

Of  the  merits  of  the  work,  different  opinions  will  be  formed.  Matter  which 
some  will  appreciate,  others  may  regard  as  unimportant.  Some,  perhaps,  will 
read  with  little  interest  the  adventures  and  experience  of  the  early  settlers, 
with  which  they  are  already  familiar.  Others  will  read  this  part  of  the  work 
with  greater  interest  than  any  other.  A  large  portion  of  this  History  has  been 
written,  not  so  much  for  the  present  generation,  as  for  the  generations  which 
are  to  follow.  Many  remember  how  earnestly  they  listened  to  the  stories  of 
pioneer  life  from  the  lips  of  their  ancestors.  Before  the  present  generation 
shall  have  passed  away,  not  an  individual  will  remain  to  relate,  from  his  own 
personal  knowledge,  the  experiences  of  the  first  settlers  which  have  so  deeply 
interested  us.  This  interest  will  not  be  abated  by  the  lapse  of  time.  The 
written  nitrative  "of  incidents  of  "  life  in  the  woods,''  will  be  no  less  accepta- 
ble to  those  who  come  after  us,  than  was  the  tira/ relation  to  ourselves.  Hence, 


to  commemorate  the  events  and  occurrences  of  the  past — to  transmit  to  our 
descendants  a  faithful  history  of  our  own  time — is  a  duty.  Many  to  whom 
such  a  history  shall  be  transmitted,  will  estimate  its  value  at  many  times  its 
cost.  Without  it  little  will  be  known  of  early  times,  except  what  shall  have 
come  down  to  them  by  tradition,  always  imperfect  and  unreliable. 

This  History  is  written  for  a  population  of  60,000,  differing  greatly  in 
their  views  and  tastes,  which  the  historian  can  not  entirely  disregard. 
Hence,  in  addition  to  pioneer  history,  which  constitutes  a  considerable  por- 
tion of  the  work,  the  reader  will  find  a  great  variety  of  other  matter,  civil, 
ecclesiastical,  educational,  commercial,  agricultural,  statistical  and  biographi- 
cal, which  will  render  it  convenient  and  useful  as  a  book  of  reference,  now 
and  hereafter.  It  is  believed  that  the  exclusion  of  either  of  these  subjects 
would  have  materially  impaired  its  value. 

There  was  early  manifested  a  desire  among  settlers  to  see  the  names  of 
themselves  or  their  ancestors  associated  with  the  history  of  the  county. 
This  desire  is  a  natural  and  a  proper  one.  A  large  portion  of  the  early  set- 
tlers in  every  town  have  been  mentioned,  and  many  others  will  be 
disappointed  at  not  finding  their  own  names.  The  omission  was  unavoida- 
ble. A  notice  of  one-half  of  the  families  of  this  large  county,  would  have 
infringed  too  much  upon  the  space  required  for  other  topics.  To  visit  every 
family  was  impossible :  those  only  were  called  on  who  were  most  accessible  and 
most  likely  to  furnish  the  desired  historical  information.  Hence  the  names  of 
many  of  the  more  worthy  and  prominent  citizens  have  necessarily  been  omitted. 

Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches  form  a  prominent  feature  of  this 
History.  They  will  generally  be  found  in  the  historical  sketches  of  the 
towns  in  which  their  subjects  respectively  resided  or  now  reside.  Sketches 
of  persons  who  have  resided  in  several  towns,  are  in  some  cases  inserted  in 
the  histories  of  the  towns  in  which  they  passed  the  earlier  or  more  eventful 
period  of  their  lives.  Probably  no  part  of  the  History  will  be  more  fre- 
quently referred  to  than  this.  Many  of  these  sketches  contain  much 
interesting  historical  matter,  and  will  amply  compensate  a  perusal.  Their 
number  has  been  materially  increased  by  the  unusual  and  unexpected  num- 
ber of  portraits  furnished  by  citizens,  who,  by  their  generous  contribution  to 
the  eipbelllshment  of  the  work,  deserved  a  full  biographical  and  family 
sketch  of  the  person  represented  by  the  portrait.  One  characteristic  of 
these  biographical  notes  can  hardly  escape  the  notice  of  the  reader — the 
absence  of  eulogy,  especially  of  the  living.  As  persons  widely  difttr  in  their 
estimate  of  the  characters  of  their  fellow-men,  it  was  deemed  prudent  not  to 
venture  beyond  a  simple  statement  of  the  more  noticeable  incidents  and 
events  of  the  life  of  any  living  subject. 


The  attention  of  the  reader  is  invited  to  the  plan  and  arrangement  of  the 
work.  Matter  of  general  interest  and  application,  and  relating  to  the  early 
history  of  the  state  and  county,  is  first  introduced,  and  is  arranged  under 
appropriate  heads  or  titles.  This  greatly  facilitates  the  finding  of  historical 
facts.  The  general  history  of  the  county  is  followed  by  a  particular  history 
of  the  several  towns,  in  alphabetical  order.  The  historical  sketch  of  each 
town  includes  the  names  of  early  farmers,  mechanics,  business  and  profes- 
sional men,  and  notices  of  mills,  manufactories,  schools,  churches,  etc.  This 
will  aid  in  the  search  for  matter  relating  to  the  towns.  The  Table  of  Con- 
tents at  the  beginning,  and  the  Index  at  the  end,  of  the  volume,  will  gener- 
ally enable  the  reader  to  find  what  he  seeks  for.  His  searches,  however, 
will  be  greatly  facilitated  by  making  himself  familiar  with  the  arrangement  of 
the  work.  But  the  greatest  advantage  would  be  gained  from  at  least  one 
perusal,  in  course,  of  the  entire  History.  Many  interesting  occurrences 
therein  recorded,  might,  without  such  perusal,  never  come  to  the  knowledge 
of  the  reader. 

It  soon  became  apparent  that  the  work  would  far  exceed  its  prescribed 
limits.  To  keep  it  within  a  proper  and  convenient  size  and  weight,  type  one 
size  smaller  than  was  at  first  intended,  was  selected  ;  the  printed  page  was 
greatly  enlarged ;  and  the  reading  matter  was  increased  twenty  per  cent,  be- 
yond the  quantity  promised.  And  paper  of  less  than  the  usual  weight  and 
thickness  was  taken  to  render  the  book  more  convenient  in  the  using,  and  to 
insure  its  greater  strength  and  durability. 

Those  who  have  read  the  foregoing  pages  will  need  no  further  apology  for 
the  unexpected  delay  in  the  issue  of  this  work.  No  one  regrets  it  more 
deeply  than  myself  To  my  patrons  this  delay  is  a  gain  at  my  expense.  A 
history  of  the  county  might  have  been  written  in  half  the  time  expended 
upon  this ;  but  I  would  not  offer  to  the  public  what  was  not  satisfactory  to 
myself.  I  presumed  they  would  rather  be  served  later  with  a  good  book  than 
earlier  with  an  indifferent  one.  In  respect  to  its  embellishment  they  will  be 
more  than  satisfied.  No  definite  number  of  portraits  was  promised.  Instead 
of  fifty,  which,  it  was  hoped,  might  be  obtained,  the  public  are  presented 
with  double  that  number,  of  which  one-half  are  fine  steel  engravings,  in 
which  the  subjects  of  the  pictures  will  be  readily  recognized,  except,  per- 
haps, in  a  few  cases  of  defective  photographs,  or  of  pictures  taken 
twenty-five  or  thirty  years  ago.  The  aggregate  cost  of  the  portraits  exceeds 
eight  thousand  dollars. 

To  the  numerous  friends  who  have  given  me  assurances  of  their  interest 
in  this  enterprise,  I  offer  my  grateful  acknowledgments.  All  who  have  been 
applied  to  for  information,  have  cheerfully  rendered  '  the  desired   service. 


Next  to  Judge  Foote,  the  projector  of  the  History,  who  has  devoted  years 
of  gratuitous  labor  to  his  favorite  object,  Hon.  Obed  Edson  has  the  strong- 
est claim  to  the  gratitude  of  the  people  of  this  county.  The  "  prehistoric 
matter,"  (as  it  has  been  appropriately  termed,)  with  which  the  work  com- 
mences, and  which  has  cost  much  time  and  elaborate  reseiaarch,  has  been 
gratuitously  furnished ;  and  it  will  be  regarded,  by  most  appreciative  minds, 
as  an  invaluable  contribution  to  the  work.  The  lectures  of  the  liate  Hon. 
Samuel  A.  Brown,  delivered  in  the  Jamestown  academy,  in  1843,  and  Judge 
E.  F.  Warren's  Historical  Sketches  of  Chautauqua  County,'  have  furnished 
valuable  matter.  Some  has  also  been  obtained  from  the  sketches  of  early 
settlers  in  Stockton  and  EUery,  by  J.  L.  Bugbee,  and  S.  S.  Crissey,  Esqs. 
As  the  greater  portion  of  the  matter  thus  obtained  is  interwoven  with  what 
has  been  collected  from  various  other  sources,  specific  credit  could  not,  in  all 
cases,  be  given  to  these  authors,  without  unpleasant  interruptions  of  the  nar- 
rative, and  the  disfigurement  of  the  printed  page.  Thanks  are  also  due  to 
Dr.  Taylor  for  the  free  use  of  his  History  of  Portland.  Having  devoted 
to  his  work  several  years  of  careful  investigation,  it  is  presumed  to  be,  as  re- 
spects the  history  of  that  town,  generally  correct  and  reliable.  Hence 
much  of  what  appears  in  this  work  relating  to  the  history  of  Portlajid,  has 
been  taken  from,  or  is  based  upon,  that  History.  The  few  errors  discovered 
in  it  are  in  matter  relating  to  other  towns,  and  come  from  those  hastily  pre- 
pared, unreliable  histories  elsewhere  referred  to.  Dr.  Taylor  has  done  his 
fellow-citizens  a  valuable  service,  for  which,  doubtless,  they  are  duly 

Matter  was  received  from  many  sources  after  the  greater  portion  of  the 
work  had  been  printed.  Much  of  it  was  intended  to  supply  omissions  in  pre- 
ceding pages,  among  which  were  parts  of  several  biographical  and  family 
sketches  accompanying  portraits.  This  matter,  together  with  some  that  had 
been  prepared,  and  intended  for  the  body  of  the  work,  appears  in  a  "  Sup- 
plement" of  50  pages,  to  which  the  special  attention  of  the  reader  is  invited. 
Much  of  this  supplemental  matter  will  be  found  arranged  under  the  titles  of 
the  towns  to  which  portions  of  it  properly  belonged.  Other  parts  of  it,  among 
which  is  a  sketch  of  Chautauqua  lake  and  its  surroundings,  have  been 
prepared  since  the  printing  was  far  advanced. 

Lastly,  I  congratulate  myself  on  the  termination  of  my  arduous  and  pro- 
tracted labors.  If  those  for  whom  these  labors  have  been  performed  shall 
be  satisfied,  my  highest  object  will  have  been  attained. 

A.  W.  Y. 

December,  iSyj. 


The  Mound  Builders,  17.  The  Neutral  and  other  Huron-Iroquois  Nations,  20.  The  Je- 
suits, 24.  Wars  of  the  Huron-Nations,  25.  La  Salle,  26.  Baron  La  Ronton,  29. 
Indian  Occupation,  30.  Events  leading  to  the  French  and  Indian  Wars,  34.  Origin 
of  the  name  Chautauqua,  35.  The  Portage-Road,  37.  Washington's  journey  to  French 
Creek,  45.  The  French  War,  45.  Pontiac's  War,  48.  Col.  Broadhead's  Expedi- 
tion, 50.  British  Expedition  over  Chautauqua  Lake,  in  1782,  51.  Washington's  cor- 
respondence with  Gen.  Irvine,  54.  Survey  of  the  State  Boundary  Line,  60.  Indian 
Wars,  and  the  conclusion,  61.  , 

Discovery  of  America  ;  British  grants  ;  efforts  to  establish  colonies,  63.      Cesaion  of  West- 
ern lands  to  the  general  government,  64.     Phelps  and  Gorham's  Purchase,  64.     Hol- 
land Company's  Purchase,  66-9. 

Controversy  concerning  the  first  settlement,  70.     John  and  James  McMahan's  Purchases, 
73.     Settlements  in  Westfield,  Ripley,  and  Canadaway,  73-6.     Portland  and  Hanover, 
76.     South-east  part  of  the  county,  77.      Chautauqua,  77.      Kiantone,  77. 

Early  dwellings,  78.      Clearing  land,  80.      Wild  animals,  81.      Early  fanning,  85.      Early 
cooking,  87.     Fare  of  the  early  settlers,  88.     Household  manufactures,  8g.     Stores  and 
trade,  91.     Ashes  a  staple  product,  94.     Nature  of  trade,  97.     Division  of  business,  98. 

Early  schools  ;  course  of  instruction  ;  manner  of  teaching ;  description  of  a  school-house  ; 
dunce  block  ;  school  fund,  102-4. 

Early  occupation  of  the  county  by  missionaries — Rev.  John  Spencer,  and  others,  105-8. 
Gospel  land,   108. 

Division  of  the  State  into  counties,  109-13.     First  county  ofScers,  113.     Building  court- 
houses, 114.     Division  of  the  county  into  towns,  115. 


Old  Portage  Road,  116-17.     Road  from  Pennsylvania  to  Chautauqua  lake,  117.     Mayville 
and  Cattaraugus  road,  118. 

Early  mail  contractors,  post-offices,  and  postmasters,   119-26. 

Price  of  land  and  terms  of  sale,  126.     Condition  of  the  settlers,  128.     Sale  of  the  Compa- 
ny's lands  ;  Gepesee  land  tariff ;  land-office  destroyed,  129-31.     Policy  of  Mr.  Seward, 
131-5.     Cherry  Valley  Company's  purchase,  135. 


Sketch  of  La  Fayette,  135.     Reception  at  Westfield,  136.     Reception  at  Fredonia,  139-42. 

Drinking  customs,  142.     Temperance  reform  measures,  144-46. 

Early  measures  of  abolitionists  ;  violent  opposition  ;  action  of  Congress,  146^.  , 


Chautauqua  County  Medical  Society,  148.     Eclectic  Medical  Society,  148. 

Early   encouraged  by    DeWitt   Clinton,   149.     Chautauqua  County  Agricultural    Society 
formed,  150. 


New  York  and  Erie  Railroad  Company,  150.  Celebration  at  Dunkirk,  151.  Buffalo  & 
Erie  and  other  railroads,  153.  Atlantic  &  Great  Western  Railway,  153.  Dunkirk, 
Allegany  &  Pittsburgh  and  other  railroads,  154-5. 

Early  parties  and  their  principles  ;  the  federalists  and  republicans  ;  nature  of  the  Union, 
155-8.     Alien  and  sedition  laws  ;  Virginia  and  Kentucky  resolutions,  158—60.     Polit- 
ical parties  in  Chautauqua,   160-2.     Parties  in  the  state  ;     Clintonians  and  Bucktails, 
162-6.     Anti-masonic  party,  166-9.     American  party,  169-71.     Present  parties,  171. 

WAR  HISTORY— War  of  1812. 
Causes  of  the  war  ;  war  declared,  1 72-3.    Chautauqua  militia,  173-5.     British  cruisers ;  bat- 
tle of  Black  Rock,  175-7.     Officers  of  the  militia  companies  ;  results  of  the  war,  178-81. 

Civil  War. 
Origin  of  the  war,   182-4.     Commencement  of  hostilities  ;  confederate  government ;  Lin- 
coln's  proclamation,    184-6.     Movements   in   the    North ;   public   meetings,    186—9. 
Further  action  of  the  government ;  more  troops  raised,  189-91.     Suspension  of  ha  teas 
corpus,  191.     Close  of  the  war,  193-4.  * 

COUNTY  NEWSPAPERS,   194-7,  634. 
Reiinion   at   Fredonia,    197-207.     Reiinion  at   Forestville,   207-210.     Reunion  at  James- 
town, 210-218. 

THE  GREAT  ECLIPSE  OF  1806,  218-19. 

Formation    of    the   town,    and   its   settlement,    220-25.     Biographical   and   genealogical 
sketches,  225-27.     Churches,  227.     [See  Supplement,  625.] 

Formation  and  settlement  of  the  town,  227-33.     Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches, 
233-41.     Churches,  241. 


Formation  of  the  town  and  its  settlement,  241-6.  Mills  and  factories,  247.  Biographical 
and  genealogical  sketches,  248-50.  Baptist  church,  251.  [Supplement — John  Frew 
and  Thomas  Russell,  625.     M.  E.  Church,  626.] 

Formation  and  settlement  of  the  town,   251-56.     Dunkirk,  Warren  &  Pittsburgh  railroad, 
257.     Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches,'  258-61.     Churches  and  Lodges,  261-2. 


Formation  and  settlement,  262-70.     Emigration  of  the  Prendergast  family,  264-6.     Bio- 
graphical and  genealogical  sketches,  270-83.     Churches  and  other  associations,  283-4. 
Supplement — Lowry  Families,  626 ;  insecurity  of  land  titles  in  Western  Pennsylva- 
nia, 627-9;     Lowrys,  who  settled  in  this  county,  and  other  settlers,  629-30. 

Formation  and    settlement,    284-91.     Biographical    and    genealogical    sketches,  291-3. 
Churches,  and  other  associations,  293-4. 

Formation  and   settlement,    295-300.     Biographical   and   genealogical   sketches,    300-2. 
Churches,  302. 


Formation  and  settlement,  302-4.  Village  of  Dunkirk,  sketch  of,  304-7.  Manufactures, 
305-7,630-31.    Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches,  307-12.     Churches,  312-13. 

Formation   and   settlement,    313-20.     Biographical   and   genealogical ,  sketches,   320-26. 
Churches,  326. 


Formation  and  settlement,  327-30.  First  Independence  celebration,  331.  Worksburg, 
332.  Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches,  333-4.  Jamestown  :  its  survey  and 
settlement,  335-6.  Mills,  336  ;  rising  of  water  in  the  lake,  337.  Settlers  in  the  vil- 
•^e,  337-42.  Territorial  enlargement,  343.  Village  incorporated,  343.  Manufac- 
tures, 344-50.  Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches,  350-72.  Jamestown  land 
association,  372.  Cemeteries,  372.  Churches  and  other  associations,  373-6.  Lum- 
ber manufacture,  376-9. 


Formation  and  settlement,  379-84.  Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches,  385-6. 
Churches,  386—7. 



Formation  and  topography  of  the  town,  388-9.  Its  settlement,  389-93.  Biographical 
and  genealogical  sketches,  394-5.     Churches,  395-6. 

When  formed,    396.     Settlement   of,    396-9.     Biographical   and   genealogical   sketches, 
400-2.     Churches,  403. 


Erection  and  settlement  of  the  town,  403-8.  Silver  Creek,  409-13.  Great  black-walnut 
tree,  414.  Forestville,  413-15.  Irving,  415-16.  Biographical  and  genealogical 
sketches,  416-26.     Churches,  &c.,  426-9. 

Erection,  description,  and  settlement  of,  429-36.     Mills,  stores,  &c.,  437-8.     Biographical 
and  genealogical  sketches,  438-43.     Churches,  443-5. 

Formation  and  description  of,  445.      Settlement  of,  445-8.      Biographical  and  genealogi- 
cal sketches,  449-51.     Churches,  452. 

Formation  and  settlement  of,  452-6.     Mills,  stores,  &c.,  456-8.     Churches,  459, 

Erection,  description,  and  aettlettient'  of,  459-63.     Mills,  463.     Biographical  and  genea- 
logical sketches,  464-6.     Chnrches,  466. 


Formation  and  settlement  of,  466-75.     Fredonia  Academy,  &c.,  47S-6.     Laona,  477-8. 
Biographical  and  genealogical  sketches,  478-94.     Churches,  494-6.     [See  also  Sup- 
plement, town  of  Pomfret,  646.] 

Formation,  description,  and  settlement  of,    497-9.      Early  mechanics,  merchants,  mills, 
&c.,     S00-3.     Grape    and    wine    culture,    504-6.      Biographical    and    genealogical 
sketches,  506-9.     Churches,  509-12.     [See  also  Supplement,  Portland,  647.] 

Formation,   description,   and  settlement  of,    512—16.     Mills,   stores,   &c.,   ^ly-lS.     Bio- 
graphical sketches,  518-31.     Churches,  531-2.     [See  Supplement,  640-2.] 

Formation  and  settlement  of,  533-5.     Biographical  sketches,  535-44. 

Formation   and   settlement   of,    544-7.     Mills,    machinery,     &c.,     S47—S.     Biographical 
sketches,  548-53-     Churches,  ic,  553-4.     [See  Supplement,  642.] 

Formation   and  settlement   of,  554-61.     Early  merchants,    mechanics,  mills,  etc.,   561-2. 
Biographical  sketches,  563-71.     Churches,  571-3.     [See  Supplement,  643-5.] 

Erection  and  settlement  of,   573-9-     Mills,  stores,  and  mechanics,  579-80.     Biographical 
sketches,  580-4.     Churches,  584.     [See  Supplement,  645.] 

Formation  and  settlement  of,  584-8.     Early  stores,  taverns,  and  physicians,  588-9.     Mills, 
manufactories,  etc.,   590-1.       "  Warsaw  club,  "  592.     Barcelona,   592.     Biographical 
sketches,  593-615.     Churches,  615-18.     [See  Supplement,  646.] 


A  trench  filled  with  human  bones,  uncovered  in  Harmony,  619-20.     Indian  mounds  in 
EUicott,  620. 


Reservations,  on  the  Holland  Purchase — Cattaraugus  Reservation,  621.     Cayuga,  Oneida, 

Onondaga,  and  Tonawanda,  622.     Tuscarora,  623. 

COLD   SUMMER — 623-4. 


William  Wilcox,  genealogical  sketch  of,  623.     [See  portrait  and  sketch,  227.] 


John  Frew  and'  Thomas  Russell,  early  settlers  in  this  town,  625-6.     Methodist  Episcopal 

Church,  626. 


Lowry  Families,  626-9.     Land  titles  in  North-western  Pennsylvania,  627-9.     Additional 

names  of  settlers  in  Mayville,  629-30. 


Locomotive  works,  and  other  manufacturing  establishments,  630-1.     Churches,  631-2. 


Family  sketches  of  R.  E.  Fenton,  Corydon  Hitchcock,  and  N.  A.  Lowry,  632-3. 


Sketches  of  J.  G.  Hopkins,  S.  J.  Smith,  633-4.     Chautauqua  Farmer,  634. 

Morris  Norton,  Charles  Parker,  and  Stephen  W.  Steward,  634-5. 

William  Falconer,  Varanus  Page,  635.     Churches,  635-6. 

Settlement   and  sketches  of  additional  settlers  in  this  town,  636-9.     Manufactures,  639. 
M.  E.  church,  639.     H.  Bosworth,  N.  D.  Snow,  R.  H.  Hall,  W.  H.  Abell,  646-7. 

Judd  W.  Cass  and  John  B.  Dinsmore,  early  settlers,  640.     Elihu  and  Dudley  Marvin,  641. 


Josiah  R.  Keeler,  an  early  settler  in  this  town,  and  a  prominent  citizen,  642. 

Ellsworth  family,  643.     Fisher  families,  643-4.     Sawyer  Phillips'  family,  644. 


Villeroy  Balcom,  an  early  settler  ;  biographical  sketch  of,  645.     Freewill  Baptist  church, 
organization  and  sketch  of,  645-6. 


Sherman  Williams,  correction  of  biographical  sketch  of,  646. 


Thomas  J.  Wheeler,  biographical  and  genealogical  sketch  of,  647-8. 


Judges  Elial  T.  Foote  and  Thomas  B.  Campbell  decline  reappointments ;  action  of  the 
court  thereon,  648-50. 

BANKS,  650-2. 



Appointment  of,  by  council  of  appointment,  for  Genesee  county,  and  of  Niagara,  652. 


Appointments  for  Genesee  and  Niagara  counties,  652. 


Election  of,  in  the  districts  of  which  Chautauqua  was  a  part,  652-3.  '     * 


The  districts  they  represented,  and  the  years  in  which  they  served,  653. 

The  districts  and  counties  they  represented,  and  tljje  years  in  which  they  served,  654. 

The  districts  or  counties  they  represented,  and  the  year  of  each  convenfipn,  655. 

From  districts  including  the  county  of  Chautauqua,  655. 





A  summer  resort ;  its  steamers,  659-62 ;  hotels,  662-3.     Fair  Point,  Point  Chautauqua, 

REAL  AND  FERSO^IhU.  ipt'ATH,    TAXES,    POPULATION,    665-6.  '  ^ 

NOTBS    A|B^   CORRECTIONS,    657. 


Abell,  Moseley  W.,    . 
Abell,  Thomas  G., 

Sketch,       . 
Abell,  William  H.,    . 
Allen,  Augustus  F.,   . 
Angell,  Cyrus  D. , 
Baker,  Henry, 
Balcom,  Villeroy, 
Baldwin,  Levi, 
Barker,  Leverett,  . 
Barker,  George, 
Barr*tt,  Samuel, 
Bemus,  Charles,     . 
Benedict,  Odin, 
Bentley,  Uriah, 
Bishop,  Elijah, 
Blasdell,  Stephen, 
Bliss,  Elam  C, 
Bly,  Theron  S., 
Brewer,  Francis  B.,    . 
Brigham,  Willard  W., 
Brockway,  Burban, 
Brown,  Samuel  A.,    . 
Bumell,  Madison, 
Burritt,  Charles,     . 
Campbell,  Thomas  B., 
Chandler,  Woodley  W. , 

Sketch,       .     . 
Chapin,  James  E. , 
Cook,  Orsell,    . 
Couch,  Warren, 
Cushing,  Zattu,      .  * 
Cushing,  William  B., 
Dewey,  Lester  R., 
Dorman,  Dearing, 
Drake,  Jeremiah  C, 
Eason,  David,        .      . 

Sketch,       . 
Eaton,  David,  . 
Edson,  John  M.,    .     . 
Ellsworth,  Jeremiah, 
pUsworth,  Stukely, 
Farwell,  Omar, 
Fenton,  William  H,, 

















Fenton,  Reuben  E.,   . 

Fletcher,  Adolphus, 
Foote,  Elial  T.,     .     . 

Sketch,      .     .     . 
Foote,  Charles  C, 
Frank,  Michael,    . 
Gage,  Charles  B., 
GifFord,  William, 
Gleason,  Hiram  N., 
Griffith,  John,   .      .      . 
Griswold,  John  E., 
Hall,  John  P.,        . 
Hall,  Ralph  H.,    .     . 

Sketch,      .     .     . 
Hall,  Asa,    .... 
Hazeltine,  Daniel, 
Hinkley,  Watson  S., 
Hitchcock,  Corj'don, 
Houghton,  Jacob, 
Hungerford,  Sextus  H., 
Jones,  Solomon,    . 
Jones,  EUick,    . 
Kent,  Joseph,  .     . 
Kip,  Benjamin  H., 
La  Due,  Joshua,    . 
Leland,  Cephas  R.,    . 
Lowry,  Morrow  B.,    . 
Maples,  Charles  G.,   . 
Marshall,  John  E., 
Marvin,  Richard  P., 
Marvin,  Dudley,    . 
May  borne,  Wm.  A., 
McKenzie,  Donald,    . 
McMahan,  James, 

Minton,  John  H., 
Mixer,  Nathan,      .     . 
Montgomery,  James, 
Morian,  Jacob, 
MuUett,  James,      .     . 
Orton,  Samuel  G., 
Osborne,  Thomas  A., 
Patterson,  George  W. , 


■  •  358 
358,  632 

.  362 
.  .  361 
.  420 
.  .  271 

■  •  550 

•  •  485 

.  .  486 

486,  647 

.  600 


.  601 












Pattison,  Jonathan  S 543 

Southland,  Judson, 

.     .     .     .     240 

Peacock,  William,      ... 


Spencer,  John,       .     . 

.     .     .     .          612 

Pier,  Rufus, 


Sprague,  Jonathan,     . 

•     •                     492 

Plumb,  Alvin 


Steward,  John,'     .     . 


Prendergast,  Matthew,         .     . 


Steward,  Sardius, 


Prendergast,  Jediah,        .     .     . 


Steward,  Stephen  W., 


Prendergast,  James,   .     . 


Strunk,  William  H., 

•     •     333 

Prendergast,  Alex.  T.,    .     .     . 


Taylor,  Horace  C,     . 

.     .     .     .          509 

Prendergast,  Stephen,     .     .     . 


Tinker,  Reuben,    . 

.     613 

Prendergast,  Henry  A.,       .     . 


Tracy,  Jedediah,    .      . 


Pullman,  Lewis 


Warren,  Amos  K.,     . 

•     571 

Rice,  Victor  M. 


Warren,  Chauncey,    . 

■     570 

Risley,  Elijah,        .... 


Warren,  Emory  F., 

•     •     493 

Robertson,  John  R., 


Wells,  Austin  L., 

.     614 

Sackett,  Niram,     . 


White,  Squire, 

•     494 

Shepard,  Fitch,     . 


Wilcox,  William, 

.     .                227 

Sherman,  Daniel, 


Sketch,      .     . 

227,  625 

Sixbey,  Herman,  . 


Williams,  Daniel, 

•     •     ■     443 

Skinner,  Otis, 


Williams,  Sherman, 

.     615 

Slawson,  Silas  N., 


Sketch,      .     .     . 

.     .       615,  646 

Smallwood,  John, 


Willson,  John  I., 

•     •  -37' 

Smith,  Austin, 


Wilson,  William  R., 

.     402 

Smith,  Philip  M., 


Winsor,  Samuel  B.,  . 

•     372 

Smith,  Rodney  B., 


Young,  Andrew  W., 

....        5 

Snow,  Noah  D.,    . 


Sketch,            .      . 

•    529 

Sketch,      .     . 


I,  646 

Young,  Charles  P.,    . 

....    530 

Note. — Some  persons  who  have  furnished  portraits,  paid  for  the  number  at  first 
supposed  to  be  necessary  to  supply  the  whole  edition  of  the  History.  It  was  subsequently 
ascertained  that  a  larger  edition  would  be  needed  to  supply  the  demand.  Some  of  those 
who  had  paid  for  the  smaller  number  being  indisposed  to  increase  the  expense,  or  being 
satisfied  with  that  number,  their  portraits  do  not  appear  in  the  entire  edition.  Two  or 
three  may  yet  be  added,  which  are  not  mentioned  in  the  above  list. 

Corrections. — A  few  errors  have  been  discovered  in  the  printed  sheets,  which  are 
noticed  and  corrected  on  page  667. 

Abbreviations. — The  letter  /.,  or  //.,  signifies  township  ;  and  r.  signifies  range.  The 
interrogation  point  in  parenthesis  marks  (?)  means  query,  and  indicates  that  the  preceding 
statement  is  doubtful,  and  needs  further  inquiry.  * 



BY     OBED     EDSON. 

The  Mound  Builders. 

The  pioneers  of  Chautauqua  county  found  it  an  unbroken  wilderness  ;  yet 
often  when  exploring  its  silent  depths,  where  forest- shadows  hung  deepest, 
they  were  startled  at  the  discovery  of  unmistakable  evidences  of  its  having 
been  anciently  inhabited  by  a  numerous  people.  Crowning  the  brows  of 
hills  that  were  flanked  by  dark  ravines ;  along  the  shores  of  its  lakes  and 
streams  ;  in  its  valleys  at  numerous  points,  were  the  plain  traces  of  their 
industry ;  earthworks  or  fortifications  mostly  circular ;  pits  bearing  marks  of 
use  by  fire ;  ancient  highways  and  mounds,  in  which  lay  buried  mouldering 
skeletons ;  and  later,  where  forests  had  given  place  to  cultivated  fields,  the 
spade  and  plow  in  the  spring  time,  made  strange  revelations  of  rude  imple- 
ments of  war  and  peace,  and  oftentimes  of  the  crumbling  relics  of  an  ancient 
burial  place.  At  first  these  monuments  were  believed  to  be  of  European 
origin ;  and  patient  research  was  made  among  early  records  for  an  account 
of  events  happening  upon  the  eastern  continent,  a  little  prior  to  and  about 
the  time  of  the  discovery  of  America,  that  would  afford  an  explanation  of 
their  existence.  But  the  great  age  of  the  forest  trees  growing  above  them, 
and  other  marks  of  antiquity,  demonstrated  this  belief  to  be  unfounded.  A 
solution  of  the  mystery  was  then  sought  among  the  traditions  of  the  aborig- 
ines ;  but  carefulf  investigation  has  proved  these  ruins  to  be  so  old  that 
tradition  can  throw  no  light  upon  them ;  and  that  they  cannot  be  the  work 
of  the  ancestors  of  the  Indians  found  here. 

Commencing  near  the  centre  of  the  state,  they  extend  westwardly.  Over 
Chautauqua  county  they  were  thickly  strewn ;  farther  to  the  west  and  south, 
in  the  valleys  of  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi,  these  ancient  remains  were  still 
more  numerously  found,  in  larger  dimensions,  and  it  is  evident  of  much 
greater  antiquity.  There,  for  a  long  period  of  time,  must  have  dwelt  a  large 
and  industrious  people.  The  geometric  precision  with  which  their  works 
were  constructed ;  the  fine  workmanship  of  their  pottery ;  their  ornaments 
and  implements  made  of  copper,  silver  and  porphyry ;  the  remarkable  skill, 


and  the  long  period  of  time  during  which  they  must  have  worked  the  copper 
mines  of  Lake  Superior,  proved  them  to  have  possessed  a  considerable  degree 
of  civilization.  Still  further  to  the  south,  in  Mexico,  Central  America,  and 
Peru,  are  found  ruins  of  a  more  magnificent  character;  of  immense  cities 
leagues  in  extent ;  superb  edifices  of  hewn  stone,  pure  in  design,  and  correct 
in  architecture ;  built  by  a  people  possessed  of  a  knowledge  of  painting, 
sculpture,  and  astronomy ;  who  understood  the  art  of  writing,  as  shown  by 
inscriptions  upon  their  palaces,  and  the  written  books,  rescued  during  the 
Spanish  conquest  of  Mexico,  some  of  which  are  still  in  existence  and  have 
been  partially  translated.*  Although  these  ancient  remains  found  in  Chau- 
tauqua county,  as  compared  with  those  of  Mexico  and  Peru,  seem  but  humble 
memorials  of  the  past,  they  are,  notwithstanding,  equally  with  those  more 
imposing  ruins,  genuine  relics  of  olden  times,  erected  by  the  labor  of  human 
hands  long  before  the  discovery  of  America  by  Columbus,  t 

In  the  town  of  Sheridan,  not  far  from  where  the  Erie  railway  crosses  the 
highway  that  leads  from  Fredonia  to  Forestville,  at  an  early  day  was  plainly 
to  be  seen  an  ancient  fortification,  circular  in  form,  inclosing  many  acres. 
The  evidences  then  existed,  that  the  land  in  that  vicinity  had  once  been 
cleared,  but  had  since  come  up  to  timber  of  at  least  three  hundred  years 
growth.  Pestles,  mortars,  and  other  stone  implements  were  found,  and 
numerous  pits  occurring  at  regular  intervals,  were  formerly  observed  there. 
These,  in  every  instance,  were  found  two  together,  or  in  pairs.  In  this 
vicinity,  from  time  to  time,  many  human  bones  have  also  been  brought  to 
light.  In  the  summer  of  1870,  a  large  grave  was  opened,  from  which  a 
great  number  of  human  skeletons  were  exhumed.  These  were  the  bones  of 
individuals  of  both  sexes  and  all  years,  from  infancy  to  old  age.  They  were 
indiscriminately  mingled  together,  clearly  indicatihg  an  unceremonious  and 
promiscuous  burial.  Near  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  village  of  Fredonia, 
not  far  from  the  Canadaway,  extending  from  bank  to  bank,  a  distance  of  • 
about  two  hundred  feet  across  the  level  summit  of  an  eminence,  still  known 
as  "  Fort  Hill,"  was  an  ancient  intrenchment ;  in  front  of  which  were  once 
the  traces  of  a  large  pit.  In  the  vicinity  of  these  remains,  human  bones 
and  the  usual  Indian  relics  have  occasionally  been  found.  In  the  town  of 
Westfield,  were  extensive  remains  of  earth-works ;  and  in  the  town  of  Port- 
land, besides  a  circular  earth-work  and  other  evidences  of  ^cient  occupation, 
there  were  also  several  ancient  roadways.  Excavations  have  shown  that  one 
of  them  was  underlaid  by  a  bed  of  large  stones,  deeply  covered  with  earth 
and  gravel.  J 

Around  the  beautiful  lakes  and  village  of  Cassadaga  occur,  perhaps,  the 
most  extensive  remains  of  any  in  the  county.     At  the  extremity  of  the  cape 

*  Ancient  America,  by  J.  D.  Baldwin. 

f  It  is  the  opinion  of  Squier  the  archaeologist,  that  the  remains  found  in  Western  New 
York,  and  the  mounds  of  the  Mississippi  Valley,  are  not  the  work  of  the  same  people. 
The  latter  are  undoubtedly  much  the  oldest. 

i  History  of  Portland,  by  Dr.  Taylor. 


which  extends  from  the  south-western  side  far  into  the  lower  of  these 
lakes,  is  a  curious  and  conspicuous  mound.  Its  longest  diameter  is  about 
seven  rods;  its  shortest,  five.  Its  summit  is  about  twelve  feet  above  the 
level  of  the  lake,  and  is  about  eight  feet  above  the  low  neck  of  land  in  its 
rear,  that  connects  it  with  the  higher  and  wider  part  of  the  cape.  Whether 
it  is  an  artificial  structure,  or  the  work  of  Nature,  is  open  to  conjecture;  it 
seems,  however,  to  have  been  anciently  occupied,  for  the  usual  relics  have 
been  found  there  in  great  abundance.  Stretching  across  this  cape  for  a  dis- 
tance of,  perhaps,  twenty  rods,  along  the  bririk  of  the  plateau  that  rises 
about  twelve  rods  in  the  rear  of  this  tumulus,  was  an  earthenware  breast- 
work. Still  further  to  the  rear,  extending  nearly  from  shore  to  shore,  was 
another  breastwork.  Thus  were  several  acres  inclosed  by  these  earthen 
works,  and  the  two  shores  of  the  lake.  In  the  vicinity,  large  quantities  of 
pottery  and  stone  utensils  have  been  found.  Near  the  northern  shore  of  the 
lake  was  a  large  mound ;  although  frequent  plowing  has  reduced  its  dimen- 
sions, it  is  still  four  or  five  feet  high,  and  three  or  four  rods  in  diameter.  It 
is  said  to  have  been  twelve  feet  high  when  first  seen,  with  forest  trees  of 
centuries'  growth  standing  upon  it.  About  1822,  this  mound  was  excavated, 
and  a  large  number  of  human  skeletons  exhumed.  Extending  from  an 
extensive  fire  bed  in  the  neighborhood  of  this  mound,  in  a  north-westerly 
direction,  a  distance  of  sixty  rods  or  more,  on  the  east  side  of  the 
lake,  was  an  elevated  strip  of  land  of  the  width  of  the  track  of  an  ordi- 
nary turnpike,  bearing  the  appearance  of  having  been  once  a  graded  way. 
The  traces  of  this  ancient  road  are  still  plainly  visible.  At  various  other 
places  around  Cassadaga,  and  along  the  shore  of  the  lake,  were  numerous 
caches  and  extensive  fire  beds,  or  hearths,  with  an  abundance  of  coal  and 
ashes  buried  deep  in  the  ground.  Skeletons  have  been  exhumed  in  many 
places,  and  arrows,  pottery  and  stone  implements  in  great  profusion. 

Extensive  remains  were  also  found  at  Sinclairville  and  in  its  vicinity.  A 
distance  of  about  one  mile  south  of  that  village,  in  the  town  of  Gerry,  was 
a  circular  intrenchment  inclosing  several  acres;  within  which. numerous 
skeletons  and  rude  implements  of  stone  have  been  discovered.  North-east 
of  this  intrenchment,  a  distance  of  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  rods,  was 
an  ancient  cemetery,  in  which  the  remains  of  many  people  seem  to  have 
been  regularly  interred.  This  old  Indian  burying  ground  was  well  known 
from  the  first  settlement  of  the  county,  and  was  a  subject  of  much  specula- 
tion among  the  early  inhabitants.  Fifty  years  ago,  or  more,  as  many  as  fifty 
skeletons  were  disinterred  on  one  occasion.  Some  of  them  are  said  to  have 
been  of  unusual  size ;  and  within  the  last  twenty  years,  twenty-five  skeletons 
were  disinterred  on  another  occasion.*  The  bodies  were  regularly  buried  in 
a  sitting  position,  in  rows,  alternating  and  facing  each  other.  In  the  woods, 
in  Gerry,  two  miles  south-east  of  Sinclairville,  is  still  visible  one  of  these  cir- 
cular fortifications,  with  large  forest  trees  growing  from  its  ditch  and  wall. 
Close  by  Sinclairville,  upon  the  high  bluff  to  the  west,  that  rises  precipitously 

*  The  author  was  present  on  this  occasion. 


from  Mill  creek,  was  once  an  earth-work,  circular  in  form,  within  which 
was  a  deep  excavation.  The  excavation  and  intrenchment  have  long  since 
disappeared,  and  now,  from  this  commanding  eminence  so  inclosed,  a  beau- 
tiful prospect  may  be  had  of  the  village  and  the  surrounding  hills. 

Extending  along  the  northern  and  southern  boundary  of  the  plateau,  on 
which  a  principal  part  of  the  village  is  situated,  were  two  earthen  breast- 
works. Between  these  two  embankments,  the  main  fortifications  seemed  to 
be  situated.  It  was  an  extensive  circular  earth-work,  having  a  trench  with- 
out, and  a  gateway  opening  to  a  small  stream  that  passed  along  its  southern 
side.  This  work  inclosed  six  or  seven  acres  of  what  is  now  a  central  portion 
of  the  village.  A  part  of  the  main  street,  portions  of  other  streets,  and  the 
village  green,  all  were  included  within  this  old  inclosure. 

At  other  points,  within  the  town  of  Gerry,  and  in  the  town  of  Stockton, 
were  remains  of  similar  earth-works,  and  other  evidences  of  an  early  occupa- 
tion. In  the  town  of  Ellington,  at  different  places  along  the  terrace  of  low 
hills,  that  borders  either  side  of  the  valley  of  Clear  creek,  there  existed,  at 
the  first  settlement  of  the  county,  the  remains  of  many  of  these  circular  in- 
closures,  in  the  vicinity  of  which,  stone  implements  and  other  relics  have 
been  plentifully  discovered.  Along  the  shore  and  outlet  of  Chautauqua 
lake,  were  numerous  mounds  and  other  vestiges.  Two  of  these  old  tumuli, 
and  the  traces  of  an  old  roadway,  are  still  visible  near  the  eastern  shore  of 
Chautauqua  lake,  at  Griffith's  Point,  in  the  town  of  Ellery. 

The  description  thus  far  given  of  the  aboriginal  monuments  found  in  these 
localities,  will  suffice  for  a  further  account  of  those  that  were  found  numer- 
ously distributed  in  other  parts  of  the  county ;  for  they  all  bear  the  same 
general  resemblance.  They  prove  this  region  to  have  once  been  a  favorite 
resort  of  an  early  race.  Whence  they  came,  how  long  they  remained,  and 
what  fortunes  attended  their  existence,  we  have  no  record  of  There  can  be 
little  doubt,  however,  that  here  were  once  rudely  cultivated  fields,  ancient 
and  perhaps  populous  villages,  inhabited  by  a  strange  and  primitive  people. 

•  '*  But  they  are  gone, 

With  their  old  forests  wide  and  deep, 
And  we  have  built  our  houses  upon 
Fields  where  their  generations  sleep. 

'Their  fountains  slake  our  thirst  at  noon ; 
Upon  their  fields  our  harvest  waves  ; 

Our  lovers  woo  beneath  their  moon — 
Then  let  us  spare,  at  least,  their  graves  !  " 

The  Neutral  and  other  Huron-Iroquois  Nations.  ^ 

What  races  of  people  occupied  the  territory  comprising  the  county  of 
Chautauqua,  during  the  many  centuries  that  elapsed  after  the  Mound  Build- 
ers had  passed  away,  and  until  the  coming  of  Europeans  to  the  states  of 
this  continent,  there  remains  no  authentic  information  ;  only  such  vague  and 
unsatisfactory  accounts  as  tradition  gives  us  :  and  had  a  reUable  record  been 
preserved  of  the  exploits  of  savage  warfare,  and  of  the  monotonously  recur- 
ring revolutions  incident  to  the  history  of  a  barbarous  people,  during  so 


long  a  period  of  time,  it  is  doubtful  whether  it  would  afford  us  much  instruc- 
tionor  entertainment. 

When  the  interior  of  this  continent  first  became  known  to  Europeans,  a 
great  family  of  Indian  nations,  composed  of  the  most  warlike  tribes  that  then 
inhabited  North  America,  possessed  all  of  Upper  Canada,  nearly  all  of  New 
York,  and  the  greater  parts  of  Ohio  and  Pennsylvania,  and  a  portion  of 
Lower  Canada,  and  of  the  Carolinas.  They  were  known  as  the  Huron-Iro- 
quois, and  spoke  in  the  same  generic  tongue,  sometimes  called  the  Wyandot. 
They  were  greatly  superior  in  intellect,  courage,  and  military  skill  to  all  the 
other  Indians  of  North  America.  They  dwelt  in  permanent  villages,  situ- 
ated in  defensible  positions,  rudely  fortified  with  a  ditch  and  rows  of  pali- 
sades. They  practiced  agriculture  to  a  limited  extent,  and  frequently,  by  a 
long  and  laborious  process  of  burning  and  hacking  with  axes  of  stone, 
cleared  extensive  tracts  of  land,  which  they  rudely  cultivated  with  hoes  of 
wood  and  bone.  By  reason  of  their  native  superiority,  and  by  their  having 
fixed  places  of  abode,  they  became  more  advanced  in  the  arts  of  life,  than 
the  other  wandering  tribes  of  North  America.  Entirely  surrounding  this 
family  of  warlike  nations,  but  always  shrinking  before  their  fierce  valor,  was 
a  great  number  of  independent  tribes ;  all  speaking  languages  radically 
different  from  that  of  the  Wyandot.  The  general  resemblance  that  has 
been  found  to  exist  among  these  numerous  tribes,  has  caused  them  to  be 
classed  under  the  general  name  Algonquin.  Beyond  the  territory  of  the 
Algonquin,  and  in  the  western  and  southern  portions  of  the  United  States, 
were  other  tribes  of  Indians  speaking  still  other  languages.* 

The  Huron-Iroquois  family  of  tribes  were  sub-divided  into  several  formid- 
able nations ;  of  these  the  Hurons  dwelt  in  many  villages,  upon  the  small 
peninsula  lying  between  the  Georgian  Bay  of  Lake  Huron,  and  Lake  Simcoe 
in  Upper  Canada.!  Near  to  and  south  of  the  Hurons,  among  the  Blue 
Mountains  of  Canada,  dwelt  the  Tionnontates,  or  Tobacco  nation  J  South 
of  the  Huron  and  Tobacco  nations,  was  the  country  of  the  Attiwandarons, 
Neutral  nation  or  called  the  Kahkwas  by  the  Senecas.  Their  territory 
extended  one  hundred  and  twenty  miles  along  the  northern  shore  of 
Lake  Erie,  and  across  the  Niagara  river  into  the  state  of  New  York,  as 
far  east  as  the  western  limits  of  the  Iroquois.  They  dwelt  in  forty  villages ; 
three  or  four  of  which  were  east  of  the  Niagara  river  and  Lake  Erie.§  One 
of  their  villages  was  located,  it  is  believed,  on  a  branch  of  the  Eighteen 
Mile  creek,  near  White's  Comers,  in  Erie  county,  in  this  State.  ||  Their 
territory  extended  west  over  Chautauqua  county,  along  the  southern  shore 
of  Lake  Erie,  it  is  believed,  some  distance  into  the  state  of  Ohio.  The 
Kahkwas,  or  Neutrals,  were  the  first  occupants  of  the  soil  of  Chautauqua 

*  3  Bancroft,  Chap.  xxii.     Quackenbos,  Chap.  ii.     Parker's  Jesuits  in  North  America,  xi.x. 

t  Jesuits  in  North  America,  xxv.  J  Jesuits  in  North  America,  xliii. 

§  Lalemant  Relation  des  Hurons,  1648.  According  to  Hennepin,  their  territory  extended 
along  the  south  side  of  Lake  Erie  into  the  state  of  Ohio,  as  far  west  as  the  middle  point  in 
the  south  shore  of  Lake  Erie. 

II O.  H.  Marshall. 


county  of  whom  we  have  any  account.  They  were  a  singular  race  ot 
people ;  were  great  hunters,  and  were  extremely  superstitious,  and  ferocious 
in  their  manners-  They  waged  fierce  wars  against  the  Nation  of  Fire  and 
other  western  Indians.  A  letter  from  Father  Lalemant  to  the  Provincial  of 
Jesuits  in  France,  dated  at  St.  Mary's  Mission,  May  19,,  1641,  contains  many 
interesting  facts  concerning  them.     He  says  : 

"Jean  De  Brebeuf,  and  Joseph  Marie  Chaumonot,  two  Fathers  of  our 
company  which  have  charge  of  the 'mission  to  the  Neutral  nation,  set  out 
from  Si.  Marie  on  the  2d  day  of  November,  1640,  to  visit  this  people.  Father 
Brebeuf  is  peculiarly  fitted  for  such  an  expedition,  God  having  in  an  eminent 
degree  endowed  him  with  a  capacity  for  learning  languages.  His  compan- 
ion was  also  considered  a  proper  person  for  the  enterprise. 

"  Although  many  of  our  French  in  that  quarter  have  visited  this  people  to 
profit  by  their  furs  and  other  commodities,  we  have  no  knowledge  of  any 
who  have  been  there  to  preach  the  gospel,  except  Father  De  La  Roche 
Dallion  a  Recollect,  who  passed  the  winter  there  in  the  year  1626. 

"  The  nation  is  very  populous,  there  being  estimated  about  forty  villages. 
After  leaving  the  Hurons,  it  is  four  or  five  days'  journey,  or  about  forty 
leagues,  to  the  nearest  of  their  villages ;  the  course  being  nearly  due  south. 
If,  as  indicated  by  the  latest  and  most  exact  observations  we  can  make,  our 
new  station,  St.  Marie,  in  the  interor  of  the  Huron  country,  is  in  north 
latitude  about  44  degrees,  25  minutes,  then  the  entrance  of  the  Neuter 
nation  fi-om  the  Huron  side  is  about  42  J^  degrees.  More  exact  surveys 
and  observations  cannot  now  be  made,  for  the  sight  of  a  single  instrument 
would  bring  to  extremes  those  who  cannot  resist  the  temptation  of  an  ink 

"  From  the  first  village  of  the  Neuter  nation  that  we  met  with  in  travel- 
ing from  this  place,  as  we  proceeded  south  or  south-east,  it  is  about  four  days' 
travel  to  the  place  where  the  celebrated  river  of  the  nation  empties  into  Lake 
Ontario,  or  St.  Loui?.  On  the  west  side  of  that  river,  and  not  on  the  east, 
are  the  most  numerous  of  the  villages  of  the  Neuter  nation.  There  are 
three  or  four  on  the  east  side,  extending  from  east  to  west  towards  the  Eries, 
or  Cat  nation. 

"  This  river  is  that  by  which  our  great  lake  of  the  Hurons,  or  fresh  sea,  is 
discharged;  which  first  empties  into  the  lake  of  Erie,  or  of  the  nation 
of  the  Cat;  from  thence  it  enters  the  territory  of  the  Neuter  nation  and  takes 
the  name  of  Onguiaahra  [Niagara],  until  it  empties  into  Ontario  or  St.  Louis 
lake,  from  which  latter,  flows  the  river  which  passes  Quebec,  called  the  St. 
Lawrence ;  so  that  if  we  once  had  control  of  the  side  of  the  lake  nearest  the 
residence  of  the  Iroquois,  we  could  ascend  by  the  river  St.  Lawrence  with- 
out danger,  even  to  the  Neuter  nation  and  much  beyond,  with  great  saving 
of  time  and  trouble. 

"According  to  the  estimate  of  these  illustrious  Fathers  who  have  been  there, 
the  Neuter  nation  comprises  about  12,000  souls;  which  enables  them  to 
furnish  4,000  warriors,  notwithstanding  war,  pestilence  and  famine  have  pre- 
vailed among  them  for  three  years  in  an  extraordinary  manner. 

"  After  all,  I  think  that  those  who  have  heretofore  ascribed  such  an  extent 
and  population  to  this  nation,  have  understood  by  the  Neuter  nation,  all  who 
live  south  and  south-west  of  our  Hurons,  and  who  are  truly  in  great  number 
being  at  first  only  partially  known,  and  all  being  comprised  under  the  same 
name.     The  most  perfect  knowledge  of  their  language  and  country  which  has 


since  been  obtained,  has  resulted  in  a  clear  distinction  between  the  tribes. 
Our,  French,  who  first  discovered  this  people,  named  them  the  'Neuter 
natfon;'  and  not  without  reason;  for  their  country  being  the  ordinary  passage 
by  land  between  some  of  the  Iroquois  nations  and  the  Hurons,  who  are 
sworn  enemies,  they  remained  at  peace  with  both;  so  that  in  times  past,  the 
Hurons  and  Iroquois,  meeting  in  the  same  wigwam  or  village  of  that  nation, 
were  both  in  safety  while  they  remained.  Recently  their  enmity  against  each 
other  is  so  great,  that  there  is  no  safety  for  either  party  in  any  place,  particu- 
larly for  the  Hurons,  for  whom  the  Neuter  nation  entertains  the  least  good 

"  There  is  every  reason  for  believing,  that  not  long  since,  the  Hurons, 
Iroquois,  and  Neuter  nation,  formed  one  people,  and  originally  came  from 
the  same  family,  but  have,  in  the  lapse  of  time,  become  separated  from  each 
other,  more  or  less,  in  distance,  interest  and  affection,  so  that  some  are  now 
enemies,  others  neutral,  and  others  still  live  in  intimate  friendship  and  inter- 

"  The  food  and  clothing  of  the  Neuter  nation  seem  little  different  from 
that  of  our  Hurons.  They  have  Indian  corn,  beans  and  gourds  in  equal 
abundance.  Also  plenty  of  fish,  some  kinds  of  which  abound  in  particular 
places  only. 

"  They  are  much  employed  in  hunting  deer,  buffalo,  wild  cats,  wolves, 
wUd  boars,  beaver  and  other  animals.  Meat  is  very  abundant  this  year,  on 
account  of  the  heavy  snow  which  has  aided  the  hunters.  It  is  rare  to  see 
snow  in  this  country  more  than  half  a  foot  deep.  But  this  year  it  is  more 
than  three  feet.  There  is  also  abundance  of  wild  turkeys,  which  go  in  flocks 
in  the  fields  and  woods. 

"  Their  fruits  are  the  same  as  with  the  Hurons,  except  chestnuts,  which 
are  more  abundant,  and  crab  apples,  which  are  somewhat  larger. 

"  The  men,  like  all  savages,  cover  their  naked  flesh  with  skins,  but  are  less 
particular  than  the  Hurons  in  concealing  what  should  not  appear.  The 
squaws  are  ordinarily  clothed,  at  least  from  the  waist  to  the  knees,  but  are 
more  free  and  shameless  in  their  immodesty  than  the  Hurons.  As  for  their 
remaining  customs  and  manners,  they  are  almost  entirely  similar  to  the  other 
savage  tribes  of  the  country. 

"There  are  some  things  in  which  they  differ  from  our  Hurons.  They 
are  larger,  stronger,  and  better  formed.  They  also  entertain  a  great  affection 
for  the  dead,  and  have  a  greater  number  of  fools  and  jugglers. 

"  The  Sonontonhemonos  [Senecas],  one  of  the  Iroquois  nations,  the  near- 
est to,  and  most  dreaded  by  the  Hurons,  are  not  more  than  a  dajr's  journey 
distant  from  the  eastemiost  village  of  the  Neuter  nation,  named  Onguia- 
ahra  [Niagara],  of  the  same  name  as  the  river. 

"  Our  Fathers  returned  from  the  mission  in  safety,  not  having  found  in  all 
the  eighteen  villages  which  they  visited  but  one,  named  Klee-o-e-to-a,  or  St. 
Michael,  which  gave  them  the  reception  which  their  embassy  deserved.  In 
this  village,  a  certain  foreign  nation,  which  lived  beyond  Lake  Erie,  or  the 
nation  of  the  Cat,  named  A-onen-re-ro-nfti,  has  taken  refuge  for  many  years 
for  fear  of  their  enemies ;  and  they  seem  to  have  been  brought  here  by  a 
good  Providence  to  hear  the  word  of  God." 

The  Andastes  dwelt  upon  the  lower  Susquehanna.*  To  the  south  of  Lake 
Erie,  and  west  of  the  Neuter  nation,  dwelt  a  warlike  nation  of  the  Huron- 

*  Shea.    See  Hist.  Mag.  ii.  294. 


Iroquois  family,  named  the  Eries  or  Nation  of  the  Cat,  so  called  from  the 
great  number  of  wild  cats  infesting  their  country.*  They  are  referred  to  in 
the  foregoing  letter  of  Father  L'AUemant.  The  Eries  were  valiant  warriors, 
and  for  a  long  time  were  a  terror  to  the  Iroquois ;  they  had  no  fire-arms,  but 
fought  with  poisoned  arrows,  which  they  discharged,  it  is  said,  with  surpris- 
ing rapidity.! 

The  most  intelligent  and  advanced  of  this  great  Wyandot  family  of  nations, 
and  likewise  the  most  terrible  and  ferocious,  were  the  Five  Nations,  or  Iro- 
quois proper.  About  1539,  they  became  bound  together  by  an  extraordi- 
nary league,  and  resided  in  the  middle  and  eastern  part  of  the  state  of  New 
York,  where,  dwelling  in  numerous  villages,  they  remained  during  the  long 
and  terrible  wars  that  they  subsequently  waged  against  both  savages  and 
Europeans.  The  tribes  composing  this  nation  extended  through  the  state 
of  New  York,  from  east  to  west,  in  the  following  order,  viz.  :  Mohawk, 
Oneida,  Onondaga,  Cayugi,  and  Seneca.  The  fiercest  and  most  numerous 
of  these  tribes  was  the  Seneca ;  it  occupied  as  far  west  as  the  Genesee  river. 

The  first  knowledge  had  by  Europeans  of  the  regions  about  Lake  Erie, 
and  of  the  people  who  inhabited  them,  was  obtained  by  the  French  in  Can- 
ada. French  enterprise  outstripped  the  English,  in  effecting  a  permanent 
settlement  of  this  continent  north  of  the  state  of  Virginia.  James  Cartier, 
a  French  navigator,  as  early  as  the  year  1534,  sailed  up  the  river  St.  Law- 
rence, as  far  as  Montreal,  then  the  site  of  the  ancient  Indian  village  of 
Hochelaga.  Here  he  learned  from  the  Indians,  for  the  first  time,  of  the  exist- 
ence of  the  great  lakes  and  the  Mississippi  river.  He  erected  a  cross  and  a 
shield,  and  named  the  country  New  France,  and  returned.  Afterwards  the 
French  made  repeated  attempts  to  settle  Canada.  In  the  year  1 608,  Quebec 
was  founded  by  Champlain.  In  161 5,  Champlain,  who  was  fond  of  adven- 
turous exploits,  with  a  party  of  his  countrymen,  ascended  the  upper  waters 
of  the  Ottawa  river  in  Canada,  crossed  over,  and  discovered  Lake  Huron. 
Here  he  was  joined  by  large  bands  of  Hurons  who  dwelt  there,  and  with 
these  allies  he  traversed  the  wilderness  of  Upper  Canada,  crossed  Lake 
Ontario,  entered  the  territory  of  the  Iroquois,  who  were  the  mortal  foes  of 
the  Hurons,  and  fought  a  battle  with  the  Senecas,  which  is  supposed  to  have 
occurred  in  Onondaga  county  in  this  state. 

The  Jesuits. 

In  161 5,  five  years  before  the  May  Flower  left  Plymouth,  in  England, 
there  came  over  with  Champlain  from  France,  to  bear  the  cross  through 
pathless  wilds,  and  among  the  savage  tribes  of  America,  missionaries  of  the 
order  of  St.  Francis;  and  previous  to  the  year  1625,  three  of  their  number, 
Le  Caron,  Viel,  and  Sagard,  had  reached  the  Neutral  nation.  These 
perhaps  were  the  first  Europeans  who  visited  Western  New  York ;  and  the 
winter  of  1626  was  passed  by  De  La  Roche  Dallion,  a  Franciscan,  among 
this  people.     In  1625,  the  Franciscans  were  followed  by  the  Jesuits,  who 

•LeMercier  Relation,  1654,  10.  +  Jesuits  in  North  America,  xlvi. 


soon  commenced  instructing  the  tribes  of  the  North  and  West,  and  who,  for 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  thereafter,  labored  among  them  with  unbounded 
zeal  and  self  devotion.  The  most  of  the  knowledge  that  we  have  concerning 
these  remote  regions,  and  the  events  transpiring  here  in  that  early  day,  was 
obtained  from  the  very  full  and  careful  reports  that  these  ancient  mission- 
aries annually  transmitted  to  their  superiors  in  France,  which  have  been  pre- 
served in  Paris,  and  which  are  Called  the  Relations  of  the  Jesuits.  Two  of 
these  missionaries,  Jean  De  Brebeuf  and  Joseph  Marie  Chaumonot,  as 
appears  by  the  letter  of  Father  L'AUemant,  in  November,  1640,  visited  the 
Neutral  nation,  to  preach  to  them  the  gospel,  but  it  is  not  certain  that  they 
crossed  the  Niagara  river.  At  this  time,  no  Englishman  of  whom  we  have 
any  account,  had  reached  the  basin  of  the  St.  Lawrence.  Before  this  time, 
besides  these  priests,  many  Frenchmen  had  visited  the  Neutral  nation,  to 
purchase  of  them  furs  and  other  commodities.  These  constituted  the  near- 
est approaches  that  at  that  time  any  Europeans  had  made  to  Chautauqua 
county  that  we  have  any  account  of.  Bancroft  says:  "Previous  to  1640, 
by  continued  warfare  with  the  Mohawks,  the  French  had  been  excluded 
from  the  navigation  of  Lake  Ontario,  and  had  never  launched  a  canoe  upoif* 
Lake  Erie ;  their  avenue  to  the  West  was  by  the  way  of  the  Ottawa  and 
French  rivers,  so. that  the  whole  coast  of  Ohio  and  South  Michigan  remained 
unknown,  except  as  seen  by  missionaries  from  their  stations  in  Canada.'' 

Wars  of   the   Huron-Iroquois   Nations. 

When,  in  1634,  the  first  mission  was  established  by  the  Jesuits  among  the 
Hurons,  they  found  them  and  their  kinsmen,  the  Iroquois,  implacable  foes, 
and  engaged  in  a  fierce  war  that  had  then  been  waged  between  them  for 
many  years.  This  war  continued  during  the  residence  of  the  Jesuits  among 
the  Hurons,  with  success  oftenest,  but  not  always,  in  favor  of  the  Iroquois, 
until  the  year  1 648,  when  a  war  party  of  the  Iroquois  surprised  and  burned 
two  fortified  Huron  towns,  taking  prisoners  or  massacring  all  their  inhabi- 
tants. The  next  year,  one  thousand  Iroquois  warriors  entered  the  heart  of 
the  Huron  country  undiscovered,  and  inflicted  a  terrible  blow  upon  their 
enemies.  They  burned  two  more  fortified  towns  of  the  Hurons,  massacred 
their  inhabitants,  and  the  French  missionaries  residing  there.  They  were, 
however,  finally  driven  back  by  the  fierce  valor  of  the  Hurons,  but  not  until 
they  had  inflicted  a  fatal  blow  upon  them.  The  Hurons,  fearing  other 
attacks,  now  abandoned  their  villages,  scattered  themselves  in  many  direc- 
tions, and  thereafter  ceased  to  exist  as  a  nation.* 

Although  the  Neutral  nation  waged  a  fierce  war  against  the  Nation  of 
Fire,  who  dwelt  in  Michigan  in  thirty  villages,  it  maintained  a  strict  neutrality 
between  the  Hurons  and  Iroquois  during  these  wars.t    This  did  not  save 

•Jesuits  in  North  America,  361  to  402. 

+  "Last  summer  two  thousand  warriors  of  the  Neutral  nation  attacked  a  town  of  the 
Nation  of  Fire  well  fortified  with  a  palisade,  and  defended  by  goo  warriors.  They  took  it 
after  a  siege  of  ten  days  ;  killed  many  on  the  spot,  and  made.800  prisoners,  men,  women, 


it,  however,  from  the  fierce  Iroquois.  In  the  year  1650,  the  latter  commenced 
a  savage  war  upon  them ;  and  in  the  autumn  of  that  year,  they  assaulted  and 
took  one  of  their  chief  towns,  in  which  were  sixteen  hundred  men,  besides 
women  and  children.  In  the  spring  of  1651,  they  captured  another  of  these 
towns,  butchering  and  leading  into  captivity  great  numbers  of  the  Neutrals, 
and  driving  the  remainder  from  their  villages  and  corn  fields  into  the  forests, 
where  thousands  of  them  perished.  The  destruction  of  the  Neutrals  was  so 
great,  in  this  cruel  war,  as  to  wholly  wipe  them  out  as  a  nation ;  and  now  no 
trace  remains  of  this  warlike  and  powerful  tribe  who  once  possessed  the 
territory  of  this  county  but  their  name.*  The  scene  of  their  final  overthrow 
is  believed  to  have  occurred  near  the  city  of  Buffalo. 

With  the  destruction  of  their  kinsmen  of  the  Huron  and  Neutral  nations, 
the  Iroquois  did  not  rest.  The  Eries,  whose  dominions  extended  along  the 
south  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  next  fell  victims  to  their  savage  fury.  In  1655, 
from  one  thousand  two  hundred  to  one  thousand  eight  hundred  Iroquois 
warriors  moved  into  the  territory  of  the  Eries,  who  withdrew  at  their 
approach  with  their  women  and  children.  The  whole  force  of  the  Iroquois 
embarked  in  canoes  upon  Lake  Erie ;  and  it  is  probable  that  this  fierce 
horde  coasted  along  the  shores  of  Chautauqua  county ;  and  a  more  wild  and 
savage  scene  cannot  well  be  imagined  than  this  ferocious  gathering  of  bar- 
barians presented,  when  on  this  bloody  expedition  of  revenge.  They  found 
the  Eries  gathered  in  a  position,  the  location  of  which  is  not  now  known. 
An  assault  was  made  with  such  savage  fury  by  the  Iroquois,  as  to  enable 
them  to  carry  the  fort ;  and  a  slaughter  so  terrible  ensued,  as  to  wholly 
destroy  the  Eries.  t  The  Iroquois  next  made  war  upon  the  Andastes,  who 
resided  upon  the  Susquehanna,  and  who  were  the  last  of  the  Huron- Iroquois 
or  Wyandot  family  that  remained  unconquered.  The  Andastes  made  a  brave 
and  stubborn  resistance,  but  were  obliged  to  yield,  in  1675,  '^o  the  superior 
numbers  of  the  Iroquois.  J 

The  accounts  of  the  destruction  of  these  ancient  Indian  nations,  we  have 
mostly  from  the  written  riarratives  of  the  Jesuits  residing  at  that  time  with 
the  Indians  of  Canada  and  New  York ;  and  various  traditions  are  extant 
respecting  these  occurrences.  From  the  extirpation  of  the  Neutral  nation 
to  its  settlement  by  the  pioneers  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  the  territory  com- 
prising Chautauqua  county  continued  to  be  the  home  of  the  Senecas,  the 
fiercest  and  most  numerous  of  the  Iroquois  nation. 

La  Salle. 

The  missionaries  who  came  fi:om  France  were  most  excellent  and  able 
men.  In  their  zeal  to  christianize  the  Indian,  they  became  the  pioneers  of 
the    North-west.      One  of  their  number,  AUouez,  in   1665,  explored  the 

and  children.     After  burning  70  of  the  best  warriors,  they  put  out  the  eyes  of  the  old  men, 
and  cut  away  their  lips,  and  left  them  to  drag  out  a  miserable  existence.     Behold  the 
scourge  that  is  depopulating  all  this  country." — Rdation  des  Hurons,  1644,  98. 
•Jesuits  in  North  America,  436.     f  Jesuits  in  North  America,  438.     J  Relation,  1676,  2. 

LA  SALLE.  27 

country  about  Lake  Superior,  and  taught  the  Indians  there.  He  first  discov- 
ered the  Pictured  Rocks,  and  learned  of  the  copper  mines.*  Robert  Cave- 
lier  de  La  Salle,  a  resolute  and  talented  young  Frenchman,  who  afterwards 
became  the  proprietor  of  Fort  Frontenac  in  Canada,  and  the  wilderness 
around  about  it,  resolved  to  explore  these  regions  and  the  vast  prairies  of  the 
West,  and  to  reach  the  Ohio  and  Mississippi,  of  which  the  Indians  had  informed 
him.  July  6,  1669,  he  left  La  Chine  in  Canada,  ascended  the  St.  Lawrence, 
coasted  along  the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Ontario  to  the  Irondequoit  Bay, 
and  thence  penetrated  into  the  state  of  New  York,  to  the  Indian  villages  of 
the  Senecas,  near  the  Genesee  river,  with  a  view  of  traveling  farther  in  that 
direction,  until  he  should  reach  the  head  waters  of  the  Allegany  and  Ohio. 
After  remaining  here  awhile,  he  abandoned  this  design,  and  with  his  com- 
panions from  thence  traveled  west,  crossed  the  Niagara  river  into  Upper 
Canada,  and  passed  the  winter  of  1669  and  1670  on  Grand  river,  near  to 
the  shore  of  Lake  Erie.  In  the  spring  following,  he  coasted  along  the 
northern  shore  of  the  lake,  west,  to  the  east  side  of  Long  Point ;  and  thence 
he  returned  to  Montreal  by  the  circuitous  route  of  the  Sault  de  St.  Marie  and 
the  Ontario  river,  where  he  arrived  June  18,  1670.! 

In  1673, "Marquette,  a  missionary,  and  Joliet,  a  French  citizen  of  Quebec, 
with  a  few  companions,  explored  the  Mississippi,  between  the  mouths  of 
the  Wisconsin  and  Arkansas  ;  but  before  that  year  La  Salle,  it  is  said,  made 
other  wonderful  journeys  in  the  West;  that  he  reached  the  Ohio,  and  visited 
the  falls  at  Louisville,  and  had  even  descended  the  Illinois  to  its  confluence 
with  the  Mississippi.  He  possessed  a  most  adventurous  and  enterprising 
spirit ;  and  these  journeys  aroused  in  him  a  desire  to  make  new  discoveries 
and  more  extended  explorations.  He  first  conceived  the  design  of  uniting 
the  French  possessions  in  Canada  with  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  by  a  line 
of  military  posts,  to  secure  its  commerce  to  his  country,  and  at  the  same  time 
completely  encircle  the  British  colonies  in  North  America.  Having  obtained 
the  sanction  of  Louis  XIV.  to  his  projects,  in  the  fall  of  the  year  1678, 
he,  with  a  party  of  Frenchmen,  in  a  large  canoe,  entered  the  Niagara  river, 
and  established  at  its  mouth,  on  its  eastern  bank,  a  trading  post,  which  he 
inclosed  with  palisades.  This  constituted  the  first  occupation  of  Western 
New  York  by  civilized  men,  and  the  founding  of  Fort  Niagara — a  fortress 
which,  for  nearly  a  century  and  a  half,  filled  an  important  place  in  the  history 
of  Canada,  the  northern  portion  of  the  United  States,  and  of  the  Indian 
tribes  dwelling  in  that  region. 

*  2  Hildreth,  110. 

t  O.  H.  Marshall,  Esq.,  to  whom  the  author  is  indebted  for  the  facts  respecting  this 
expedition  of  La  Salle,  on  a  recent  visit  to  France,  examined  the  valuable  collections  of 
unpublished  manuscripts  relating  to  early  French  explorations  in  America,  now  in  the 
possession  of  M.  Pierre  Margry,  of  Paris,  and  was  permitted  to  make  copious  extracts 
from  a.  copy  of  the  journal  of  this  expedition  of  La  Salle.  An  appropriation  of  $10,000 
has  been  made  by  Congress  for  the  publication  of  these  recently  discovered  manuscripts 
and  maps  in  M.  Margry's  possession,  which,  when  issued,  will  contain  many  volumes  of 
great  interest  to  students  of  American  history. 


In  January,  1679,  La  Salle  commenced  building  a  vessel  at  the  mouth  of 
the  Cayuga  creek,  a  stream  that  empties  into  the  Niagara  river,  at  the  village  of 
La  Salle,  in  Niagara  county,  in  the  state  of  New  York,  a  few  miles  above  the 
falls.  By  August  it  was  finished,  and  completely  equipped  with  sails,  masts, 
and  everything  needful,  and  launched  upon  the  waters  of  the  upper  Niagara 
river,  it  was  a  bark  of  sixty  tons  burthen,  and  was  armed  with  seven  small 
cannon,  and  named  the  Griffin.  It  was  the  first  vessel  that  ever  spread  its 
sails  to  the  breezes  of  Lake  Erie. 

On  the  7th  day  of  August,  1679,  La  Salle,  Tonti,  his  Italian  lieutenant, 
and  Father  Louis  Hennepin,  and  twenty-nine  others,  in  the  presence  of  many 
Iroquois  warriors,  fired  all  their  cannon  and  arquebuses,  and  set  sail  for  the 
foot  of  Lake  Erie,  steering  west-south-west ;  on  that  day  they  made  many 
leagues,  passing  Chautauqua  county.  Hennepin,  in  his  narrative,  states  that 
he  saw,  on  this  voyage,  the  two  distant  shores  of  the  lake,  fifteen  or  sixteen 
leagues  apart.  They  were  the  first  Europeans  of  whom  we  have  any 
account,  that  beheld  the  rugged  and  forest  covered  hills  of  Chautauqua. 
La  Salle  continued  his  voyage  until  the  Griffin  cast  anchor  in  Green  Bay, 
on  the  north-western  coast  of  Lake  Michigan.  She  was  loaded  with  a  cargo 
of  furs,  and  sent  upon  her  return  voyage,  but  was  never  heard  of  more. 
After  the  departure  of  the  Griffin,  La  Salle  for  awhile  awaited  her  return 
with  a  portion  of  his  party,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Joseph's  river.  Cruelly 
disappointed,  but  undismayed,  he  pushed  on  into  the  state  of  Illinois,  where 
he  built  a  fort  which  he  called  Creve  Coeur,  in  token  of  his  grief.  He  sent 
Hennepin,  with  two  companions,  to  the  Mississippi,  which  they  ascended  to 
the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony.  In  March,  1680,  La  Salle,  with  three  campanions, 
set  out  fi'om  his  fort  in  Illinois  for  Fort  Frontenac,  at  the  foot  of  LakeOnta- 
rio.  Depending  upon  his  gun  alone  for  his  supplies,  he  chose  for  his  route 
the  ridge  of  high  lands  which  divide  the  basin  of  the  Ohio  firom  that  of  the 

This  long  journey  of  nearly  one  thousand  miles  through  the  wildemesf, 
he  and  his  companions  accomplished  on  foot.  La  Salle  returned  to  his  fort 
in  Illinois  from  Fort  Frontenac,  with  recruits  and  supphes..  He  then 
descended  the  Mississippi  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  and  again  journeyed  back 
to  Canada,  and  crossed  the  sea  to  France,  where  his  government  furnished 
him  with  four  vessels,  with  which  he  again  crossed  the  ooean,  and  landed  at 
the  Bay  of  Matagorda,  in  the  state  of  Texas.  With  a,  few  companions  he 
traversed  Texas,  and  penetrated  as  far  as  New  Mexico,  where  he  spent  much 
of  the  year  1686,  with  twenty  others.  While  on  his  way  frorn  New 
Mexico  to  Canada,  he  was  assassinated  by  a  treacherous  companion.  Thus 
perished  this  bold  pioneer,  who  will  long  be  remembered  as  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  explorers  that  ever  visited  the  American  continent.  To  follow 
La  Salle  in  his  wanderings  at  this  day,  with  all  the  modern  facilities  of 
travel,  would  be  regarded  as  no  small  achievement.* 

*  History  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  116. 


Baron  La  Hontan. 

In  1687,  Denonville,  governor  of  Canada,  with  a  large  party  of  French 
and  Indians,  landed  upon  the  shore  of  Lake  Ontario,  and  penetrated  into 
the  territory  of  the  Senecas.  He  fought  a  battle  with  them  near  the  site  of 
the  village  of  Victor,  in  the  county  of  Ontario.  He  afterwards,  in  the  same 
year,  arrived  at  Niagara,  which,  from  a  trading  post,  he  changed  to  a  sanitary 
station,  by  erecting  there  a  fort  of  four  bastions.  But  the  French  were 
compelled,  the  following  year,  to  abandon  Niagara,  by  the  hostile  Iroquois, 
who  were  then  waging  a  terrible  and  successful  war  against  them.*  Among 
the  French  officers  who  accompanied  Denonville  on  this  expedition,  was 
Baron  La  Hontan.  This  officer,  with  some  Frenchmen,  and  the  returning 
western  Indian  allies  of  Denonville,  departed  from  Fort  Niagara,  coasted 
along  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Erie,  and  arrived  at  the  French  post  of  St. 
Joseph.  He  afterwards  joined  a  party  of  the  western  Indians,  and  invaded 
the  territory  of  the  Iroquois,  south  of  Lake  Erie  ;  but  did  not  come  within 
the  limits  of  Chautauqua  county.  He,  however,  in  his  travels  obtained 
sufficient  information  to  give  a  very  interesting  description  of  Lake  Erie  and 
the  country  around  it,  which  he  saw  in  1688.  In  the  course  of  this  account 
of  the  lake,  he  says  : 

"  Lake  Erie  is  justly  dignified  with  the  illustrious  name  of  Conti ;  for 
assuredly  it  is  the  finest  upon  earth.  You  may  judge  of  the  goodness  of  the 
climate  from  the  latitude  of  the  countries  which  surround  it.  Its  circum- 
ference extends  230  leagues,  but  it  affords  everywhere  a  charming  prospect ; 
and  its  shores  are  decked  with  oak  trees,  elms,  chestnuts,  walnut,  apple, 
plum  trees,  and  vines  which  bear  their  fine  clusters  up  to  the  very  tops  of 
the  trees,  upon  a  sort  of  ground  that  lies  as  smooth  as  one's  hand.  Such 
ornaments  as  these  are  sufficient  to  give  rise  to  the  most  agreeable  idea  of  a 
landscape  in  the  world.  I  can  not  express  what  quantities  of  deer  and 
turkeys  are  to  be  found  in  these  woods,  and  in  the  vast  meadows  that  lie 
upon  the  south  side  of  the  lake.  At  the  foot  of  the  lake  we  find  wild  beeves 
[buffaloes],  on  the  banks  of  two  pleasant  streams  that  disembogue  into  it, 
without  cataracts  or  rapid  currents.  It  abounds  with  sturgeon  and  whitefish, 
but  trouts  are  very  scarce  in  it,  as  well  as  the  other  fish  that  we  take  in  the 
Lakes  Hurons  [Huron]  and  Illinese  [Michigan].  It  is  clear  of  shelves, 
rocks,  and  banks  of  sand,  and  has  fourteen  or  fifteen  fathoms  water.  The 
savages  assure  us  that  it  is  never  disturbed  by  high  winds  except  in  the 
months  of  December,  January,  and  February,  and  even  then  but  seldom, 
which  I  am  very  apt  to  believe,  for  we  had  very  few  storms  when  I  wintered 
in  my  fort,  in  1688,  though  the  fort  lay  open  to  the  Lake  of  Hurons." 

There  is  no  doubt,  as  appears  from  this  extract,  that  the  American  bison, 
or  buffalo,  once  inhabited  these  regions.  They  once  ranged  in  some  parts 
of  the  United  States,  nearly  to  the  Atlantic  seaboard.  Charlevoix,  the 
French  traveler,  says,  that  in  1720,  "there  were  on  the  south  side  of  Lake 
Erie,  a  prodigious  quantity  of  buffaloes. "t     But  we  at  this  day  must  seek 

'  I  Doc.  History  of  New  York. 

1 1  Irving's  Life  of  Washington,  335.  The  River  Aux  Boeuf,  a  tributary  of  French 
creek,  was  so  named  from  the  great  number  of  buffaloes  there  found. — Pa.  Hist.  Collections. 


the  buffalo  two  thousand  miles  away  in  the  Far  West !  They  and  their  red 
brother,  the  Indian,  are  fast  disappearing.  Surely  and  rapidly  are  these 
lords  of  the  forest  and  the  plain  yielding  up  their  once  wide  domain  to  the 
advance  of  the  encroaching  white  man,  and  making  their  home  each  year 
nearer,  and  still  nearer,  to  the  setting  sun. 

Indian  Occupation. 

At  first,  the  Allegany  and  Ohio  were  regarded  by  the  French  and  Indians 
as  one  stream ;  Belle  Riviere  being  the  name  given  to  it  in  French ;  Alle- 
gany in  the  Delaware  tongue  ;  and  Oheeo  in  the  Seneca ;  all  meaning,  when 
translated,  "  fair  or  beautiful  water."  The  territory  lying  west  of  the  Alle- 
gany mountains,  traversed  by  this  river  from  the  southern  boundary  of  New 
York  to  the  eastern  limits  of  Ohio,  after  the  destruction  of  the  Neutrals  and 
the  Andastes,  fell  into  the  possession  of  the  conquerors,  the  Iroquois  ;  and 
the  Seneca  tribe  of  that  nation  thereafter  planted  many  colonies  there.  As 
early  as  1724,  the  Monsey  or  Wolf  tribe  of  the  Delawares,  who  had  previ- 
ously dwelt  in  the  north-eastern  part  of  Pennsylvania,  but  had  been  crowded 
out  by  the  encroachments  of  the  whites,  were  allowed  by  the  Iroquois  to 
settle  along  the  Allegany.  Between  the  years  1724  and  1728,  by  their  per- 
mission, the  Shawnees,  a  restless  and  warlike  people,  also  located  along  the 
lower  Allegany  and  upper  Ohio. 

When  the  first  white  man  reached  those  wild  regions,  numerous  Indian 
villages  were  found  along  the  Allegany  river  and  its  tributaries.  At  Kittan- 
ning  was  an  old  Indian  town  called  Cattanyan,  which,  in  September,  1756,  at 
day  break,  was  surprised  by  Col.  John  Armstrong,  and  burned.  The  Dela- 
ware Indians  who  occupied  it,  made  a  desperate  resistance,  and  thirty  or 
forty  of  their  number  were  slain,  including  their  resolute  chief,  Capt.  Jacobs. 
Hugh  Mercer,  who  became  afterwards  a  distinguished  American  general, 
and  who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Princeton,  accompanied  Col.  Armstrong  on  this 

At  the  mouth  of  the  Mahoning  was  another  Indian  village.  Where 
Franklin  is  situated,  at  the  mouth  of  French  creek,  was  the  Indian  town  of 
Venango.  It  was  here  that  the  French  built  a  fort  which  they  called 
Machault;  and  where  afterwards  Washington,  when  on  his  journey  to  La 
Boeuf,  had  the  interview  with  the  celebrated  Frenchman,  Capt.  Joncaire. 
Near  the  mouth  of  the  Tionesta  were  three  Monsey  villages,  called  Gosh- 
gosh-unk  [Cuscusing],  where,  in  1767,  Rev.  David  Zeisberger,  a  Moravian 
missionary,  commenced  preaching  the  gospel  to  the  Indians.  He  and  his 
coadjutor,  Br.  Gotlob  Senseman,  daily  preached  to  their  wild  hearers,  who 
came  in  great  numbers  to  listen,  with  faces  painted  black  and  vermillion,  and 
heads  decorated  with  fox  tails  and  feathers.  Zeisberger  afterwards  retired 
fifteen  miles  further  up  the  river,  to  a  place  called  Lawanakana,  near  where 
Hickory  town  in  Venango  county  now  stands.  Here  he  gathered  around 
him  a  little  settlement,  and  built  a  chapel,  and  placed  in  it  a  bell,  the  first  ever 
heard  in  Venango  county,  and  for  two  years  prosecuted  his  pious  efforts. 


Near  Irvinton,  in  Warren  county,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Broken  Straw,* 
was  the  Indian  village  of  Buckaloons.  About  five  miles  above  Kinjua,t 
extending  several  miles  along  the  Allegany  river,  was  a  large  Seneca  town, 
called  Yah-roon-wa-go.  Near  where  once  was  the  centre  of  this  town, 
Cornplanter  made  his  residence. 

Mrs.  Mary  Jemison,  before  her  faculties  were  impaired,  imparted  much 
information  to  the  white  men  respecting  the  Indians  and  some  of  their  settle- 
ments in  Western  New  York,  She  was  known  by  the  early  settlers  as  the 
"White  Woman."  She  was  captured  by  the  Indians  in  her  youth  during  the 
French  and  Indian  wars,  and  lived  with  them  the  remainder  of  her  days. 
She  died  in  Buffalo,  September  19th,  1833,  at  a  very  advanced  age,  much 
esteemed  for  her  goodness  and  intelligence,  by  both  whites  and  Indians. 
She  was  so  kindly  treated  by  the  Indians  after  her  captivity,  that  she  adopted 
their  customs,  and  married  an  Indian  husband.  In  1759,  with  her  little  son 
on  her  back  and  with  her  three  adopted  Indian  brothers,  she  journeyed 
through  the  wilderness  from  Ohio  to  Little  Beardstown,  on  the  Genesee. 
In  her  account  of  their  journey,  she  says  : 

"  When  we  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  French  creek,  we  hunted  two  days, 
and  thence  came  on  to  Connewango  creek,  where  we  staid  eight  or  ten  days, 
in  consequence  of  our  horses  having  left  us  and  strayed  into  the  woods. 
The  horses,  however,  were  found,  and  we  again  prepared  to  resume  our 
journey.  During  our  stay  at  that  place,  the  rain  fell  fast,  and  had  raised  the 
creek  to  such  a  height,  that  it  was  seemingly  impossible  for  us  to  cross  it. 
A  number  of  times  we  ventured  in,  but  were  compelled  to  return,  barely 
escaping  with  our  lives.  At  length  we  succeeded  in  swimming  our  horses, 
and  reached  the  opposite  shore,  though  I  and  my  little  boy  but  just 
escaped  from  being  drowned.  From  Sandusky  the  path  we  traveled  was 
crooked  and  obscure,  but  /was  tolerably  well  understood  by  my  oldest 
brother,  who  had  traveled  it  a  number  of  times  when  going  and  returning 
from  the  Cherokee  wars.  The  fall  by  this  time  was  considerably  advanced, 
and  the  rains,  attended  with  cold  winds,  continued  daily  to  increase  the 
difficulties  of  traveling.  From  Connewango  we  came  to  a  place  called  by 
the  Indians  Che-na-shun-ga-tan,  on  the  Allegany  river,  at  the  mouth  of 
what  is  now  called  Cold  Spring  creek  in  the  town  of  Napoli  [now  Cold 
Spring],  Cattaraugus  county,  and  from  that  to  Twa-wan-ne-gwan,  or 
Tu-ne-un-gwan,  [which  means  an  eddy  not  strong],  where  the  early  frosts 
had  destroyed  the  com,  so  that  the  Indians  were  in  danger  of  starving  for 
want  of  bread.  Having  rested  ourselves  two  days  at  that  place,  we  came  to 

The  Indian  village  of  Tu-ne-un-gwan  mentioned  by  Mrs.  Jemison,  was 
situated  18  miles  further  up  the  river  than  Che-na-shun-ga-tan  in  the  town 
of  Carrollton,  Cattaraugus  county.  The  Senecas  also  settled,  at  an  early 
day,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Cattaraugus  creek. 

At  the  close  of  the  last  century,  there  were  along  the  Allegan/  and  French 

*  Its  Indian  name  was  Hosh-e-nuk-wa-gunk,   signifying  the  place  where  much  broken 
straw  and  other  drift  stuff  are  accumulated  together. — Alden's  Missions,  156. 
t  Signifying,  in  the  Indian  tongue,  the  place  of  many  fishes. 


creek,  scattered  through  north-western  Pennsylvania  and  south-western  New 
York,  other  Indian  towns ;  but  none  were  then  known  to  have  certainly 
existed  in  Chautauqua  county.  The  evidences  remained,  however,  at  the 
first  settlement  of  the  county,  of  its  having  not  long  previously  been  occu- 
-pied  at  various  points  by  Indians.  In  1795,  when  Col.  James  McMahan 
passed  through  this  county,  upon  the  Judge  Prendergast  tract  on  Conne- 
wango  creek,  in  the  town  of  Kiantone,  there  was  an  Indian  camping 
ground.  There  were  also  to  be  seen,  at  the  first  settlement  of  the  county, 
near  the  mouth  of  the  Kiantone,  the  forms  of  com  hills,  upon  lands  that 
appeared  to  have  once  been  cleared,  and  had  since  grown  up  to  small  shrub- 
bery of  thorns  and  red  plum.* 

In  November,  1805,  when  William  Bemus  first  came  to  the  town  of  Ellery, 
at  Bemus  Point,  unmistakable  evidences  remained,  that  an  Indian  settle- 
ment had  formerly  existed  there.  Where  the  cemetery  is  situated,  were  the 
decayed  remains  and  traces  of  some  Indian  dwellings,  and  the  evidences 
that  a  large  tract  of  land  in  the  vicinity  had  formerly  been  improved.  On 
Bemus  creek  were  two  clearings,  each  about  ten  acres  in  extent,  a  quarter 
of  a  mile  apart.  Where  these  improvements  were,  wild  plum  trees  grew  ; 
and  there  were  the  remains  of  brush  inclosures,  which  Wm.  Bemus  had 
repaired,  enabling  him  to  secure  a  crop  of  grass  the  first  years  of  his  settle- 
ment there.  Corn  hills  also  were  visible,  and  even  potatoes  of  the  lady 
finger  variety,  th^at  had  been  perpetuated  from  year  to  year  were  there  still 
growing ;  some  of  which  were  gathered  and  planted  by  Wm.  Bemus.  Be- 
low Bemus',  at  Griffith's  Point,  were  similar  signs  of  Indian  occupation. f 

After  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  that  numerous  portion  or  clan 
of  the  Seneca  nation  residing  along  the  Allegany  and  its  tributaries,  were 
under  the  control  of  the  very  able  and  just  war  chief  Complanter,  sometimes 
called  John  O'Beel.  The  domain  of  this  branch  of  the  Senecas'  property 
included  Chautauqua  county;  and  the  rude  improvements  found  here  were 
the  results,  probably,  of  the  occupation  by  these  Indians,  who  undoubtedly, 
at  some  time  during  the  last  century,  had  at  least  temporary  homes  within 
the  county.  This  clan  were  often  referred  to  as  the  Seneca- Abeel;  and  in 
a  map  published  by  Reading  Howell,  1792,  the  country  of  the  upper  waters 
of  the  Connewango,  and  of  Chautauqua  lake,  is  designated  as  "  O'Beel's 
Cayentona."  This  map  is  among  the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Collections. 
In  James  Ross  Snowden's  Historical  Sketch  of  Complanter,  prepared  for  the 
occasion  of  the  Complanter  monument,  is  the  following : 

"A  solitary  traveler,  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  in  1783, 
wandering  near  the  shores  of  Chautauqua  lake,  found  himself  benighted;  and 
ignorant  of  the  path  which  should  lead  him  to  his  place  of  destination,  he 
feared  he  would  be  compelled  to  pass  the  night  in  the  forest,  and  without 
shelter.  Btt  when  the  darkness  of  the  night  gathered  around  him,  he  saw 
the  light  of  a  distant  fire  in  the  woods,  to  which  he  bent  his  steps.     Then  he 

*  Judge  E.  T.  Foote.     Warren's  History  of  Chautauqua  County, 
t  J.  L.  Bugbee.     See  also  his  sketch  of  Wm.  Bemus, 


found  an  Indian  wigwam,  the  habitation  of  a  chief  with  his  family.  He  was 
kindly  received  and  hospitably  entertained.  After  a  supper  of  corn  and 
venison,  the  traveler  returned  thanks  to  God,  whose  kind  Providence  had 
directed  his  way,  and  preserved  him  in  the  wilderness.  He  slept  comfort- 
ably on  the  ample  bear  skins  provided  by  his  host. 

"  In  the  morning,  the  Indian  invited  the  traveler  to  sit  beside  him  on  a 
large  log  in  front  of  his  cabin.  They  were  seated,  side  by  side.  Presently 
the  Indian  told  the  traveler  to  move  on  a  little,  which  he  did;  and,  keeping 
by  his  side,  again  requested  him  to  move.  This  was  repeated  several  times. 
At  length,  when  near  the  end  of  the  log,  the  chief  gave  an  energetic 
push,  and  requested  his  companion  to  move  further.  The  traveler  remon- 
strated, and  said,  'I  can  go  no  further;  if  I  do,  I  shall  fall  off  the  log.' 
'  That  is  the  way'  said  the  Indian  in  reply,  'you  white  people  treat  us.  When 
the  United  People,  the  Six  Nations,  owned  the  whole  land  from  the  lakes  to 
the  great  waters,  they  gave  to  Corlaer  a  seat  on  the  Hudson,  and  to  Ouas  a 
town  and  land  on  the  Delaware.  We  have  been  driven  from  our  lands  on 
the  Mohawk,  the  Genesee,  the  Chemung,  and  the  Unadilla.  And  from  our 
western  door,  we  have  been  pushed  from  the  Susquehanna;  then  over  the 
great  mountains;  then  beyond  the  Ohio,  the  Allegany,  and  Connewango; 
and  now  we  are  here  on  the  borders  of  the  great  lakes,  and  a  further  push 
will  throw  me  and  my  people  off  the  log.'  *  *  *  The  chief,  in  conclu- 
sion, with  a  sad  and  anxious  countenance  asked  the  question,  '  Where  are 
we  to  go?'  The  only  response  that  was  made,  was  the  sighing  of  the  wind 
through  the  leaves  of  tlie  forest ;  the  traveler  was  silent." 

The  traveler  above  referred  to  was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Kirkland,  who,  for 
many  years  previous  to  the  Revolutionary  war,  was  a  missionary  among  the 
Six  Nations,  and  whose  name  and  services  are,  during  and  after  the  Revolu- 
tion, recorded  in  connection  with  Indian  history. 

The  Indian  villages  of  North-western  Pennsylvania  and  Western  New 
York  often  contained  houses  sufficiently  large  to  accommodate  three  or  four 
families.  Adjacent  to  them  were  frequently  extensive  cornfields.  Between 
these  villages,  or  leading  from  them  to  their  favorite  hunting  grounds  and 
fishing  places,  were  well  trodden  pathways,  several  of  which  passed  through 
the  county  of  Chautauqua.  A  broad  and  well  worn  Indian  trail  led  from 
the  Cattaraugus  creek,  through  the  lake  towns,  to  the  Pennsylvania  line. 
Another  commenced  near  to  the  mouth  of  the  Cattaraugus  creek,  and  passed 
over  the -ridge  in  Arkwright  and  Charlotte,  at  the  point  of  its  lowest  eleva- 
tion ;  and  through  Charlotte  Center  and  Sinclairville,  and  southerly  in  the 
direction  of  the  Indian  towns  on  the  Allegany  river.  This  trail  had  the 
appearance  of  much  use  ;  the  roots  of  the  trees  along  its  margin  were  marred, 
and  calloused ;  and  at  certain  points  it  was  worn  deeply  into  the  ground.. 
It  was  used  by  the  early  settlers  as  a  highway  or  bridle  path,  in  going  from  the 
center  to  the  north-eastern  part  of  the  county,  and  also  by  the  Indians  sub- 
sequently to  the  settlement  of  the  county.  Still  another  Indian  path  com- 
menced at  the  Indian  settlement,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Cattaraugus  creek, 
and  passed  down  the  Connewango  valley,  through  the  eastern  parts  of  the 
to^vns  of  Hanover,  Villenova,  Cherry  Creek,  and  Ellington.  This  path  was 


used  by  white  men  in  the  settlement  of  these  towns,  and  by  the  Indians 
subsequently  to  the  settlement  of  the  county. 

AH  the  region  lying  west  of  Blue  Ridge,  and  east  of  the  Wabash,  which 
included  within  its  limits  Chautauqua  county,  remained  unexplored  and 
almost  unknown  to  Europeans,  until  nearly  as  late  as  the  year  1750 ;  for  the 
outermost  Hmits  of  the  back  settlements  of  the  English  colonies  of  Virginia 
and  Pennsylvania  only  extended  as  far  west  as  the  Blue  Ridge.  Either  the 
French  had  been  excluded  from  here  by  the  fierce  and  warlike  Senecas,  who 
were  their  implacable  foes,  or  their  enterprise  had  not  yet  led  them  in  this 
direction  ;  and  prior  to  this  time,  the  points  occupied  by  civilized  men  in  the 
West  were  mostly  mere  trading  posts,  and  the  forests  were  only  traversed 
by  traders  and  missionaries.  Chautauqua  county,  and  the  adjacent  regions, 
not  being  in  the  route  of  their  travel,  were  barely  known,  and  were  untrav- 
ersed  except  by  bands  of  Indians  in  their  hostile  excursions.  The  French 
officer  La  Hontan  says  : 

"  The  banks  of  this  lake  [Erie]  are  commonly  frequented  by  none  but 
warriors,  whether  the  Iroquois,  the  Illinese,  the  Oumiamies,  etc. ;  and  it  is 
very  dangerous  to  stop  there.  By  this  means  it  comes  to  pass,  that  the  stags, 
roebucks,  and  turkeys  run  in  great  bodies  up  and  down  the  shore,  all  around 
the  lake.  In  former  times  the  Errionons  and  the  Andastogueronons  lived 
upon  the  confines  of  the  lake ;  but  they  were  extirpated  by  the  Iroquois,  as 
well  as  the  other  nations  marked  on  the  map."* 

Events  leading  to  the  French  and  Indian  Wars. 

The  boundary  line  between  the  French  and  English  possessions  in 
America  had  long  been  a  cause  for  earnest  contention.  The  French 
claimed  dominion  to  all  the  country  lying  west  of  the  Allegany  mountains. 
The  English  also  claimed  the  territory  westward  of  their  colonies  to  the 
Pacific  Ocean.  The  territory  of  Chautauqua  county  was  included  in  these 
disputed  regions ;  and  as  a  consequence  of  this  controversy,  it  was  soon 
brought  nearer  to  the  scene  of  prominent  military  operations,  and  in  close 
proximity  to  important  lines  of  communication,  or  rough  military  highways 
leading  firom  distant  military  posts  in  this  then  interminable  western  wilder- 
ness. Communications  between  the  French  posts  on  the  Mississippi  river, 
and  the  French  forts  and  settlements  in  Canada,  were  at  first  maintained  by 
the  long  and  circuitous  route  of  the  Mississippi,  Green  Bay,  and  the  Ottawa^ 
and  afterwards  by  Lake  Michigan  and  the  lUinois  ;  and  at  a  still  later  period 
by  the  way  of  the  Maumee  and  the  Wabash.  The  direct  and  easy  commu- 
nication that  could  be  had  between  Canada  and  the  Mississippi,  by  the  way 
of  Lake  Erie  and  the  short  portage  of  Chautauqua  lake,  or  over  that  from 
Presque  Isle  [Erie]  to  French  creek,  and  the  upper  waters  of  the  Ohio,  seems 
for  a  long  time  to  have  been  unknown  to  the  French ;  but  events  of  an 
important  character  as  affecting  this  part  of  the  world,  and  also  the  history 
of  that  of  the  two  most  powerful  nations  of  Europe,  were  destined  soon  to 

*  La  Hontan's  Voyages. 


introduce  this  region  to  the  notice  both  of  the  French  and  the  English. 
The  latter,  in  1722,  established  a  trading  post  at  Oswego,  and,  a  little  later, 
built  there  a  fort.  The  French,  to  enable  them  to  command  communication 
•with  the  West,  thereupon,  in  1725,  reoccupied  and  reconstructed  Fort  Niag- 
ara, which  had  been  deserted  for  over  thirty-five  years,  and  made  it  a  strong 
fortress,  and  which  thereafter  became  the  scene  of  exciting  military  events. 

In  1749,  the  two  rival  countries  proceeded  stiU  more  directly  to  assert 
their  rights  to  the  territory  l)fing  west  of  the  Alleganies.  The  English  gov- 
ernment granted  five  hundred  thousand  acres  of  land  on  the  Ohio  to  the 
Ohio  CoRipany,  which  included  persons  in  London,  Maryland  and  Virginia 
as  its  members,  among  whom  were  Lawrence  and  Augustine  Washington. 
The  objects  of  this  company  were  the  settlement  of  this  territory,  and  to 
establish  a  trade  with  the  Indians.  The  French,  the  same  year,  sent  from 
Detroit  Capt.  De  Celeron,  with  three  hundred  men  to  march  east  to  the 
Allegany  mountains,  to  take  formal  possession  of  this  territory,  and  to  warn 
the  .English  traders  out  of  the  country.  He  performed  the  task,  and  de- 
posited at  important  points  leaden  plates,  with  the  arms  of  France  engraved. 
Three  of  these  have  been  found,  we  are  told ;  one  at  Marietta,  one  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Big  Kanawha,  and  one  at  the  mouth  of  French  creek.  The 
following  is  a  translation  of  the  inscription  upon  one  of  these  plates,  which 
was  obtained  by  artifice  from  Joncaire,  the  French  interpreter,  by  the  Sene- 
cas,  and  delivered  to  Sir  William  Johnson,  who  forwarded  it  to  Governor 
Clinton  : 

"In  the  year  1749,  during  the  reign  of  Louis  XV.,  King  of  France,  we, 
Celoron,  commander  of  a  detachment  sent  by  Monsieur  the  Marquis  De  la 
Galissonire,  commander  in  chief  of  Ne#  France,  for  the  restoration  of  tran- 
quillity in  some  villages  of  Indians  of  these  districts,  have  buried  this  plate 
at  the  confluence  of  the  Ohio  and  Tchadakoin,  this  29th  day  of  July,  near 
the  river  Ohio,  otherwise  Beautiful  River,  as  a  monument  of  the  renewal  of 
possession  which  we  have  taken  of  the  said  river  Ohio,  and  of  all  those  that 
therein  fall,  and  all  the  lands  on  both  sides  as  far  as  the  sources  of  the  said 
rivers,  as  enjoyed  or  ought  to  be  enjoyed  by  the  preceding  Kings  of  France, 
and  as  they  therein  have  maintained  themselves  by  arms,  and  by  treaties, 
especially  by  those  of  Riswick,  of  Utrecht,  and  of  Aix-la-Chapelle."* 

Origin  of  the  Name  Chautauqua. 

The  name  Ohio,  or  La  Belle  Riviere,  was  applied  by  the  French  to  that 
portion  of  the  Allegany,  extending  up  from  Pittsburgh  as  far,  at  least,  as 
Franklin,  as  well  as  to  the  Ohio  proper.  It  is  probable  that  the  Connewango, 
Chautauqua  lake  and  outlet,  and  perhaps  that  part  of  the  Allegany  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Connewango  to  Franklin,  were  called  by  the  French  the  Tchad- 
akoin, as  inscribed  upon  this  leaden  plate,  and  that,  in  process  of  time,  this 
appellation  was  retained  only  by  the  lake.  The  word  underwent  various 
changes  in  its  orthography  also,  until  it  came  to  be  spelled  Chautauqua.  On 
a  manuscript  map  of  1 749,  made  by  a  Jesuit  in  the  Department  de  la  Marine 

*9  Doc.  Colonial  Hist,  of  N.  Y.,  pp.  610-11. 


in  Paris,  it  is  spelled  "Tjadakoin,''  and  the  Chautauqua  creek  that  empties 
into  Lake  Erie  in  the  town  of  Westfield,  is  called  the  Riviere  Aux  Pomes,  or 
Apple  river.  In  the  translations  of  the  letters  of  Du  Quesne,  [pronounced 
Du  Kane\,  governor-general  of  Canada,  to  the  French  government  in  1753, 
found  in  vol.  10  of  Documents  Relating  to  the  Colonial  History  of  the 
State  of  New  York,  it  is  spelled  "  Chataconit."  In  Stephen  Coffin's  affidavit, 
sworn  to  before  Sir  William  Johnson  in  1754,  "  Chadakoin."  In  the  French 
of  Capt.  Pouchot,  in  his  history  of  the  French  and  English  war  in  North 
America,  written  before  the  American  Revolution,  and  in  the  map  accom- 
panying it,  the  name  of  the  lake  is  spelled  ^^Shatacoin."  On  Pownell's  map 
of  1776,  and  Lewis  Evans'  of  1755,  it  is  written  " Jadaxque."  Gen.  Wm. 
Irvine,  who  visited  Chautauqua  prior  to  1788,  writes  it  ''■  Jadaqua."  On  the 
map  made  by  the  Holland  Land  Company  in  1804,  it  is  "  Chataughque." 
After  the  settlement  of  the  county,  until  the  year  1859,  it  was  spelled 
"  Chautauque,"  when,  by  a  resolution  of  the  Board  of  Supervisors,  passed 
October  nth  of  that  year,  at  the  suggestion  of  Hon.  E.  T.  Foote,  it  was 
changed  to  "Chautauqua,"  that  its  pronunciation  might  conform  to  the  pro- 
nunciation of  the  word  by  the  Indians,  at  the  time  of  the  first  settlement 
of  the  county.* 

Various  significations  have  been  attributed  to  the  word  Chautauqua. 
Among  others,  it  is  said  to  mean,  "  the  place  where  one  was  lost,"  or  the 
"place  of  easy  death,''  in  allusion  to  a  tradition  of  the  Senecas.  Com- 
planter,  in  his  celebrated  speech  against  the  title,  of  the  Phelps  and  Gorham . 
tract,  alluding  to  this  tradition,  says  :  "  In  this  case  one  chief  has  said  he 
would  ask  you  to  put  him  out  of  pain  :  another  who  will  not  think  of  dying 
by  the  hand  of  his  father  or  his  brbther,  has  said  he  will  retire  to  '  Chaud- 
dauk-wa,'  eat  of  the  fatal  root,  and  sleep  with  his  fathers  in  peace."t 

Dr.  Peter  WUson,  an  educated  Cayuga  chief,  communicated  to  O.  H. 
Marshall,  Esq.,  the  following  Seneca  tradition :  "  A  party  of  Senecas 
returning  from  the  Ohio  in  the  spring  of  the  year,  ascended  the  outlet  of 
Chautauqua  lake,  passed  into  the  lake,  and  while  paddling  through  it,  caught 
a  fish  of  a  kind  with  which  they  were  not  familiar,  and  they  threw  it  into  the 
bottom  of  their  canoe.  Reaching  the  head  of  the  lake,  they  made  a  portage 
across  to  the  Chautauqua  creek,  then  swollen  with  the  spring  freshets. 
Descending  the  creek  into  Lake  Erie,  they  found,  to  their  astonishment,  the 
fish  still  alive.  They  threw  it  into  the  lake,  and  it  disappeared.  In  process 
of  time  the  same  fish  appeared  abundantly  in  the  lake,  having  never  been 
caught  in  it  before.  They  concluded  they  all  sprang  from  the  Chautauqua 
lake  progenitor,  and  hence  they  named  that  Lake,  "  G^a-ja-dah'-gwah,  com- 
pounded of  two  Seneca  words  Ga-iaJi,  "  fish,"  and  Ga-dah'-gwah  "  taken 

*  No  one  now  living  has  been  longer  or  more  prominently  identified  with  this  county 
during  its  early  years,  and  consequently  none  more  familiar  with  its  early  settlers  and  its 
history,  than  Judge  Foote ;  and  no  one  has  contributed  so  much  in  time  and  money,  or 
has  been  more  solicitous  to  preserve  the  facts  connected  with  its  early  history  than  he. 

+  See  Alden's  Missions,  p.  169.     Also  Morgan's  League  of  the  Iroquois. 


out."  In  process  of  time  the  word  became  contracted  into  Jah-dah-gwah ; 
the  prefix  Ga  being  dropped,  as  is  often  the  case."* 

Other  meanings  have  been  assigned  to  the  word.  Chautauqua  has  been 
said  to  signify  "  foggy  place,"  in  allusion  to  the  mist  arising  from  the  lake  ; 
also  to  mean  "  high  up,"  referring  to  the  elevated  situation  of  the  lake ; 
while  it  is  said  that  Horatio  Jones  and  Jasper  Parrish,  early  Indian  interpre- 
ters, well  versed  in  the  Seneca  tongue^ gave  its  meaning  to  be  "a  pack  tied 
in  the  middle  ''  or  "  two  moccasins  fastened  together,"  from  the  resemblance 
of  the  lake  to  those  objects. 

The  following  lines  and  note  are  from  the  pen  of  Col.  Wm.  H.  C.  Hosmer, 

of  Avon : 

"  Famous  in  the  days  of  yore,  But  the  music  of  her  tread 

Bright  Ja-da-qua  !  was  thy  shore,  Made  the  prophet  shake  his  head, 

And  the  stranger  treasures  yet  For  the  mark  of  early  doom 

Pebbles  that  thy  waves  have  wet ;  He  had  seen  through  beauty  bloom. 
For  they  catch  an  added  glow 

From  a  tale  of  long  ago.  "  When  a  fragrant  wreath  was  made, 

Ere  the  settler's  flashing  steel  Round  her  brow  she  clasped  the  braid ; 

Rang  the  greenwood's  funeral  peal,  When  her  roving  eye,  alas  ! 

Or  the  plow-share  in  the  vale  Flowering  in  the  summer  grass. 

Blotted  out  the  red  man's  trail.  Did  the  fatal  plant  behold, 

And  she  plucked  it  from  the  mould  ; 

"  Deadly  was  the  plant  that  grew  ^^ ''if  ^""^'f  '°°^/^^  ^'^' 

Near  thy  sheet  of  glimmering  blue,  ^nd  her  peril  leame-1  too  late. 

But  the  mystic  leaves  were  known  Flymg  fast  her  thirst  to  slake 

To  our  wandering  tribe  alone.  ^^"^  '^y  «'»^^>  «"=hantmg  lake. 

Sweeter  far  than  honeyed  fruit  <<  Then  was  gained  the  treacherous  brink. 

Of  the  wild  plum  was  its  root ;  Stooped  O-wa-na  dawn  to  drink  ; 

But  the  smallest  morsel  cursed  xhen  the  waters,  calm  before. 

Those  who  tasted,  wuh  a  thirst  Waking,  burst  upon  the  shore  ; 

That  impelled  them  to  leap  down  And  the  maid  was  seen  no  more. 

In  thy  cooling  depth,  and  drown.  Azure  glass  !  in  emeralds  framed. 

Since  that  hour  Ja-da-qua  named, 

"  On  thy  banks,  in  other  hours.  Or  'the  place  of  easy  death,' 

Sat  O-VVA-NA  wreathing  flowers.  When  I  pant  with  failing  breath. 

And,  with  whortleberries  sweet,  I  will  eat  the  root  that  grows 

Filled  were  baskets  at  her  feet.  On  thy  banks,  and  find  repose 

Nature  to  a  form  of  grace  With  the  loveliest  of  our  daughters 

Had  allied  a  faultless  face  ;  In  thy  blue  engulfing  waters. " 

"These  lines  allude  to  a  beautiful  Seneca  tradition  that  lends  an  added  charm  to  Chau- 
tauqua lake,  in  the  state  of  New  York.  A  young  squaw  is  said  to  have  eaten  of  =1  root 
growing  on  its  banks,  which  created  tormenting  thirst.  To  slake  it  she  stooped  down  to 
drink  of  its  clear  waters,  and  disappeared  for  ever.  Hence  the  name  of  the  lake  Ja-da- 
QUA,  or  the  place  of  easy  death,  where  one  disappears  and  is  seen  no  more."  [See  I  vol. 
Hosmer's  Poems,  225,  373.] 

•  The   Portage   Road. 

The  Marquis  Dii  Quesne,  having  been  appointed  governor-general  of 
Canada,  arrived  there  in  1752.     The  measures  taken  by  him  in  behalf  of 

*  Dr.  Wilson  (now  deceased)  is  regarded  as  good  authority  upon  this  subject.  Of  him 
Mr.  Marshall  says  :  "  He  had  a  great  love  for  the  traditional  annals  of  his  people,  a  very 
critical  knowledge  of  the  Seneca  language,  now  reduced  to  a  written  system.  Besides,  he 
enjoyed  the  advantage  of  an  English  education,  having  graduated  with  honor  at  the  Gene- 
see Medical  College,  and  practiced  medicine  with  success  among  the  Indians. 

"  The  word  '  Shatacoin,'  if  properly  pronounced  in  French  would  give  the  identical  word 
given  by  Dr.  Wilson  in  the  tradition." 


the  French  to  obtain  possession  of  the  disputed  territory,  were  of  a  more 
open  and  decisive  character  than  those  of  any  officer  who  had  preceded  him. 
Soon  after  his  arrival,  he  commenced  preparations  to  construct  the  long  line 
of  frontier  forts,  which  had  been  first  suggested  by  La  Salle,  and  which  the 
French,  for  so  many  years,  had  in  contemplation,  that  were  to  unite  Canada 
with  Louisiana,  by  the  way  of  the  Ohio.  The  first  step  taken  towards  this 
bold  project,  may  be  regarded  as  leading  directly  to  one  of  the  most 
memorable  wars  of  modern  times,  known  in  this  country  as  the  French  and 
Indian  war ;  which  resulted  in  divesting  the  French  of  Canada,  and  of  the 
greater  part  of  their  possessions  in  America.  This  war  also  extended,  with 
great  results,  over  continental  Europe,  and  even  to  Asia  and  Africa. 

The  first  act  of  Du  Quesne  was  to  open  a  portage  road  from  Erie  to 
La  Boeuf,  on  French  creek ;  and  also  the  same  season  to  open  another  road 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Chautauqua  creek,  near  Barcelona,  to  the  head  of 
Chautauqua  lake,  at  Mayville ;  and  thus  open  communication  between  Lake 
Erie  and  the  head-waters  of  the  Ohio.  Du  Quesne,  in  the  fall  of  1752, 
rendered  an  account  of  the  arrangements  that  he  had  made,  in  a  letter  to  the 
French  Minister  of  the  Marine  and  Colonies,  in  Paris,  in  which  he  stated 
that  he  would  begin  his  posts  at  a  point  near  Barcelona  in  this  county,  and 
at  the  mouth  of  the  Chautauqua  creek,  which  he  called  Chat-a-co-nit.  It  is 
evident  from  this  correspondence,  that  Du  Quesne  fully  believed,  from  the 
information  that  he  had,  that  the  carrying  place  between  this  point  and  the 
head  of  Chautauqua  lake,  was  the  shortest  and  most  practicable  that  could 
be  found  between  the  waters  of  the  lakes  and  the  Ohio,  and  that  the  carrying 
place  between  Erie  and  La  Boeuf  was  discovered  afterwards.  The  import- 
ance that  Du  Quesne  attached  to  the  selection  of  the  best  carrying  place 
between  these  waters,  is  evident  from  the  language  used  by  him  in  his 
communications  to  the  French  government. 

Du  Quesne,  during  the  winter,  completed  his  preparations,  which  were 
hastened  by  false  reports  received  from  Joncaire,  that  the  English  had 
actually  settled  upon  French  creek,  and  at  the  junction  of  the  Connewango 
with  the  Allegany,  where  Warren  is  now  situated ;  which  the  French  and 
Indians  then  called  Chinengue.  He  in  the  early  spring  dispatched,  firom 
Montreal,  an  advance  force  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  men,  under  Monsieur 
Barbeer,  for  Chautauqfta,  with  orders  to  fell  and  prepare  timber  for  the  build- 
ing of  a  fort  there.*  Barbeer  and  his  command  pursued  their  winter  march 
over  land  and  ice  to  Fort  Niagara,  pausing  on  their  way  to  refresh  thftn- 
selves  at  Cadaraqua  fort   and  at  Toronto.     They  remained  at  Fort  Niagara 

*  The  following  account  of  the  operations  of  the  French  during  the  spring  and  summer 
of  1 753,  we  have  mainly  from  an  affidavit  made  before  Sir  William  Johnson  by  Stephen 
Coifen,  who  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  French  and  Indians  in  1 747,  and  detained  in  Lower 
Canada  until  January,  1752,  when  he  was  allowed  to  join  the  command  of  Barbeer  in  this 
expedition  to  the  Ohio  river.  On  the  return  of  the  French  forces  in  the  fall  of  that  year, 
the  troops  became  fatigued  from  rowing  all  night  upon  Lake  Ontario,  and  were  ordered  to 
put  ashore  within  a  mile  of  the  mouth  of  the  Oswego  river  for  breakfast,  when  Coffen  and 
a  Frenchman  escaped  to  the  English  fort  of  Oswego. 


until  the  warmth  of  the  early  spring  had  sufficiently  removed  the  ice  from 
Lake  Erie,  and  then  pursued  their  way  by  water  along  the  shore  of  the  lake, 
arriving  at  the  mouth  of  the  Chautauqua  creek  in  the  month  of  April,  1753. 

What  progress  Barbeer  made  in  complying  with  the  instructions  given  him 
by  Du  Quesne,  to  fell  and  prepare  timber  for  a  fort  there,  we  are  not  in- 
formed. Sieur  Marin,  to  whom  was  assigned  the  chief  command  of  all  the 
forces  of  France,  operating  in  the  country  of  the  Ohio,  having  arrived  with  a 
larger  force,  consisting  of  five  hundred  soldiers  and  twenty  Indians,  put  a 
stop  to  the  building  of  the  fort,  as  he  did  not  like  the  situation,  believing 
the  river  of  Chadekoins,  as  the  outlet  of  Chautauqua  lake  was  called,  too 
shallow  to  carry  craft  with  provisions  to  the  Ohio  river.  An  altercation 
ensued;  Barbeer  insisting  either  upon  building  the  fort  according  to  his  in- 
structions, or  that  Marin  should  give  him  a  writing  that  would  justify  him  in 
the  eyes  of  the  governor.  Marin  finally  complied  with  Barbeer's  demand, 
and  gave  him  such  a  writing,  and  then  dispatched  Chevalier  Le  Mercier,  a 
captain  of  artillery,  and  an  able  officer,  to  whom  was  assigned  the  duties  of 
engineer  for  the  expedition,  to  explore  the  shore  for  a  better  point  of  depart- 
ure from  the  lake.  After  an  absence  of  three  days,  Le  Mercier  returned  to 
Chautauqua,  and  reported  that  about  fifteen  leagues  to  the  south-west  he 
had  discovered  a  harbor  where  boats  could  enter  with  perfect  safety,  and 
that  it  was  a  most  favorable  point  for  their  purpose. 

The  French  immediately  repaired  thither,  and  upon  their  arrival  found 
twenty  Indians  fishing  in  the  lake,  who  fled  on  their  approach.  Here  the 
French  built  a  fort  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  square,  and  fifteen  feet 
high,  of  chestnut  logs.  It  had  a  gate  on  the  north  and  south  sides,  but 
no  port  holes.  The  French  called  it  Fort  Presque  Isle.  It  stood  where 
now  is  situated  the  city  of  Erie,  Pennsylvania.  Upon  the  completion  of  this 
fort,  Marin  left  there  Captain  Derpontcy,  with  one  hundred  men  to  garrison 
it,  and  immediately  cut  a  wagon  road  to  the  southward,  through  a  fine  level 
country,  twenty-one  miles  to  a  point  on  the  river  La  Boeuf,  the  present  site 
of  Waterford,  Erie  county.  Pa.  Faint  traces  of  this  wagon  road  are  still  visible 
not  far  from  the  city  of  Erie.  They  built  at  Waterford,  of  wood,  a  tri- 
angular stockaded  fort,  within  which  two  log  houses  were  erected.  While 
building  this  fort,  Marin  sent  Monsieur  Bite  with  fifty  men  to  the  Allegany 
river,  where  French  creek  empties  into  it,  and  Marin  built  ninety  boats  or 
batteaux,  to  carry  down  the  baggage  and  provisions.  Bite  returned  and 
reported  the  situation  good,  but  the  river  too  low  at  that  time  for  boats  ;  and 
also  that  the  Indians  had  forbid  the  building  of  the  fort.  When  the  fort 
Aux  Boeufs  was  completed,  Marin  ordered  all  his  forces  to  return  to  Canada, 
to  remain  there  through  the  winter,  excepting  three  hundred  men,  which 
were  retained  to  garrison  the  two  forts  he  had  built,  and  to  prepare  materials 
for  the  building  of  other  forts  in  the  next  spring.  He  also  sent  Coeur,  an 
officer  and  interpreter,  to  stay  during  the  winter  among  the  Indians  on  the 
Ohio,  and  to  persuade  them  not  only  to  permit  the  building  of  forts,  but  to 
join  the  French  against  the  English. 


About  eight  days  before  the  French  took  their  departure  from  Presque  Isle, 
ChevaUer  Le  Crake  arrived  express  from  Canada,  in  a  birch  canoe,  propelled 
by  ten  men,  with  orders  from  Du  Quesne  to  make  all  preparations  to  build, 
the  succeeding  spring,  two  forts  in  Chautauqua ;  one  at  Lake  Erie,  and  one  at 
the  end  of  the  carrying  place  on  Chautauqua  lake.  On  the  28th  of  October, 
about  four  hundred  and  forty  French,  under  Captain  Ueneman,  set  out  from 
Presque  Isle  for  Canada,  in  twenty-two  batteaux ;  followed  in  a  few  days  by 
seven  hundred  and  sixty  men,  being  all  the  remainder  of  the  French  that 
were  not  left  to  garriion  the  forts  they  had  built  in  Pennsylvania.  On  the 
30th  of  October,  1753,  they  arrived  at  Chautauqua,  probably  at  or  near 
Barcelona.  Here,  within  this  county,  this  army  remained  encamped  for  four 
days,  during  which  time  two  hundred  of  their  number,  under  Monsieur  Pdan, 
cut  the  wagon  road  over  the  carrying  place,  from  Lake  Erie  to  Chautauqua 

The  French  pronounced  themselves  satisfied  with  this  route,  and  on  the 
3d  of  November  set  out  for  Canada,  arriving  at  Niagara  on  the  6th. f 

Besides  the  two  hundred  and  fifty  men  composing  the  advance  force  under 
Barbeer,  and  the  five  hundred  that  soon  afterwards  came  up  under  Marin, 
there  came  afterwards,  during  the  season,  other  bodies  of  troops  from  Can- 
ada, \\ith  stores ;  making  the  whole  number  of  French  engaged  in  this 
expedition,  1,500  men.  Nine  pieces  of  artillery  were  brought  with  them, 
all  of  which  were  left  in  Fort  Le  Boeuf,  where  Marin  commanded.  These 
constitute  the  operations  of  the  French  in  the  year  1753,  in  this  remote 
wilderness ;  and  they  were  deemed  of  great  importance,  even  in  Paris,  as 
sufficiently  appears  in  the  correspondence  between  the  French  officials 
respecting  them.  To  furnish  an  army  of  1,500  men  with  supplies  and 
munitions,  and  send  them  from  Montreal,  itself  but  a  fortress  in  the  depths 
of  the  forest,  still  farther  to  the  west,  through  an  untraversed  wilderness, 
over  inland  seas,  a  distance  of  500  miles,  to  these  wild  and  almost  unknown 
regions,  was  an  enterprise  then  regarded  as  of  no  small  magnitude,  even  by 
a  government  as  powerful  as  France. 

The  difficulties  experienced  by  the  French  in  pushing  forward  this  expe- 
dition, as  well  as  many  other  interesting  particulars  respecting  it,  are  set 

*  "  Hugues  Pean  was  a  native  of  Canada  ;  his  father  had  been  adjutant,  or  town  major 
of  Quebec ;  a  situation  to  which  the  son  succeeded,  on  the  arrival  of  M.  de  Jonquire.  His 
wife  was  young,  spiritual,  mild,  and  obliging,  and  her  conversation  amusing  ;  she  succeeded 
in  obtaining  considerable  influence  over  the  intendant  M.  Bigot,  who  went  regularly  to 
spend  his  evenings  with  her.  She  became  at  length  the  channel  through  which  the  public 
patronage  Bowed.  P&n  in  a  short  time  saw  himself  worth  fifty  thousand  crowns.  Bigot, 
the  intendant,  requiring  a  large  supply  of  wheat,  gave  Pean  the  contract,  and  even  advanced 
him  money  from  the  treasury,  with  which  the  wheat  was  bought.  The  intendant  next 
issued  an  ordinance,  fixing  the  price  of  wheat  much  higher  than  Pean  purchased  it.  The 
latter  delivered  it  to  the  government,  at  the  price  fixed  by  the  ordinance,  whereby  he  real- 
ized immense  profit,  obtained  a  seigniory,  and  became  very  wealthy." — Collections  of 
Quebec  Literary  and  historical  Society,  1838,  page  68.  "  He  was  afterwards  created  a 
Knight  of  St.  Louis." — Smith's  Canada,  I.,  page  221. 

1 10  Colonial  Hist,  of  N.  Y. 


forth  in  a  letter  bearing  date  August  20,  1753,  from  Du  Quesne  to  M.  de 
Rouille,  the  French  Minister  of  Marine  and  Colonies,  in  which  he  says  :* 

"  My  Lord  : 

"  I  have  the  honor  to  inform  you  that  I  have  been  obliged  to  alter  the 
arrangement  I  had  made,  whereof  I  rendered  you  an  account  last  fall. 

"  You  will  see,  my  Lord,  by  the  extract  of  the  journal  hereto  annexed, 
the  reasons  which  compelled  me  to  reduce  to  almost  one  half,  the  vanguard 
that  I  informed  you  consisted  of  400  men,  and  those  that  determined  me  to 
prefer  landing  the  troops  at  the  harbor  of  Presque  Isle  on  Lake  Erie,  which 
I  very  fortunately  discovered,  instead  of  Chataconit,  where,  I  informed  you, 
I  would  begin  my  posts. 

"  This  discovery  is  so  much  more  propitious,  as  it  is  a  harbor  which  the 
largest  barks  can  enter  loaded,  and  be  in  perfect  safety.  I  am  informed  that 
the  beach,  the  soil,  and  the  resources  of  all  sorts,  were  the  same  as  repre- 
sented to  me. 

"  The  plan  I  send  you  of  this  place  is  only  a  rough  sketch  until  it  is 
corrected.     I  have  given  orders  that  this  be  proceeded  with. 

"The  letter  I  received  on  the  12th  of  January  last  from  M.  de  Joncaire, 
has  obliged  me  to  force  to  obtain  provisions  from  the  farmers,  to  enable  me 
to  oppose  the  projects  of  the  English,  who,  he  advised  me,  had  sent  smiths 
to  Chinenguef  and  the  river  Aux  Boeuf,  where  they  were  even  settled  ;  and 
that  there  was  a  terrible  excitement  among  the  Indians,  who  looked  upon  it 
as  certain  that  the  English  would  be  firmly  settled  there  in  the  course  of  this 
year,  not  imagining  that  my  forces  were  capable  of  opposing  them.  This 
fear,  which  made  me  attempt  the  impossible,  has  had  hitherto  the  most  com- 
plete success.  All  the  provisions  have  arrived  from  without,  after  a  delay  of 
fifteen  days,  and  I  had  them  transported  with  all  imaginable  diligence,  into 
a  country  so  full  of  difficulties,  in  consequence  of  the  great  number  of 
voyageurs  which  I  required  to  ascend  the  rapids,  the  race  of  which  is  getting 

"  I  was  not  long  in  perceiving  that  this  movement  made  a  considerable 
impression  on  the  Indians ;  and  what  has  thrown  more  consternation  among 
them  is,  that  I  had  no  recourse  to  them ;  for  I  contented  myself  with  telling 
our  domiciliated  tribes,  that  if  there  were  eight  or  ten  from  each  village  who 
had  the  curiosity  to  witness  my  operations,  I  would  permit  them  to  follow 
Sieur  Marin,  the  commander  of  the  detachment,  whom  they  were  well 
acquainted  with,  and  in  whom  they  have  confidence.  Of  200  whom  I  pro- 
posed to  send  forward,  only  70  are  sufficient  for  scouts  and  hunters. 

"  All  the  natives  that  came  down  to  sep  me  from  the  upper  country,  and 
who  met  the  multitude  of  batteaux  and  canoes  which  were  conveying  the 
men  and  effects  belonging  to  the  detachment,  presented  themselves  all 
trembling  before  me,  and  told  me  that  they  were  aware  of  my  power  by  the 
swarm  of  men  they  had  passed,  and  begged  me  to  have  pity  on  them,  their 
wives,  and  their  children.  I  took  advantage  of  their  terror  to  speak  to  them 
in  a  firm  tone  and  menacing  the  first  that  would  falter ;  and  instead  of  a 
month  or  five  weeks  that  they  were  accustomed  to  remain  here  consuming 
the  King's  provisions,  I  got  rid  of  them  on  the  fourth  day. 

"  It  appears  up  to  this  time,  that  the  execution  of  the  plan  of  my  enter- 

*  10  Doc.  relating  to  Colonial  Hist,  of  N.  Y. 

t  Chinengue,  or  Shenango,  is  laid  down  in  Mitchelfs  map  at  the  junction  of  the  Conne- 
wango  and  Allegany,  where  Warren  is  now  situated. 


prise  makes  so  strong  an  impression  on  the  natives,  that  all  the  vagabonds 
who  had  taken  refuge  on  the  Beautiful  River,  have  returned  to  their  village. 

"  I  keep  the  five  nations  much  embarrassed  because  they  have  not  come 
down  to  Montreal,  and  the  only  step  they  have  taken  has  been  to  send  the 
ladies  (dames)  of  their  council  to  Sieur  Marin  to  inquire  of  him  by  a  belt, 
whether  he  was  marching  with  the  hatchet  uplifted.  He  told  them  that  he 
bore  it  aloft,  in  order  that  no  person  should  be  ignorant  of  the  fact ;  but 
as  for  the  present,  his  orders  were  to  use  it  only  in  case  he  encountered  op- 
position to  my  will ;  that  my  intention  was  to  support  and  assist  them  in 
their  necessities,  and  tO  drive  away  the  evil  spirits  that  encompassed  them, 
and  that  disturbed  the  earth. 

"  I  was  aware  that  the  English  of  Philadelphia  had  invited  them  to  general 
council,  and  that  they  had  refused  to  attend  to  it.  Further,  I  knew  from 
a  man  worthy  of  crecfit,  who  happened  to  be  among  these  Indians  when  the 
English  arrived,  that  they  had  rejected  the  belts  which  had  been  offered  to 
oppose  the  entrance  of  the  King's  troops  into  the  river  Ohio,  since  they  had 
sold  it  to  the  English.  They  answered  that  they  would  not  meddle  with  my 
afiairs,  and  that  they  would  look  quietly  on,  from  their  mats,  persuaded  as 
they  were,  that  my  proceedings  had  no  other  object  than  to  give  a  clear  sky 
to  a  country  which  served  as  a  refuge  for  assassins  who  had  reddened  the 
ground  with  their  blood. 

"  This  nation,  which  possesses  a  superior  government  to  all  others,  allowed 
itself  to  be  dazzled  by  continued  presents,  and  did  not  perceive  that  the 
English  are  hemming  it  in,  so  that  if  it  do  not  shake  off  their  yoke  'twill 
soon  be  enslaved.  I  shall  lead  them  to  make  this  reflection,  in  order  to  in- 
duce them  to  pull  down  Choneganen,  which  is  destroying  them  and  will  be 
the  ruin  of  the  colony. 

"  Should  we  have  had  to  use  reprisals,  I  would  soon  have  taken  that  post. 
I  have  already  forwarded  to  Fort  Frontenac,  the  artillery  and  everything 
necessary  to  this  coup  de  main. 

"  Sieur  Marin  writes  me  on  the  3d  instant,  that  the  fort  at  Presque.Isle  is 
entirely  finished ;  that  the  Portage  road,  which  is  six  leagues  in  length,  is  also 
ready  for  carriages  ;  that  the  store  which  was  necessary  to  be  built  half  way 
across  this  Portage,  is  in  a  condition  to  receive  the  supplies,  and  that  the 
second  fort,  which  is  located  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Aux  Boeuf,  will  soon 
be  completed. 

"This  commandant  informs  me,  moreover,  that  he  is  having  some 
pirogues  constructed ;  whilst  men  are  actually  employed  in  transporting  his 
stores;  and  he  tells  me  that  all  t^e  Delawares,  Chauonanons  [Shawnees] 
and  Senecas,  on  the  Beautiful  River,  had  come  to  meet  him,  and  that  he  had 
so  well  received  them,  that  they  were  very  zealously  assisting  with  their 
horses  that  they  have  brought  along  with  them  in  making  the  portage. 

"  There  has  not  been,  up  to  the  present  time,  the  least  impediment  to  the 
considerable  movements  I  have  caused  to  be  made ;  everything  arrived  at  its 
destination  with  greater  celerity  than  I  anticipated;  and  among  the  prodigi- 
ous number  of  batteaux  or  canoes  that  have  passed  the  rapids,  only  one  has 
upset,  drowning  seven  men. 

"As  it  is  impossible  in  a  movement  as  vast  as  it  was  precipitous  for  this 
country,  that  some  of  the  provisions  should  be  spoiled  in  open  craft,  despite 
all  the  precautions  that  could  be  taken,  I  have  sent  on  as  much  as  was 
necessary  to  repair  the  loss. 


"  Everything  announces,  ray  Lord,  the  successful  execution  of  my  project, 
unless  some  unforeseen  accident  has  occurred  ;  and  the  only  anxiety  I  feel  is, 
that  the  River  Aux  Boeuf  portage  will  delay  the  entrance  of  our  troops  into 
the  Beautiful  River,  as  it  is  long,  and  there  is  considerable  to  carry,  and  the 
horses  I  have  sent  thither  have  arrived  there  exhausted  by  fatigue.  But  I 
hope  this  will  be  obviated  by  those  the  Indians  have  brought  thither,  and 
that  the  mildness  of  the 'climate  will  admit  of  the  completion  of  the  posts. 
The  extreme  boldness  with  which  I  have  executed  a  project  of  so  much 
importance,  has  caused  me  the  Uveliest  inquietude ;  the  famine  which  met 
me  on  my  arrival  at  Quebec  having  reduced  me,  forwarding  only  900  barrels 
of  flour  as  the  whole  supply. 

"From  the  knowledge  I  have  acquired  this  winter,  I  would  have  composed 
my  vanguard  of  700  men,  had  I  had  an  entrepot  of  provisions  at  Niagara, 
because  that  body  of  men  would  have  assuredly  advanced  to  the  portage, 
which  I  was  desirous  of  occupying ;  having  to  fear  some  opposition  on  the 
part  of  the  Indians  of  the  Beautiful  River  at  the  instigation  of  the  English, 
my  plan  having  been  discovered,  and  bruited  abroad  since  M.  de  la  Jonquire's 
death,  in  consequence  of  the  explorations  that  I  caused  to  be  made  by  some 
bark  canoes,  notwithstanding  the  color  I  wished  to  give  these  movements. 

"  I  leave  you  to  judge,  my  Lord,  the  trouble  of  mind  I  felt  at  the  reduc- 
tion of  this  vangimrd  to  250  men,  which  I  was  obliged  to  send  like  what  is 
called  in  the  army  a  forlorn  hope,  when  dispatched  to  explore  a  work.  On 
the  other  hand,  I  should  proceed  at  a  snail's  pace  could  I  continue  my 
operations  only  with  the  assistance  derived  from  the  sea,  the  inconveniences 
of  which  I  understood.  In  fine,  my  Lord,  if  there  be  any  merit  in  doing 
anything  contrary  to  the  prudence  of  a  person  of  my  age,  who  has  not  the 
reputation  of  being  devoid  of  that  virtue,  the  enterprise  in  question  would 
be  entitled  to  very  great  credit ;  but  necessity  having  constrained  me  to  it,  I 
do  not  adopt  it,  and  attribute  its  success  to  singular  good  fortune  which  I 
would  not  for  all  the  world  attempt  again. 

"  The  discovery  I  have  made  of  the  harbor  of  Presque  Isle,  which  is 
regarded  as  the  finest  spot  in  Nature,  has  determined  me  to  send  a  royal 
assistant  pilot  to  search  around  the  Niagara  rapids  for  some  place  where  a 
bark  could  remain  to  take  in  its  load.  Nothing  would  be  of  greater  advan- 
tage in  the  saving  of  transport,  and  the  security  of  the  property  of  the  new 
posts  and  of  Detroit ;  but  it  is  necessary  to  find  a  good  bottom,  so  that  the 
anchors  may  hold ;  for  it  could  safely  winter  at  Presque  Isle,  where  it  would 
be  as  it  were  in  a  box.  I  impatiently  await  the  return  of  this  pilot,  and  I 
would  be  much  flattered  could  I  be  able  to  announce  to  you  in  my  latest 
dispatches,  that  I  have  ordered  the  construction  of  this  vessel. 

"  I  must  not  leave  you  ignorant,  my  Lord,  how  much  I  am  pleased  with 
Sieur  Marin,  the  commander  of  the  detachmentj  and  Major  P^an.  The 
former,  who  has  an  experienced  capacity,  manages  the  Indians  as  he  pleases ; 
and  he  has,  at  his  age,  the  same  zeal  and  activity  as  any  young  officer  that  may 
enter  the  service.  The  second  is  endowed  with  all  the  talent  imaginable 
for  detail  and  resources,  and  knows  no  other  occupation  than  that  of  accom- 
plishing the  object  he  is  intrusted  with.  He  alone  had  charge  of  dispatch- 
ing all  the  canoes  and  batteaux,  and  acquitted  himself  of  that  duty  with 
great  order.  Chevalier  Le  Mercier,  to  whom  I  assigned  the  duties  of  engi- 
neer, and  who  is  also  intrusted  with  the  distribution  of  the  provisions,  is  an 
officer  possessing  the  rarest  talent.     Sieur  Marin  expresses  himself  to  me  in 


the  highest  terms  of  all  those  who  are  under  his  orders,  and  who  vie  with 
each  other  in  diligence. 

"  I  am,  with  the  most  profound  respect,  my  Lord, 

"  Your  most  humble  and  most  obedient  servant, 

"DU    QUESNE." 

This  Portage  road  was  cut  by  the  French  from  Lake  Erie  to  Chautauqua 
lake  more  than  twenty  years  before  the  battle  of  Lexington,  and  was  the 
first  work  performed  by  civilized  hands  within  the  limits  of  Chautauqua 
county,  of  which  we  are  informed.  It  was  known  by  the  early  settlers  of  the 
county,  as  the  Old  Portage  or  French  road,  and  was  one  of  the  first  highways 
of  the  county  over  which,  in  early  days,  much  merchandise,  including  large 
amounts  of  salt  from  Onondaga  county,  were  annually  transported  to 
Pittsburgh,  and  places  on  the  river  below. 

The  Portage  road  commenced  on  the  west  bank  of  Chautauqua  creek,  a 
little  distance  from  its  mouth,  in  the  town  of  Westfield.  Thence  it  passed 
up,  on  the  west  side  of  the  creek,  crossing  the  present  Erie  road  at  the  Old 
McHeniy  tavern,  where  the  historical  monument  stands,  to  a  point  above  the 
woolen  factory,  about  a  mile  from  Westfield.  Here  the  road  crossed  the 
creek ;  still  further  on  it  crossed  the  present  road  leadin^from  Mayville  to 
Westfield,  and  continued  most  of  the  distance  fey  the  remainder  of  the  way, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  present  road,  and  terminated  at  the  foot  of  Main 
street  in  Mayville.  The  original  track  and  remains  of  the  old  log  bridges 
were  plainly  to  be  seen  as  late  as  the  year  1817  ;  and  even  traces  of  this 
road  remain  to  this  day.  Judge  William  Peacock,  of  Mayville,  passed  over 
this  Portage  road  as  early  as  July,  1800.  He  followed  it  from  the  mouth  of 
Chautauqua  creek,  three  miles  up  its  west  bank,  and  thence  over  the  hills  to 
Chautauqua  lake.  The  road  then  had  the  appearance  of  having  been  used 
in  former  times.  The  underbrush  had  been  cut  out ;  and  where  this  road 
crossed  the  Chautauqua  creek,  about  three  miles  from  its  mouth,  the  banks 
upon  each  side  had  been  dug  away,  to  admit  a  passage  across  the  stream. 
Towards  Mayville,  and  near  the  summit  of  the  hills,  at  a  low  wet  place,  a 
causeway  had  been  constructed  of  logs.  Over  this  point  the  present  high- 
way from  Mayville  to  Westfield  now  passes.  At  the  foot  of  Main  street  in 
Mayville,  where  the  Portage  terminated,  was  a  circular  piece  of  mason  work 
of  stone  laid  in  sand  and  mortar,  three  or  four  feet  high,  and  three  or  four 
feet  in  diameter.  It  was  constructed,  as  Judge  Peacock  conjectured,  for  the 
purpose  of  cooking  food.  A  piece  of  mason  work,  precisely  like  this  in 
every  respect,  he  saw  standing  at  the  other  end  of  the  Portage,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Chautauqua  creek,  opposite  Barcelona.  This  mason  work  was  seen 
as  late  as  1802  by  William  Bell,  who,  for  over  seventy  years,  resided  in 

The  operations  of  the  French  in  the  West,  during  the  spring  and  summer 
of  1753,  were  watched  with  interest  and  indignation  by  the  English.  Capt. 
Stodart  wrote  a  letter  to  Col.  William  Johnson  on  the  15th  of  May,  1753,  firom 

*  See  the  Extract  from  Sir  William  Johnson's  Journal,  fast. 

•  THE  FRENCH   WAR.  45 

Oswego,  informing  him  that  over  thirty  French  canoes,  carrying  a  part  of  the 
French  army,  had  passed  them  the  day  before  for  the  Ohio  ;  also  that  he  was 
informed  by  a  Frenchman,  who  was  on  his  way  to  Cajocka  [probably  Chau- 
tauqua], that  the  French  under  Marin  were  about"  to  build  forts  at  places 
convenient  for  them;  "that  one  fort  was  to  be  built  at  Ka-sa-no-tia-yo-go " 
[a  carrying  place],  and  another  at  Diontarogo.*  A  copy  of  this  letter  was 
forwarded  by  Col.  Johnson  to  Governor  Clinton. 

Washington's  Journey  to  French  Creek.* 

When  information  reached  Governor  Dinwiddie,  of  Virginia,  of  these 
proceedings  by  the  French,  he  determined  to  ascertain  their  purpose,  and  to 
induce  them  to  abandon  their  claim  upon  the  valley  of  the  Ohio.  He  ac- 
cordingly dispatched  George  Washington,  then  but  twenty-two  years  of  age, 
who  set  out  from  Williamsburgh,  in  Virginia,  on  the  30th  day  of  October, 
1753,  and  arrived  at  the  place  where  Pittsburgh  now  stands,  about  three 
weeks  afterwards.  He  then  proceeded  to  Venango,  where  he  arrived  on  the 
4th  of  December,  and  had  an  interview  with  the  celebrated  Capt.  Joncaire, 
but  obtained  no  satisfaction.  From  Venango  he  pushed  on  up  the  French 
creek,  to  the  post  the  French  had  established  at  Le  Boeuf,  now  Waterford, 
where  he  arrived  the  nth  of  December,  1753.  The  fort  he  found  situated 
on  the  island  on  the  west  fork  of  French  creek.  It  consisted  of  four  houses, 
forming  a  square,  defended  by  bastions  made  of  palisades  twelve  feet  high, 
pierced  for  cannon  and  small  arms.  Within  the  bastions  were  a  guard-house 
and  other  buildings.  Outside  were  stables,  a  smith  forge,  and  a  log  house 
for  soldiers.  Washington  found  that  the  French  were  preparing  at  this  place 
many  pine  boats  and  bark  canoes  to  be  ready  in  the  spring,  to  descend  and 
destroy  the  English  posts  on  the  Ohio  river.  Here  Washington,  over  one 
hundred  and  twenty  years  ago,  spent  five  anxious  days,  within  but  fourteen 
miles  from  the  town  of  French  Creek,  in  Chautauqua  county,  negotiating 
with  the  French  commandant,  St.  Pierre.  Having  finished  his  business  with 
the  French,  Washington  set  out  on  the  i6th  of  December  to  return.  His 
long  journey  through  the  wilderness  was  beset  by  many  difficulties  and  dan- 
gers. French  creek  and  the  Allegany  river  were  swollen  and  full  of  floating 
ice  ;  the  snows  were  deep,  and  the  cold  intense.  He  arrived  at  Williams- 
burgh, January  i6th,  1754;  having  performed  a  toilsome  and  perilous  jour- 
ney of  eight  hundred  miles,  in  two  and  one  half  months. 

The  French  War. 

Immediately  after  Washington's  return,  the  Ohio  Company  sent  Captain 
Trent  and  a  small  body  of  men,  to  the  junction  of  the  Allegany  with  the 
Monongahela,  where  Pittsburgh  is  now  situated.  He  arrived  there  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1754,  and  commenced  laying  the  foundations  of  a  fort,  which  was 
completed  prior  to  April  17th,  1754.  This  was  the  first  occupation  of  the 
territory  where  Pittsburgh  now  stands.     Against  this  post  the  French  imme- 

*7  Doc.  relating  to  the  Col.  Hist,  of  N.  Y.,  779. 


diately  dispatched  a  formidable  expedition,  which  was  in  fact  the  first  war- 
like demonstration  made  in  the  French  war.  Monsieur  Contrecoeur,  then 
the  commander  in  chief  of  the  French  on  the  Beautiful  River,  at  the  head  of 
i,ooo  French  and  Indians,  with  18  pieces  of  cannon,  in  60  batteaux  and 
200  canoes,  descended  the  Allegany,  and  arrived  at  Pittsburgh  on  the  16th 
of  April,  1754,  and  summoned  the  English  commandant  Ward  to  surrender. 
He  having  but  forty  men  to  defend  his  unfinished  stockade,  was  obliged  to 
comply  with  the  demand.*  This  affair  is  memorable,  from  the  fact  that  it 
was  the  first  blow  struck  in  the  great  wars  that  followed  in  Europe  and 

The  Portage  road  from  Barcelona  to  Mayville,  it  has  been  seen,  was  cut 
late  in  the  preceding  fall,  with  a  distinct  view  to  its  future  use.  This  expe- 
dition was  the  first  movement  made  by  the  French  in  the  spring  following ; 
and  it  is  probable,  as  but  few  French  remained  at  Le  Boeuf  and  Presque 
Isle  during  the  winter,  that  a  large  part  of  this  force  had  to  be  drawn  that 
season  from  Canada ;  and  that  a  portion  of  it  may  have  passed  over  Chau- 
tauqua lake.  This  portage  may  have  been  used  by  the  French  and  Indians 
in  other  warlike  expeditions.  Pouchot,  the  officer  who  commanded  the 
French  at  Fort  Niagara  when  it  surrendered  to  Sir  William  Johnson,  wrote  a 
history  of  the  French  and  Indian  war  in  North  America,  in  which  he  says  : 
"  The  river  of  Chatacoin  is  the  first  that  communicates  from  Lake  Erie  to 
the  Ohio  ;  and  it  was  by  this  that  they  [the  FrencK\  went  in  early  times  when 
they  made  a  journey  to  that  part.  The  navigation  is  always  made  in  a  canoe, 
on  account  of  the  small  amount  of  water  in  this  river.  It  is  only,  in  fact, 
when  there  is  a  freshet,  that  they  can  pass,  and  then  with  difficulty,  which 
makes  them  prefer  the  navigation  of  the  river  Aux  Boeuf,  of  which  the 
entrepot  is  the  fort  of  Presque  Isle."+ 

Sir  William  Johnson,  in  1761,  journeyed  to  Detroit  by  the  command  of 
Gen.  Amherst,  to  establish  a  treaty  with  the  Ottawa  confederacy,  to  regulate 
the  trade  at  the  several  posts  in  the  Indian  country.  On  his  return,  he 
coasted  along  the  south  shore  of  Lake  Erie.  In  his  journal  of  this  journey 
is  the  following  reference  to  this  portage,  with  other  interesting  particulars  : 

"Wednesday,  October  ist  [1761],  embarked  [at  Presque  Isle],  at  7  o'clock, 
with  the  wind  strong  ahead — continued  so  all  the  day,  notwithstanding  it 
improved  all  day,  and  got  to  Jadaghque  creek  and  carryifig  place,  which  is  a 
fine  harbor  and  encampment  It  is  very  dangerous  from  Presque  Isle  here, 
being  a  prodigious  steep,  rocky  bank  all  the  way,  except  two  or  three  creeks 
and  small  beaches,  where  are  very  beautiful  streams  of  water  or  springs  which 
tumble  down  the  rocks.  We  came  about  forty  miles  this  day.  The  fire  was 
burning  where  Captain  Cochran  [the  officer  who  commanded  at  Presoue  Isle] 
I  suppose  encamped  last  night.  Here  the  French  had  a  baking  place,  and  here 
they  had  meetings,  and  assembled  the  Indians  when  first  going  to  Ohio,  and 

•Craig's  Hist,  of  Pittsburgh,  23.  6  Col.  Doc.  Hist,  of  New  York,  840.  2  Doc.  Hist, 
of  New  York. 

t  Pouchot  French  and  English  Wars  in  North  America,  Vol.  II.,  160  (Hough's  trans- 


bought  this  place  of  them.     Toonadawanusky,  the  river  we  stopped  yesterday 
at,  is  so  called. 

"  Friday,  2d.  A  very  stormy  morning,  wind  not  fair ;  however,  sent  off  my 
two  baggage  boats,  and  ordered  them  to  stop  about  thirty  miles  off  in  a  river 
[probably  Cattaraugus  creek].  The  Seneca  Indian  tells  me  we  may  get  this 
day  to  the  end  of  the  lake.  I  embarked  at  eight  o'clock  with  all  the  rest, 
and  got  about  thirty  miles,  when  a  very  great  storm  of  wind  and  rain  arose, 
and  obliged  us  to  put  into  a  little  creek  [probably  Eighteen  Mile  creek], 
between  the  high  rocky  banks.  The  wind  turned  north-west,  and  it  rained 
very  hard.  We  passed  the  Mohawks  in  a  bay  about  four  miles  from  here. 
Some  of  our  boats  are  put  into  other  places  as  well  as  they  can.  My  bedding 
is  on  board  the  birch  canoe  of  mine,  with  the  Indian  somewhere  ahead. 
The  lake  turns  very  greatly  to  the  north-east,  and  looks  like  low  land.  From 
Presque  Isle  here  is  all  high  land,  except  a  very  few  spots  where  boats  may 
land.  In  the  evening,  sent  Oneida  to  the  Mohawk  encampment,  to  learn 
what  news  here."* 

Although  the  French  may  have  very  early  used  this  route  by  Chautauqua 
lake  to  some  extent,  when  passing  from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Allegany  and  Ohio, 
it  is  clear  that  the  route  by  Presque  Isle  and  French  creek  was  finally 
adopted  and  principally  used  by  them.  The  French  were  masters  in  wood 
craft,  and  wonderfully  familiar  with  the  geography  of  this  remote  wilderness  : 
yet  it  is  not  strange  that  they  should  be  in  doubt  as  to  which  was  the  better 
route,  for  it  would  be  difficult  for  us,  even  at  this  day,  familiar  as  we  are  with 
the  premises,  to  determine  which  would  have  been  the  better  communication 
for  them. 

In  1754,  and  soon  after  the  fall  of  Pittsburgh,  Washington  being  in  com- 
mand of  a  force  of  English  colonists,  fought  with  the  French,  in  the  forests 
of  Pennsylvania,  his  two  first  battles ;  in  one  of  which  he  defeated  Mon- 
sieur Jummonville,  and  in  the  other  [the  battle  of  Fort  Necessity],  the  French 
having  been  reinforced  from  Canada,  he  himself  was  defeated.  July  9th, 
175s,  Braddock's  large  and  well  disciplined  army  was  defeated  by  a  small 
force  of  Indians  and  a  little  band  of  gallant  Frenchmen,  who  had  the  year 
before  passed  along  this  county.  The  train  of  artillery  taken  from  Braddock 
was  transported  back,  and  used  in  August  of  the  succeeding  year,  by  Mont- 
calm, in  the  siege  of  Oswego.  Fort  Du  Quesne  was  taken  from  the  French 
on  the  25th  of  November,  1758,  by  an  army  of  about  6,000  men  under 
Gen.  Forbes ;  the  French  in  possession  there,  upon  their  approach,  having 
fled,  some  up  the  Allegany  and  some  down  the  Ohio.  The  English  under 
Prideaux,  in  July  of  the  succeeding  year,  invested  Fort  Niagara.  Prideaux 
having  been  killed,  the  siege  was  continued  by  the  English  under  Sir  William 
JohnsQjf.  The  Indians  from  the  West,  and  from  along  the  Allegany,  were 
collected  together  by  the  French.  They,  with  French  soldiers  from  the 
posts  of  Venango  and  Presque  Isle,  formed  a  large  force.  This  army  was 
conducted  along  Lake  Erie  to  its  oudet,  led  by  D'Aubry,  a  French  officer, 
for  the  purpose  of  reinforcing  Niagara.     They  were  met  by  the  English  in 

*  Stone's  Life  and  Times  of  Sir  William  Johnson. 


the  town  of  Lewiston,  in  this  state,  on  the  24th  of  July,  1759,  where  a 
bloodj'  battle  was  fought,  and  the  French  and  Indians  defeated,  and  500  of 
their  number  slain.  Niagara  immediately  after  surrendered  to  the  English. 
Gen.  Charles  Lee,  who  became  afterwards  one  of  the  most  distinguished 
officers  of  the  American  Revolution,  was  present  at  the  siege  of  Niagara, 
and  after  its  surrender  passed  by  Chautauqua  county,  on  a  military  errand 
do^vn  the  Allegany,  to  Fort  Du  Quesne.*  Quebec  having  been  taken  by 
the  English  ^nder  Wolf,  the  French,  in  November,  1760,  surrendered  all 
their  posts  in  this  part  of  the  continent  to  the  crown  of  England ;  and  the 
French,  who  had  for  so  many  years  known  these  western  regions,  thereafter 
ceased  to  be  seen  in  company  with  their  red  allies  along  the  borders  of 
this  county. 

The  first  military  expedition  of  the  English  over  Lake  Erie,  was  made 
immediately  after  the  surrender,  by  the  French,  of  their  possessions  in  Amer- 
ica. It  was  dispatched  to  take  possession  of  Detroit,  Michillimackinack, 
and  other  French  posts  that  had  been  surrendered.  Major  Rogers,  long 
celebrated  for  his  skill  in  border  war,  led  the  expedition.  He  embarked  in 
November,  1760,  at  the  foot  of  Lake  Erie,  with  200  rangers  in  fifteen  whale 
boats,  and  coasted  along  the  southern  shore  of  the  lake.  On  arriving  at  Erie 
Rogers  set  out  for  Pittsburgh.  He  descended  French  creek  and  the  Allegany 
river  in  a  canoe.  Having  obtained  reinforcements,  he  proceeded  on  his  way 
to  Detroit,  which  was  surrendered  to  him  immediately  on  his  arrival.t 

PoNTiAc's  War. 
The  English  having  become  possessed  of  the  chain  of  forts  extending 
from  Lake  Erie  to  the  Monongahela,  now  occupied  them  as  outposts.  They 
had,  howeyer,  never  purchased  the  lands  upon  which  they  stood  of  the  Indi- 
ans. Pontiac,  an  Ottawa  chief  of  great  abilities,  resolved  to  rescue  them 
and  all  the  forts  in  the  West,  from  English  possession.  He  effected  a  union 
of  the  Western  tribes  for  that  purpose.  The  posts  were  all  to  be  attacked  in 
a  single  day,  their  garrisons  massacred,  and  also  all  the  people  of  the  bor- 
der settlements.  So  well  planned  was  the  attack,  that  nine  English  posts  in 
the  West  were  surprised  and  captured  in  a  single  day,  in  the  month  of  May, 
1763.  Most  of  the  officers  and  men  of  these  garrisons  were  tomahawked 
and  scalped.  Among  the  posts  taken  were  Presque  Isle,  Le  Boeuf,  and 
Venango.  Various  accounts  have  been  given  of  the  capture  of  Presque  Isle  ; 
one,  that  it  was  taken  through  an  ingenious  stratagem  of  the  Indians  ;  and 
another,  that  it  was  taken  after  a  vigorous  assault  and  firm  defense.  Nearly 
all  the  accounts  agree  that  the  garrison  was  destroyed.  A  few  onl^of  the 
garrison  at  Le  Boeuf  escaped,  through  an  underground  passage  h^ng  its 
outlet  in  the  swamp  adjoining  Le  Boeuf  lake.  Only  one,  it  is  said,  of  those 
who   escaped  survived  to  reach  a  civilized   settlement.  J      The  scattered 

*  Irving's  Washington,  377,  378. 

t  See  Pontiac,  or  the  Siege  of  Detroit ;  also  Rogers'  Journal. 

JPenn.  Hist.  Coll. 


settlers  in  Western  Pennsylvania  were  either  murdered  or  obliged  to  flee 
to  the  nearest  forts.  Pontiac,  with  great  energy,  led  the  attack  upon  Detroit 
in  person,  and  for  more  than  a  year  it  was  besieged,  during  which  time 
the  garrison  greatly  suffered. 

During  the  siege  of  Detroit,  the  Indians  prosecuted  the  war  at  other 
points.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the  Seneca  Indians  cooperated  with  Pontiac. 
They,  on  the  14th  of  September,  1763,  attacked  a  party  of  over  fifty  Eng- 
lish soldiers  at  Devil's  Hole,  near  Niagara  Falls,  and  all  were  killed,  except- 
ing two  or  three.  They  also,  on  the  19th  of  October  of  the  same  year, 
somewhere  near  the  foot  of  Lake  Erie,  attacked  160  English  soldiers  under 
Major  Wilkins,  on  their  way  to  relieve  Detroit,  who  were  there  in  their 
boats.  A  battle  ensued,  in  which  nearly  thirty  English  were  killed  and 
wounded.  Other  calamities  befel  Major  Wilkins.  A  storm  overtook  him 
on  Lake  Erie ;  his  boats  were  wrecked ;  his  ammunition  was  lost ;  and 
seventy  of  his  men  perished. 

On  the  loth  of  August,  1764,  Gen.  Bradstreet,  at  the  head  of  3,000  men, 
departed  from  Fort  Erie  for  Detroit.  He  passed  along  the  southern  shore 
of  Lake  Erie.  At  Sandusky  and  along  the  Maumee  he  burned  the  Indian 
cornfields  and  villages  ;  and  when  he  arrived  at  Detroit,  raised  the  siege,  and 
compelled  the  Indians  to  lay  down  their  arms.  Israel  Putnam  accompanied 
Bradstreet  as  colonel  of  a  Connecticut  regiment,  and  passed  with  him  along 
the  shore  of  this  county.  On  the  i8th  of  October,  Gen.  Bradstreet,  with 
1,100  men  and  several  cannon,  set  out  for  Fort  Niagara.  No  detailed 
account  of  his  return  march  has  been  preserved.  A  portion  of  his  batteaux 
are  supposed  to  have  been  wrecked  west  of  Cleveland.  Muskets,  swords, 
wrecks  of  boats  and  oth^  relics  have  been  found  for  several  miles  along  the 
coast ;  a  mound  also,  filled  with  human  skeletons,  supposed  to  have  been  of 
his  party.  As  there  remained  an  insufficient  number  of  boats  to  carry  his 
men,  the  volunteers  are  said  to  have  marched  by  land  along  the  south  shore 
of  the  lake,  passing  Chautauqua  county,  sustaining  themselves  on  their  way 
by  hunting.  They  did  not  arrive  at  Fort  Niagara  until  winter,  and  came 
very  near  perishing  by  hunger  on  the  way.* 

Pontiac's  war  was  the  last  great  attempt  made  by  the  Indians  to  redeem 
this  country  from  the  dominion  of  the  white  man ;  and  at  its  close,  compara- 
tive peace  for  many  years  prevailed ;  and  no  event  of  importance  occurred 
in  these  regions  until  the  Revolutionary  war. 

In  liovember,  1768,  a  boundary  line  was  established  between  the  whites 
and  Indians,  at  a  treaty  held  at  Fort  Stanwix,  on  the  Mohawk  river.  This 
line  ascen(|ed  the  Ohio  and  Allegany  rivers  to  Kittanning ;  it  then  extended 
in  an  easterly  direction  to  the  Susquehanna ;  thence  northerly  to  Lake 
Ontario.  North-'«iesterly  of  this  line  were  the  lands  of  the  Indians,  which 
included  Chautauqua  county.  South-east  of  this  line  was  the  territory  of  the 
whites.      Chautauqua  lake  was  delineated  upon  the  map  executed  at  the 

*  Am.  Hist.  Record,  Vol.  III.,  p.  155.     Whittlesey's  Hist.  Account  of  Ohio,  p.  zo. 


time  of  this  treaty.  Its  outlet  into  the  Allegany  river  was  spelled  "  Cana- 
wagan;"  and  one  of  the  streams  from  our  county  emptying  into  Lake  Erie 
was  spelled  "Jadahque."* 

Col.  Broadhead's  Expedition. 

At  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolution,  the  limits  of  settlement  and  civili- 
zation had  extended  somewhat  nearer  to  Chautauqua  county ;  but  no  event 
of  great  importance  affecting  these  regions  transpired  until  near  the  close  of 
the  war.  Long  prior  to  1779,  the  hostile  Indians  and  tories  had  desolated 
the  frontier  settlements  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania;  to  punish  them, 
Washington  planned  two  expeditions.  One  was  to  march  by  the  north 
branch  of  the  Susquehanna,  against  the  Indian  villages  of  the  Six  Nations  in 
New  York ;  the  other  was,  at  the  same  time,  to  proceed  up  the  Allegany, 
under  the  command  of  Col.  Daniel  Broadhead,  a  gallant  and  enterprising 
officer,  who  then  commanded  at  Pittsburgh,  and  to  destroy  the  villages  of  the 
Seneca  and  Munsey  Indians,  who  dwelt  along  that  river  and  its  tributaries, 
and  afterwards  to  unite  with  the  army  of  Gen.  Sullivan  in  a  combined  attack 
upon  Fort  Niagara.  On  account  of  the  difficulty  of  providing  Col.  Broad- 
head  with  supplies  in  time,  and  the  want  of  satisfactory  information  concern- 
ing the  country  along  the  Allegany,  the  idea  of  the  two  expeditions  cooper- 
rating  with  each  other  was  abandoned  by  Gen.  Washington-^  Col.  Broadhead, 
however,  on  the  nth  of  August,  1779,  at  the  head  of  605  militia  and 
volunteers,  and  with  one  month's  provisions,  set  out  from  Pittsburgh,  and 
advanced  up  the  Allegany  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Mahoning.  Here  then- 
provisions  were  transferred  from  the  boats  to  pack-horses ;  and  the  army 
proceeded  on  to  Brad/s  Bend,  in  Clarion  count)j,  Pennsylvania.  Here  an 
advanced  party  of  Col.  Broadhead's  force,  consisting  of  fifteen  white  men 
and  eight  Delaware  Indians,  under  the  command  of  Lieut.  Harding,  fell  in 
with  thirty  or  forty  Indian  warriors  coming  down  the  river  in  seven  canoes. 
The  Indians  landed  and  stripped  off  their  shirts ;  a  sharp  contest  ensued ; 
the  Indians  were  defeated,  and  five  of  their  number  were  killed  and  several 
wounded;  and  all  their  canoes  and  contents  fell  into  the  hands  of  Col. 
Broadhead.  Lieut.  Harding  had  three  men  wounded,  including  one  of  the 
Delaware  Indians. 

Capt  Samuel  Brady,  who  was  in  this  encounter,  and  whose  name  has 
been  given  to  this  locaUty,  was  bom  at  Shippensburgh,  Penn.,  1758.  He 
was  at  the  siege  of  Boston,  and  a  lieutenant  at  the  massacre  of  Paoli. 
Having  lost  both  his  father  and  brother  by  the  hands  of  Indians,  he  took  an 
oath  of  vengeance  against  the  race.  Having  been  ordered  to  FjKt  Pitt  with 
the  rest  of  his  regiment  under  General  Broadhead,  it  gave  him  an  oppor- 
timity  to  fulfill  his  vow.  He  was  generally  placed  in  cofimand  of  scouting 
parties  sent  into  the  Indian  country  from  Fort  Pitt ;  and  being  an  athletic, 
active  and  courageous  man,  familiar  with  the  woods  and  Indian  warfare,  he 

*Doc.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  pp.  587-91. 

t  Letter  from  Washington  to  Col.  Broadhead,  April  21,  1779. 


became  the  hero  of  many  bold  exploits  in  the  north-east  part  of  the  valley 
of  the  Ohio,  and  a  serious  trouble  to  his  Indian  foes  in  those  parts.  An 
account  of  his  daring  adventures  and  hair-breadth  escapes  would  fill  a  book. 
They  gave  his  name  permanently  to  many  localities  in  Western  Pennsylvania  . 
and  Ohio.  Jonathan  Zane  was  also  in  this  engagement,  and  was  wounded. 
He  was  a  celebrated  scout  and  great  hunter,  and  piloted  many  expeditions 
against  the  Indians.* 

Colonel  Broadhead's  command  continued  to  march  up  the  river,  as  far  as 
the  Indian  village  of  Buckaloons,  on  the  flats  near  Irvineton,  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Broken  Straw,  in  Warren  county.  The  Indians  were  driven  from  their 
village,  and  retreated  to  the  hills  in  the  rear.  The  town  was  destroyed,  and 
a  breastwork  of  trees  thrown  up.f  A  garrison  of  forty  men  was  left  to 
guard  the  provisions ;  and  the  remainder  of  the  force  proceeded  to  the 
Indian  town  of  Conawago,  which  was  found  to  have  been  deserted  eighteen 
months  before.  Conawago  was  burnt,  and  the  troops  marched  still  further 
up  the  river,  past  Kinjua  to  Yohroonwago,  a  place  about  four  miles  below 
the  southern  boundary  of  the  state  of  New  York.  Here  they  found  a  painted 
image,  or  war  post,  clothed  in  dog  skin.  The  troops  remained  there  three 
days,  burning  this  and  other  towns  in  the  vicinity  and  destroying  the  exten- 
sive cornfields  that  they  found  there.  Col.  Broadhead  believed,  from  the 
great  quantity  of  corn  found,  and  from  the  number  of  new  houses  which 
were  built,  and  being  built  of  square  and  round  logs  and  of  framed  timbers, 
that  the  whole  Seneca  and  Munsey  nations  intended  to  collect  there.  Yoh- 
roonwago was  situated  where,  some  years  afterwards,  Complanter  made 
his  residence,  and  where  an  Indian  village  grew  up,  called  De-o-no-sa-da-ga, 
meaning,  in  English,  burned  houses.  According  to  Mrs.  Jemison,  Colonel 
Broadhead's  troops  ascended  the  Allegany  as  far  as  Olean  Point,  and  burnt 
other  Indian  towns  on  French  creek,  including  Maghinquechahocking,  a 
village  of  thirty-five  large  houses.  Col.  Broadhead  arrived  at  Fort  Pitt,  on 
his  return,  September  14th,  1779;  having  burned  ten  Indian  villages,  con- 
taining one  hundred  and  sixty-five  houses,  having  destroyed  more  than  five 
hundred  acres  of  Indian  corn,  and  taken  three  thousand  dollar^  worth  of  furs 
and  other  plunder,  and  having  himself  lost  neither  man  nor  beast.  J 

British  and  Indian  Expedition  over  Chautauqua  Lake  in  1782. 

The  expedition  of  Sullivan  and  Broadhead,  and  the  destruction  of  the  In- 
dian towns  and  cornfields,  had  the  effect  to  throw  the  Indians  upon  the 

*  Butterfiaki's  Hist,  of  Crawford's  Expedition,  128,  129. 

t  Sometime  afterwards,  Major  Morrison,  who  became  a  distinguished  citizen  of  Lexing- 
ton, Ky.,  returned  to  the  mouth  of  the  Broken  Straw  to  reconnoiter,  and  narrowly  escaped 
with  his  life.  He  had  stooped  to  drink  from  the  creek,  when  a  rifle  ball  from  an  Indian's 
gun  splashed  the  water  into  his  face. — Pa.  Hist.  Collection,  653.  The  remains  of  this 
stockade  were  very  plainly  to  be  seen  a  few  years  ago.  They  were  situate  about  half  a  mile 
above  the  crossing  of  the  Broken  Straw,  on  the  road  to  Warren,  on  a  high  bluff  on  the  Alle- 
gany river,  and  commanded  an  extensive  view  up  and  down  the  river. — Dr.  Wm.  A.  Irvine. 

J  Broadhead's  Rep.  to  T.  Pickering,  Sept.  16,  1799. 


hands  of  their  British  employes  for  support.  During  the  succeeding  winter, 
want  and  disease  followed,  and  swept  many  of  them  away;  yet  it  did  not 
put  a  stop  to  their  inroads.  Exasperated  by  their  misfortunes,  maurauding 
.  parties  of  Indians,  led  by  Brant  and  Cornplanter*  and  other  chiefs,  supported 
by  their  allies,  the  tories,  during  the  remainder  of  the  war,  visited  the  front- 
ier settlements  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  from  the  Mohawk  to  the 
Wyoming  Valley ;  burning  the  houses  of  the  settlers,  killing  many,  and  car- 
rying  others  into  captivity.      Fort    Niagara  had  usually  been   the  winter 

*  Gy-ant-wa-chia,  the  Cornplanter,  who  exercised  his  rude  authority  in  these  regions, 
was  a  celebrated  Seneca  warrior  and  chieftain,  and  the  rival  of  the  Indian  orator  Red 
Jacket.  His  sagacity,  eloquence  and  courage,  for  a  long  time  justly  gave  him  great  influ- 
ence with  his  tribe.  He  was  born  about  the  year  1732,  at  Conawaugus,  on  the  Genesee 
river.  His  father  was  a  white  man  named  John  O'Bail,  or  Abeel ;  his  mother  was  a 
Seneca  woman.  Ga-ne-odi-yo,  or  Handsome  Lake,  the  Prophet,  and  Ta-wan-ne-ars,  or 
Blacksnake,  were  his  half-brothers.  When  about  twenty-three  years  of  age,  he  first 
appeared  as  a  warrior  with  the  army  of  French  and  Indians  whicli  defeated  Braddock  in 
1755  ;  and  he  probably  afterwards  participated  in  the  principal  Indian  engagements  during 
the  Revolution,  fighting  against  the  colonies.  He  is  said  to  have  been  present  at  Wyoming 
and  Cherry  Valley,  and  was  with  Brant  at  the  head  of  his  tribe  in  opposing  Sullivan's 
expedition.  He  also  afterwards  led  the  Senecas  in  the  invasion  of  the  Mohawk  Valley, 
when,  it  is  said,  he  made  his  father,  John  O'Bail,  a  prisoner,  and  after  marching  him 
several  miles  with  the  usual  Indian  stoicism,  without  disclosing  himself,  he  abruptly,  and 
in  the  sententious  manner  of  the  Indian,  announced  his  relationship,  and  gave  O'Bail  his 
choice,  to  live  with  him  and  his  red  followers,  where  he  would  support  him  at  ease  in  his 
old  age,  or  to  return  to  his  home  on  the  Mohawk.  He  chose  the  latter,  and  Cornplanter 
sent  his  young  men  who  conducted  him  Ifeck  in  safety.  Cornplanter  was  an  able  man, 
and  also  honest  and  truthful ;  he  acted  a  most  conspicuous  part  in  the  treaties  and  transac- 
tions between  the  Indians  and  the  United  States,  subsequent  to  the  Revolutionary  war, 
and  he  saw,  at  its  close,  that  the  true  policy  of  the  Indian  was  to  recognize  the  growing 
power  of  the  United  States,  and  bury  the  hatchet.  He  advised  his  tribe  to  this  course, 
in  opposition  to  the  counsels  of  Brant  and  Red  Jacket,  and  during  the  Indian  wars  that 
followed,  he  remained  the  true  and  steadfast  friend  of  the  United  States.  In  the  last  war 
with  England,  when  about  eighty-four  years  old,  accompanied  by  200  warriors  of  his 
nation,  he  called  upon  Col.  Samuel  Drake,  at  Franklin,  and  offered  his  services  to  the 
United  States,  which  were  declined  for  the  want  of  authority  to  muster  Indians  into  the 
service.  A  considerable  number  of  his  tribe,  however,  led  by  his  son  Henry  Abeel,  who 
held  a  commission  as  major,  acted  during  the  war  as  scouts,  and  did  good  service  to  the 
United  States.  Cornplanter,  in  his  life-time,  often  visited  Chautauqua  county  ;  and  years 
before  its  settlement  by  the  first  white  man,  he  thoroughly  understood  the  geography  of  its 
lakes  and  streams.  After  the  Revolution  he  resided  principally  at  Jen-nes-a-da-ga,  his 
viU^e,  on  the  Allegany  river,  in  Warren  county,  and,  for  the  remainder  of  his  life,  a 
period  of  fifty  years;  became  thoroughly  identified  with  this  region  of  country.  Corn- 
planter died  at  Jennesadaga,  aged  about  105  years.  A  monument  was  erected  in  1866, 
with  appropriate  ceremonies,  under  the  superintendence  of  Judge  SamueljpE  Johnson,  of 
Warren,  Pa.,  and  at  the  expense  of  the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  over  his  remains ;  upon 
which  the  following  inscriptions  were  lettered  :  "John  O'Bail,  alias  Cornplanter,  died  at 
Cornplanter  town,  February  18,  1836,  aged  about  100  years,  chief  of  the  Seneca  tribe,  and 
principal  chief  of  the  Six  Nations,  from  the  period  of  the  Revolutionary  war  to  the  time  of 
his  death.  Distinguished  for  talents,  courage,  eloquence,  sobriety  and  love  of  his  tribe  and 
race,  to  whose  welfare  he  devoted  his  time,  his  energies  and  his  means,  during  a  long  and 
eventful  life." 


quarters  of  Brant,  Guy  Johnson  and  the  Butlers  and  other  tories  who  had 
taken  refuge  in  Canada.  It  now  became  the  headquarters  of  the  Indians 
also,  who  had  been  driven  from  the  Genesee  and  Allegany,  and  the  point  at 
which  all  of  these  maurauding  parties  of  Indians  and  tories  were  accustomed 
to  assemble,  and  from  which  they  took  their  departure  upon  these  hostile 
incursions ;  and  to  which  they  returned,  laden  with  spoil  and  scalps,  and 
with  such  men,  women  and  children  as  they  had  made  prisoners,  compelling 
them  in  some  instances  to  run  the  gauntlet,  and  subjecting  them  to  other 

In  the  fall  of  1781,  Col.  Broadhead  was  superseded  in  the  command  at 
Pittsburgh  by  Col.  William  Irvine,  who  continued  to  be  the  commanding 
officer  there  until  the  close  of  the  Revolution. 

Col.  Irvine  demands  more  than  a  passing  notice.  He  was  born  in  Ireland. 
Having  studied  medicine  and  surgery,  he  received  the  appointment  of  surgeon 
of  a  British  ship  of  war.  During  his  service  in  the  French  and  Quebec  wars, 
having  acquired  a  knowledge  of  this  country,  he  resolved  to  remove  hither. 
After  the  close  of  the  war,  in  1764,  he  became  a  citizen  of  Carlisle,  Pennsyl- 
vania. At  the  breaking  out  of  the  Revolutionary  war,  he  was  appointed 
colonel  of  the  sixth  Pennsylvania  regiment,  and  soqji  after  was  made  a  pris- 
oner while  serving  with  the  American  forces  in  Canada,  and  was  not  exchanged 
until  about  two  years  afterwards.  In  1779,  he  was  commissioned  a  brigadier- 
general.  After  having  distinguished  himself  at  the  battle  of  Monmouth,  he 
was  appointed  commander  of  the  Western  Department,  with  his  headquarters 
at  Fort  Pitt.  He  continued  in  this  command  until  the  close  of  the  Revolu- 
tion ;  and  during  the  time  he  strengthened  and  repaired  Fort  Pitt,  and  placed 
this  exposed  frontier  in  a  state  of  defense ;  and,  by  his  vigilance  and  abihty, 
preserved  it,  in  a  great  measure,  from  the  ravages  of  the  Indians.  His  name 
is  inseparably  connected  with  all  the  important  military  events  occurring 
in  the  North-west.  After  his  appointment,  he  acquired  much  knowledge  of 
the  country  drained  by  the  Allegany  and  its  tributaries,  and  also  of  the  whole 
North-west.  He  stood  high  in  the  esteem  of  Gen.  Washington,  and  was 
greatly  respected  for  his  integrity,  ability,  and  his  faithful  performance  of  the 
public  trusts  confided  to  him.  After  the  Revolution,  he  held  many  positions 
of  importance  and  honor.  It  was  through  his  advice  and  influence  that  the 
state  of  Pennsylvania  acquired  dominion  of  the  tract  of  land  known  as  the 
Triangle,  which  gave  to  that  state  a  considerable  lake  coast,  including  the 
harbor  of  Erie.  The  legislature  of  that  state,  as  an  acknowledgment  of  the 
many  valuable  services  rendered  by  Gen.  Irvine,  presented  him  with  a  tract 
of  land  in  v|he  county  of  Warren,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Broken  Straw,  where 
Irvineton  is  now  situated,  and  where  his  esteemed  grandson,  Dr.  Wm.  A. 
Irvine,  now  resides.     Gen.  Irvine  died  in  Philadelphia  the  29th  of  July,  1804. 

There  is  reason  to  believe  that,  while  Gen.  Irvine  was  in  command  at 
Pittsburgh,  an  expedition  was  organized  at  Fort  Niagara  for  an  attack  on 
Fort  Pitt;  and  that,  in  1782,  a  large  party  of  British  and  Indians  proceeded 
so  far  as  to  actually  embark  in  canoes  upon  Chautauqua  lake,  where  the 


expedition  was  abandoned  on  account  of  the  supposed  strength  of  Fort  Pitt, 
and  was  resolved  into  small  war  parties,  one  of  which  burned  Hannastown. 
The  party  which  burned  this  place,  and  which  may  have  constituted  a  part 
of  the  force  assembled  around  Chautauqua  lake,  consisted  of  about  60  white 
refugees  and  300  Indians,  led  by  the  celebrated  Seneca  Chief  Guzasuttea, 
sometimes  called  Kiasola.*  Hannastown  was  situated  in  Westmoreland 
county,  in  Pennsylvania,  and  was  the  first  place  where  courts  were  held  west 
of  the  Allegany  mountains.  During  the  Revolutionary  war  it  was  an  impor- 
tant post  in  Western  Pennsylvania.  It  was  entirely  destroyed  by  this  party 
of  whites  and  Indians  in  July,  1782.  A  considerable  number  of  people 
residing  in  Hannastown  and  vicinity  were  either  killed  or  carried  prisoners 
to  Canada.  After  the  close  of  the  war  the  captives  were  delivered  up,  and 
they  returned  to  their  homes.t 

Washington's  Correspondence  with  Gen.  Irvine. 

Col.  Irvine  was  subsequently  promoted  to  the  rank  of  general ;  and  he 
afterwards,  in  the  course  of  a  correspondence  with  Gen.  Washington,  alludes 
to  this  expedition,  giving  many  other  interesting  particulars  respecting  Chau- 
tauqua county,  which  h^d  before  that  time  been  visited  by  him.  Commu- 
nication between  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio  river  had  been  a 
subject  of  inquiry  with  certain  distinguished  gentlemen ;  and  Gen.  Wash- 
ington, for  information  upon  that  subject,  addressed  a  letter  to  Gen.  Irvine, 
dated  January  10,  1788,  inquiring  of  him  : — i.  As  to  the  face  of  the  country 
between  the  sources  of  canoe  navigation  of  the  Cuyahoga,  which  empties 
itself  into  Lake  Erie,  and  the  Big  Beaver,  and  between  the  Cuyahoga  and  the 
Muskingum.  2.  As  to  the  distance  between  the  waters  of  the  Cuyahoga 
and  each  of  the  two  rivers  above  mentioned.  3.  Whether  it  would  be  prac- 
ticable, and  not  expensive,  to  cut  a  canal  between  the  Cuyahoga  and  either 
of  the  above  rivers,  so  as  to  open  a  communication  between  the  waters  of 
Lake  Erie  and  the  Ohio.  4.  Whether  there  is  any  more  direct,  practicable 
and  easy  communication  than  these  between  the  waters  of  Lake  Erie  and 
the  Ohio,  by  which  the  fur  and  peltry  of  the  upper  country  can  be  trans- 
ferred. J     In  answer  to  this  letter,  Gen.  Irvine  replied  as  follows : 

"New  York,  Jan.  27,  1788. 

"Sir:  I  have  been  honored  by  your  letter  of  the  nth  instant  I  need 
not  tell  you  how  much  pleasure  it  would  give  me  to  answer  your  queries  to 
your  satisfaction  ;  but  I  am  persuaded  that  no  observation  short  of  an  actual 
survey  will  enable  you  to  gratify  your  correspondents  abroad  (particularly  in 
relation  to  your  third  query),  with  such  accuracy  as  to  state  anything  posi- 
tively. I  will,  however,  relate  to  you  such  facts  as  have  comJUwithin  my 
own  knowledge,  as  well  as  accounts  of  persons  whom  I  think  are  to  be  con- 
fided in. 

"  From  a  place  called  Mahoning,  on  the  Big  Beaver,  to  the  head  of  the 
Falls  of  Cuyahoga,  it  is  about  thirty  miles.     Although  the  country  is  hilly, 

*  Craig's  Hist,  of  Pittsburgh.  +  Penn.  Hist.  Coll.,  title  Cumberland  Co.,  633. 

t  Sparks'  Washington's  Writings,  Vol.  IX.,  303. 


it  is  not  mountainous.  The  principal  elevation  is  called  Beech  Ridge,  which 
is  not  high,  though  extensive,  being  several  miles  over,  with  a  flat  and  moist 
country  on  the  summit,  and  some  places  inclining  to  b"e  marshy.  The  diffi- 
culty of  traveling  is  much  increased  by  the  beech  roots  with  which  the  tim- 
ber is  heavily  incumbered.  The  Cuyahoga  above  the  Great  Falls  is  rapid 
and  rocky,  and  is  interrupted  by  several  lesser  falls  on  the  branch  which 
heads  towards  that  part  of  the  Big  Beaver  called  the  Mahoning.  This  infor- 
mation I  had  from  an  intelligent  person  then  loading  a  sloop  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Cuyahoga  for  Detroit.  He  added,  that  an  old  Indian  assured  him 
that  it  was  only  fifteen  miles  across  from  the  Mahoning  to  a  navigable  creek 
a  few  miles  east  of  the  Cuyahoga ;  that  he  had  employed  the  Indian  to  clear 
a  road,  and  when  that  was  done  he  intended  to  explore  the  country  himself. 
I  presume  this  service  was  not  performed,  as  this  gentleman,  man  and  his 
horses,  were  all  destroyed,  and  his  store-house  burned,  by  the  Indians. 
Captain  Bady,  a  partisan  officer,  informed  me  that  the  sources  of  the  Big 
Beaver,  Muskingum,  and  a  large  deep  creek  which  empties  into  Lake  Erie, 
fifteen  or  twenty  miles  above  Cuyahoga,  are  within  a  few  miles  of  each  other 
(perhaps  four  or  five),  and  the  country  level.  Several  other  persons  of  cred- 
ibility and  information  have  assured  me  that  the  portage  between  Muskingum 
and  the  waters  falling  into  the  lake,  in  wet  seasons,  does  not  exceed  fifteen 
miles ;  some  say  two,  but  I  believe  the  first-named  distance  is  the  safest  to 

"  At  Mahoning,  and  for  many  miles  above  and  below,  I  found  the  course 
of  the  Big  Beaver  to  be  east  and  west,  from  which  I  conclude  this  stream  to 
be  nearest  to  the  main  branch  of  the  Cuyahoga ;  and  on  comparing  the 
several  accounts,  I  am  led  to  think  that  the  shortest  communication  between 
the  waters  of  Beaver,  Muskingum  and  Lake  Erie,  will  be  east  and  west  of 
Cuyahoga.  • 

"  I  have  also  been  informed  by  a  gentleman,  that  the  sources  of  Grand 
river,  and  a  branch  of  the  Beaver  called  Shenango,  are  not  twelve  miles 
apart,  the  country  hilly.  I  know  the  Shenango  to  be  a  beatable  stream  at 
its  confluence  with  the  Beaver,  twenty  miles  from  the  Ohio. 

"  I  dropped  down  the  Beaver  fi-om  Mahoning  to  the  Great  Falls  (about 
seven  miles  from  the  Ohio)  in  a  canoe,  on  the  first  of  July,  1784,  without  the 
least  difficulty.  At  this  season  all  the  western  waters  are  remarkably  low ; 
and  although  some  ripples  appear,  there  is  nothing  to  cause  any  material 
obstruction.  The  falls,  at  first  view,  appear  impracticable  at  low  water ; 
indeed,  too  difficult  at  any  season ;  nevertheless,  they  have  been  passed  at 
all  seasons.  I  met  two  men  in  a  flat-bottomed  boat  a  few  miles  above  the 
falls,  who  had  carried  their  cargo  half  a  mile  on  shore,  and  then  warped  up 
their  empty  boat.  They  set  with  poles  the  rest  of  the  way  to  Mahoning. 
The  boat  carried  one  and  a  half  tons ;  but  in  some  seasons  there  will  be 
water  enough  for  loads  of  five  tons.  Canoes,  it  is  said,  have  ascended 
twenty-five  miles  higher  than  the  Mahoning,  which  certainly  must  be  near 
one  branch  of  Muskingum,  as  it  continues  in  a  westerly  course ;  and  the 
most  easterly  branch  of  that  river,  it  is  agreed  by  all  who  have  been  in  that 
quarter,  approaches  very  near  to  the  waters  falling  into  the  lake ;  all  agree, 
likewise,  that  the  rivers  north  of  the  dividing  ridge  are  deep  and  smooth,  the 
country  being  level. 

"  Following  the  Indian  path,  which  generally  keeps  in  the  low  ground 
along  the  river,  the  distance  from  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Beaver  to  Mahoning 
is  about  fifty  miles;  which,  from  the  computed  distance  thence  to  Cuyahoga, 


gives  eighty  miles  in  all.  But  I  am  certain  a  much  better  road  will  be  found 
by  keeping  along  the_  ground  which  divides  the  waters  of  the  Big  and  Little 

"  But  this  digression  I  must  beg  your  pardon  for.  To  your  further  query 
I  think  I  shall  be  able  to  afford  you  more  satisfaction,  as  I  can  point  out  a 
more  practicable  and  easy  communication,  by  which  the  articles  of  trade  you 
mention  can  be  transported  from  Lake  Erie,  than  by  any  other  hitherto 
mentioned  route;  at  least' until  canals  are  cut.  This  is  by  a  branch  of  the 
Allegany,  which  is  navigable  by  boats  of  considerable  burthen,  to  within 
eight  miles  of  Lake  Erie.  I  examined  the  greater  part  of  the  communica- 
tion myself,  and  such  parts  as  I  did  not,  was  done  by  persons  before  and 
subsequent  to  my  being  there,  whose  accounts  can  scarce  be  doubted. 

"  From  Fort  Pitt  to  Venango  by  land,  on  the  Indian  and  French  path,  is 
computed  to  be  ninety  miles ;  by  water  it  is  said  to  be  one-third  more.  But  as 
you  know  the  country  so  far,  I  will  forbear  giving  a  more  particular  account 
of  it ;  but  proceed  to  inform  you  that  I  set  out  and  traveled  by  land  from 
Venango,  though  frequently  on  the  beach  or  within  high-water  mark,  (the 
country  being  in  many  places  impassable  for  a  horse,)  to  a  confluence  of  a 
branch  of  the  river  called  Coniwango,  which  is  about  sixty-five  miles  from 
French  creek.  The  general  course  of  the  Allegany  between  these  two 
creeks  is  north-east.     The  course  of  the  Coniwango  is  very  near  due  north; 

it  is  about yards  wide.     It  is  upwards  of yards,  thirty  miles  from 

its  confluence  with  the  Allegany  at  a  fork.  It  is  deep  and  not  very  rapid. 
To  the  Coniwango  fork  of  the  Allegany,  the  navigation  is  rather  better  than 
firom  Venango  to  Fort  Pitt.  I  traveled  about  twenty-five  miles  a  day.  Two 
Indians  pushed  a  loaded  canoe,  and  encamped  with  me  every  night.  As  the 
Coniwango  is  crooked,  I  think  it  must  be  forty  miles  from  the  Allegany  to 
its  for*  by  water.  One  of  the  forks  continues  in  a  northern  direction  about 
seven  miles  to  a  beautiful  lake.  The  lake  is  noticed  on  Hutchins'  map,  by 
the  name  of  Lake  Jadaque.  The  map  is  badly  executed.  It  extends,  from 
the  best  information  I  could  obtain,  to  within  nine  miles  of  Lake  Erie ;  it  is 
from  one  to  two  miles  broad,  and  deep  enough  for  navigation.  I  was  taken 
sick,  which  prevented  my  journey  over  to  Lake  Erie. 

"  The  following  account  I  had  from  a  chief  of  the  Seneca  tribe,  as  well  as 
from  a  white  man  named  Mathews,  a  Virginian,  who  says  that  he  was  taken 
prisoner  by  the  Indians  at  Kanawha,  in  1777.  He  has  lived  with  the 
Indians  since  that  time.  As  far  as  I  could  judge,  he  appeared  to  be  well 
acquainted  with  this  part  of  the  country.  I  employed  him  as  interpreter. 
He  stated  that  from  the  upper  end  of  Jadaqua  lake,  it  is  not  more  than  nine 
miles  along  the  path  or  road  to  Lake  Erie,  and  that  there  was  formerly  a 
wagon  road  between  the  two  lakes. 

"The  Indian  related,  that  he  was  about  fourteen  years  old  when  the 
French  went  first  to  establish  a  post  at  Fort  Pitt ;  that  he  accompanied  an 
uncle  who  was  a  chief  warrior,  on  that  occasion,  who  attended  the  French  ; 
that  the  head  of  Lake  Jadaque  was  the  spot  where  the  detachment  em- 
barked ;  that  they  fell  down  to  Fort  Duquesne  without  any  obstruction,  in 
large  canoes,  with  all  the  artillery,  stores,  provisions,  etc.*     He  added  that 

*The  first  expedition  sent  by  the  French  against  Fort  Pitt,  was  that  commanded  by 
Captain  Contrecoeur,  in  the  spring  succeeding  the  cutting  out  of  the  Portage  road,  and 
which  compelled  the  capitulation  of  Pittsburgh,  in  April,  1754,  an  account  of  which  is  in 
the  foregoing  pages. 


French  creek  was  made  the  medium  of  communication  afterwards ;  why,  he 
could  not  tell,  but  always  wondered  at  it,  as  he  expressed  himself,  knowing 
the  other  to  be  so  much  better.  The  Seneca  related  many  things  to  corrobo- 
rate and  convince  me  of  its  truth.  He  stated  that  he  was  constantly  em- 
ployed by  the  British  during  the  late  war,  and  had  the  rank  of  captain;  and 
that  he  commanded  the  party  which  was  defeated  on  the  Allegany  by  Colonel 
Broadhead ;  that  in  the  year  1782,  a  detachment  composed  of  300  British 
and  500  Indians,  was  formed,  and  actually  embarked  in  canoes  on  Lake 
Jadaque,  with  twelve  pieces  of  artillery,  with  an  avowed  intention  of  attack- 
ing Fort  Pitt.  This  expedition,  he  says,  was  laid  aside,  in  consequence  of 
the  reported  repairs  and  strength  of  Fort  Pitt,  carried  by  a  spy  from  the 
neighborhood  of  the  fort.  They  then  contented  themselves  with  the  usual 
mode  of  warfare,  by  sending  small  parties  on  the  frontier,  one  of  which 
burned  Hannastown.  I  remember  very  well  that,  in  August,  1782,  we 
picked  up  at  Fort  Pitt  a  number  of  canoes,  which  had  drifted  down  the 
river;  and  I  received  repeated  accounts,  in  June  and  July,  from  a  Canadian 
who  deserted  to  me,  as  well  as  from  some  friendly  Indians,  of  this  arma- 
ment ;  but  I  never  knew  before  then  where  they  had  assembled.* 

"  Both  Mathews  and  the  Seneca  desired  to  conduct  me,  as  a  further  proof 
ot  their  veracity,  to  the  spot,  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Jadaque,  where  lies  one 
of  the  four-pounders  left  by  the  French.  Major  Finley,  who  has  been  in 
that  country  since  I  was,  informed  me  that  he  had  seen  the  gun.  Mathews 
was  very  desirous  that  I  should  explore  the  east  fork  of  the  Coniwango ;  but 
my  sickness  prevented  me.  His  account  is,  that  it  is  navigable  about  thirty 
miles  up  from  the  junction  of  the  north  and  west  branch,  to  a  swamp  which 
is  about  half  a  mile  wide;  that  on  the  north  side  of  this  swamp  a  large  creek 
has  its  source,  called  "  Catterauque "  [Cattaraugus],  which  falls  into  Lake 
Erie,  forty  miles  from  the  foot  of  this  lake;  that  he  has  several  times  been 
of  parties  who  crossed  over,  carrying  the  canoes  across  the  swamps.  He 
added,  that  the  Catterauque  watered  much  the  finest  country  between 
Buffalo  and  Presque  Isle. 

"  A  letter  has  been  published  lately  in  a  Philadelphia  newspaper,  written 
by  one  of  the  gentlemen  employed  in  running  the  boundary  line  between 
New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  which  fully  supports  these  accounts.  As  well  as 
I  can  remember,  his  words  are:  'We  pushed  up  a  large  branch  of  the 
Allegany,  called  Chataghque  (so  he  spells  the  name),  which  is  from  one 
half  mile  to  two  or  three  wide,  and  near  twenty  long.  The  country  is  level, 
and  the  land  good,  to  a  great  extent,  on  both  sides.  We  ascended  the 
dividing  ridge  between  the  two  lakes.  From  this  place  a  most  delightful 
prospect  was  open  before  us.'  He  then  dwells  on  the  scene  before  him  and 
future  prospects,  not  to  the  present  purpose;  but  concludes  by  saying  that 
the  waters  of  Lake  Erie  cannot  be  brought  to  the  Ohio,  as  the  summit  of 
the  dividing  ridge  is  700  feet  higher  than  Lake  Erie.     'We  traveled,'  he  con- 

*In  1822,  William  Bemus,  in  making  an  attempt  to  deepen  the  channel  of  the  outlet  of 
Chautauqua  lake,  in  that  village,  discovered  a  row  of  piles  averaging  four  inches  in  diame- 
ter, and  from  two  and  one-half  to  three  and  one-half  feet  in  length,  driven  firmly  into  the 
earth  across  the  bed  of  the  stream.  Axe  marks  were  plainly  visible  on  each  of  the  four  sides 
of  those  piles,  the  wood  of  which  was  sound.  The  tops  of  these  piles  were  worn  smooth, 
and  did  not  appear,  when  discovered,  to  reach  above  the  bed  of  the  stream. — Hon.  E.  T. 
Foote.  Warrens  History  of  Chautauqua  County.  Other  evidences  existed  indicating  the 
presence  of  armed  forces  within  the  county  anterior  to  its  settlement. 


tinues,  'along  the  Indian  path  to  the  lake,  which  is  only  nine  miles,  though 
very  crooked.  A  good  wagon  road  may  be  made,  which  will  not  exceed 
seven  miles,  as  the  hill  is  not  steep.' 

"  I  regret  that  this  detail  has  been  extended  to  so  great  a  length,  for  I  fear 
that  it  will  rather  weary  than  afford  you  satisfaction.  Being  obliged  to 
blend  the  information  of  others,  with  that  which  came  within  my  own 
observation,  in  some  degree  renders  it  unavoidable. 

"  I  have  the  honor  to  be,  with  great  respect, 

"  Your  most  obedient  servant, 

"William  Irvine." 

This  letter  was  copied  by  Dr.  William  A.  Irvine,  from  the  original  lent  to 
his  father,  Callender  Irvine,  by  Judge  Washington;  and  it  contains  perhaps 
the  first  written  description  extant  of  Chautauqua  lake  and  outlet.  Chau- 
tauqua lake  was  then  rarely  visited,  except  by  the  Seneca,  who  came  there 
to  hunt,  and  to  capture  the  excellent  fish,  for  which  it  is  now  so  justly  cele- 
brated, and  which  its  pure  waters  yielded  in  great  abundance.  The  few 
white  men  that  wandered  as  far  as  its  shores,  found  it  a  secluded  lake, 
buried  in  the  heart  of  the  wilderness,  where  the  wild  fowl  gachered  unmo- 
lested, and  where  the  howl  of  the  wolf  could  be  heard  nightly  among  its 
neighboring  hills,  and  the  lonely  cry  of  the  loon  across  its  waters.  Although 
the  lake  was  rarely  seen  by  those  who  could  appreciate  its  beauties,  yet  it 
was  perhaps  then  more  beautiful  than  now.  In  spring,  the  margin  of  every 
inlet  and  cove,  and  its  whole  shore,  lay  concealed  beneath  a  mass  of  green 
foliage,  that  rolled  back  in  leafy  billows  on  every  side,  to  the  summit  of  the 
surrounding  hills,  and  which  the  frosts  in  autumn  changed  to  those  bright 
and  varied  hues  that  belong  only  to  an  American  forest.  Even  the  rough 
French  and  English  voyagers  that  sometimes  may  have  traversed  it  when  it 
was  a  deep  solitude,  could  not  have  beheld,  without  admiration,  its  clear 
waters  and  beautiful  shores. 

General  Washington  answered  this  letter  from  General  Irvine,  as  follows  : 

"Mount  Vernon,  i8th  February,  1788. 

"  Sir  :  I  have  to  acknowledge  the  receipt  of  your  favor  of  the  27th  ult.,  and 
to  thank  you  for  the  information  contained  in  it.  As  a  communication  be- 
tween the  waters  of  Lake  Erie  and  those  of  Ohio  is  a  matter  which  promises 
great  public  utility,  and  as  every  step  towards  the  investigation  of  it  may  be 
considered  as  promoting  the  general  interest  of  our  country,  I  need  make 
no  apology  to  you  for  any  trouble  that  I  have  given  upon  the  subject. 

"  I  am  fuUy  sensible  that  no  account  can  be  sufficiently  accurate  to  hazard 
any  operations  upon,  without  an  actual  survey.  My  object  in  wishing  a  solu- 
tion of  the  queries  proposed  to  you,  was,  that  I  might  be  enabled  to  return 
answers,  in  some  degree  satisfactory,  to  several  gentlemen  of  distinction  in 
foreign  countries,  who  have  appealed  to  me  for  information  on  the  subject,  in 
behalf  of  others  who  wish  to  engage  in  the  fur  trade,  and  at  the  same  time 
gratify  my  own  curiosity,  and  assist  me  in  forming  a  judgment  of  the  prac- 
ticability of  opening  communication,  should  it  ever  be  seriously  in  con- 

"  I.  Could  a  channel  once  be  opened  to  convey  the  fur  and  peltry  from 
the  lakes  into  the  Eastern  country,  its  advantages  would  be  so  obvious  as  to 


induce  an  opinion,  that  it  would  in  a  short  time  become  the  channel  of  con- 
veyance for  much  the  greatest  part  of  the  commodities  brought  from  thence. 

"  2.  The  trade  which  has  been  carried  on  between  New  York  and  that 
quarter,  is  subject  to  great  inconvenience  from  the  length  of  the  communica- 
tion, number  of  portages,  and,  at  seasons,  from  ice ;  yet  it  has,  notwithstand- 
ing, been  prosecuted  with  success. 

"  I  shall  feel  myself  much  obliged  by  any  further  information  that  you  may 
find  time  and  inclination  to  communicate  to  me  on  this  head.  I  am,  sir, 
with  great  esteem,  your  most  obedient,  &c., 

"  George  Washington." 

General  Irvine  afterwards  wrote  to  Gen.  Washington  upon  the  subject,  as 
follows : 

"New  York,  Oct.  6th,  1788. 

"  Sir  :  I  do  myself  the  honor  to  enclose  a  sketch  of  the  waters  of  the 
Allegany,  which  approach  near  to  Lake  Erie.  It  is  taken  from  an  actual 
survey  made  by  the  persons  who  ran  the  line  between  the  states  of  New  York 
and  Pennsylvania.  These  gentlemen  say  that  the  main  branch  of  the  Alle- 
gany falls  in  Pennsylvania,  and  that  there  is  only  seven  or  eight  miles  land 
carriage  between  it  and  the  head  of  a  branch  of  Susquehanna,  called  Tioga, 
which  is  navigable  for  large  boats  at  most  seasons.  The  navigation  of 
Caniwago,  I  know,  is  much  preferable  to  French  creek. 

"  I  have  the  honor  to  be  with  the  highest  respect,  sir,  your  excellency's 
most  obedient  and  humble  servant,  Wu.  Irvine." 

This  letter  was  never  before  published.  It  is  found  bound  in  a  volume  of 
the  Washington  Papers,  and  is  entered  in  an  index  of  those  papers  made  by 
Rev.  Jared  Sparks.  It  was  probably  written  to  Gen.  Washington  by  the 
direction  of  Gen.  Irvine.  Accompanying  this  letter  was  an  accurate  map  of 
"  Chautaugh"  lake,  and  "  Canewango  river;"  also  the  Chautauqua  Creek 
portage,  from  Lake  Erie  to  Chautauqua  lake,  and  also  the  portage  to  Le 
Boeuf,  and  other  localities.     Washington  replied  to  Gen.  Irvine,  as  follows  : 

Mount  Vernon,  31st  October,  1788. 

"  Dear  Sir  :  The  letter  with  which  you  favored  me,  dated  the  6th  instant, 
enclosing  a  sketch  of  waters  near  the  line  which  separates  your  state  from 
New  York,  came  duly  to  hand,  for  which  I  offer  you  my  acknowledgments 
and  thanks. 

"  The  extensive  inland  navigation  with  which  this  country  abounds,  and 
the  easy  communication  which  many  of  the  rivers  afford,  with  the  amazing 
territory  to  the  westward  of  us,  will  certainly  be  productive  of  infinite  advan- 
tage to  the  Atlantic  states,  if  the  legislatures  of  those  through  which  they  pass 
have  liberality  and  public  spirit  enough  to  improve  them.  For  my  part,  I 
wish  sincerely  that  every  door  to  that  country  may  be  set  wide  open,  that  the 
commercial  intercourse  with  it  may  be  rendered  as  free  and  easy  as  possible. 
This,  in  my  judgment,  is  the  best,  if  not  the  only  cement  that  can  bind  those 
people  to  us  for  any  length  of  time,  and  we  shall,  I  think,  be  deficient  in 
foresight  and  wisdom  if  we  neglect  the  means  to  effect  it.  Our  interest  is  so 
much  in  unison  with  the  policy  of  the  measure,  that  nothing  but  that  ill-aimed 
and  misapplied  parsimony  and  contracted  way  of  thinking,  which  intermingles 
so  much  in  all  our  public  councils,  can  counteract  it. 

"  If  the  Chautauqua  lake,  at  the  head  of  the  Connewango  river,  approx- 


imates  Lake  Erie  as  nearly  as  it  is  laid  down  in  the  draft  you  sent  me,  it 
presents  a  very  short  portage  indeed  between  the  two,  and  access  to  all  those 
above  the  latter.     I  am,  etc.,  George  Washington." 

It  will  be  seen  by  this  correspondence,  that  Washington,  at  that  early  day, 
clearly  foresaw  the  great  importance  of  obtaining  a  ready  communication 
between  the  waters  of  the  East  and  the  West,  which  was  then  required  only 
to  transport  the  few  furs  and  peltries  collected  by  the  Indians  and  trappers 
in  the  uncivilized  western  regions ;  but  which,  forty-five  years  later,  was 
needed  to  bear  a  tide  of  emigration  that  has  constantly  since  then  been  pour- 
ing into  the  valley  of  the  Mississippi,  and  to  carry  back  to  the  East  from  that 
fruitful  territory  surplus  products  so  vast  as  to  require  the  building  of  the 
Erie  Canal. 

Survey  of  the  State  Boundary  Line. 

The  original  boundary  line  between  New  York  and  Pennsylvania  extended 
from  the  north-west  comer  of  New  Jersey,  along  the  center  of  the  Delaware 
river,  to  the  42d  degree  of  north  latitude,  and  thence  west  to  Lake  Erie. 
This  line  gave  to  the  state  of  Pennsylvania  only  four  or  five  miles  of  coast 
on  Lake  Erie,  and  no  harbor.  Samuel  Holland,  on  the  part  of  New  York, 
and  David  Rittenhouse,  on  the  part  of  Pennsylvania,  were  appointed  com- 
missioners, November  8,  1774,  to  run  this  boundary;  and  in  December  of 
that  year  they  erected  a  stone  monument  on  the  42d  parallel  of  latitude,  upon 
a  small  island  in  the  Delaware  river,  as  the  north-east  corner  of  the  state  of 
Pennsylvania.  The  severity  of  the  season  prevented  the  further  prosecution 
of  the  survey  that  year.  The  Revolution  soon  after  commenced,  and  the 
work  was  postponed.  In  1781,  New  York  released  to  the  general  govern- 
ment the  lands  to  which  it  had  claim,  lying  west  of  a  meridian  extending 
through  the  west  extremity  of  Lake  Ontario.  This  line  became  the  western 
boundary  of  Chautauqua  county ;  and  these  lands  constituted  the  tract  since 
known  as  the  Triangle.  They  were  sold  by  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  in  1792,  to  the  state  of  Pennsylvania,  and  gave  to  that  state  202,180 
acres  of  land,  thirty  miles  of  coast  on  Lake  Erie,  and  an  excellent  harbor  at 
Erie.  The  southern  boundary  of  New  York  was  run  by  David  Rittenhouse, 
Andrew  Ellicott  and  others,  commissioners,  in  1785,  1786  and  1787.  The 
meridian  line  which  forms  the  western  boundary  of  our  county  and  state,  was 
run  in  1788  and  1 789,  by  Andrew  Ellicott,  the  surveyor-general  of  the  United 
States.  An  initial  monument  was  erected  by  him  near  the  shore  of  Lake 
Erie,  on  which  was  placed  the  following  inscription :  On  the  east  side — 
"Meridian  of  the  west  end  of  Lake  Ontario,  state  of  New  York,  18  miles 
and  525  chains  from  the  northern  boundary  of  Pennsylvania,  August  23, 
1 790."  On  the  west  side — "  Territory  annexed  to  the  state  of  Pennsylvania. 
North  latitude  42°  16'  32".  Variation,  25'  west."  This  monument  having 
been  partially  destroyed,  and  what  remained  of  it  endangered  by  the  encroach- 
ments of  Lake  Erie,  it  was  replaced  in  pursuance  of  an  act  of  the  legislature, 
with  appropriate  ceremonies,  September  15,    1869,  by  a   new  monument. 


placed  440  feet  south  of  the  original  monument,  composed  of  Quincy 
granite,  two  feet  wide  and  about  eight  inches  thick.  It  has  on  its  east  and 
west  faces  a  copy  of  the  inscription  on  the  corresponding  faces  of  the  original 
monument,  and  on  its  north  and  south  faces  the  following  inscription  :  North 
face — "1869,  latitude  of  this  state,  42  deg.,  15  min.,  56  sec.  9;  longitude, 
79  deg.,  45  min.,  54  sec.  4.  Variation,  2  deg.  35  sec.  west.  South  face — 
"  1869.  Erected  by  the  states  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  440  feet 
south  of  a  monument  now  dilapidated,  on  which  were  the  inscriptions  on  the 
east  and  west  faces  of  this  monument."  William  Evans  represented  the  state 
of  Pennsylvania,  and  John  V.  L.  Pruyn,  George  R.  Perkins,  S.  B.  Woolworth 
and  George  W.  Patterson,  represented  the  state  of  New  York. 

The  state  of  Pennsylvania  held  treaties  with  the  Indians  :  one  at  Fort 
Stanwix,  in  1784,  and  another  at  Fort  Harmer,  in  1789,  at  which  last  place 
the  chiefs  present  agreed  that  the  said  state  of  Pennsylvania  shall,  and  may 
at  any  time  they  may  think  proper,  survey,  dispose  of,  and  settle  all  that  part 
of  the  aforesaid  country,  lying  and  being  west  of  a  line  running  along  the 
middle  of  the  Connew^ango  river,  from  its  confluence  with  the  Allegany  river 
into  "  Chadochque  Lake ;''  thence  along  the  middle  of  said  lake,  to  the 
north  end  of  the  same ;  thence  a  meridian  line  from  the  north  end  of  the 
said  lake,  to  the  margin  or  shore  of  Lake  Erie.  These  treaties,  it  was  thought, 
secured  the  title  to  the  Triangle.  Complanter  sustained  the  title  thus 
acquired,  but  a  majority  of  the  Iroquois,  and  their  master  spirit  the  Mohawk 
Chief  Brant,  were  bitterly  opposed,  as  he  was  in  favor  of  restricting  the  whites 
to  the  territory  lying  east  of  the  Allegany  and  Ohio,  and  the  settlement  of 
the  Triangle  was  never  fully  acquiesced  in  by  the  Indians. 

Indian  Wars,  and  the  Conclusion. 

The  disasters  that  attended  the  celebrated  expedition  of  Gen.  Hanmer 
against  the  Indians  in  1790,  encouraged  them  to  renewed  acts  of  hostility; 
and  in  the  spring  of  1791,  the  settlements  along  the  Allegany  river  above 
Pittsburgh  were  repeatedly  visited  by  them,  and  women  and  children  often 
massacred;  even  the  Triangle  suffered  from  their  hostile  incursions.  The 
defeat  of  St.  Clair  by  the  Indians,  which  occurred  in  November,  1791, 
rendered  them  still  more  bold  and  ferocious ;  and  for  a  year  thereafter  great 
alarm  extended  along  the  frontiers  of  New  York  and  Pennsylvania;  and  not 
until  the  successful  termination  of  Wayne's  expedition  into  the  Indian 
country,  were  the  frontier  settlements  entirely  freed  from  danger  of  Indian 
hostility.  On  the  20th  of  August,  1794,  Gen.  Wayne  completely  defeated, 
the  Indians  in  a  general  battle  on  the  Maumee  river.  This  decisive  victory 
entirely  put  an  end  to  their  power  for  fiirther  harm  to  the  border  settlers. 
By  a  treaty  made  at  Greenville  with  the  different  tribes  of  Western  Indians, 
on  the  30th  of  July,  1795,  the  greater  part  of  the  territory  of  Ohio  was 
ceded  to  the  United  States,  and  a  long  period  of  border  war  ended,  and 
peace  for  the  first  time  established  in  these  Western  wilds  which  had  never 
known  any  other  condition  than  that  of  continued  savage  and  relendess  strife. 


Chautauqua  county,  before  this  treaty,  had  been  a  deep  solitude,  far  dis- 
tant from  the  most  advanced  outposts  of  permanent  settlement;  yet  often 
the  scene  of  warlike  demonstration.  Fleets  filled  with  armed  and  veteran 
Frenchmen  had  passed  along  its  shores;  Beaujen,  the  gallant  Frenchman, 
who  led  the  handful  of  his  countrymen  that  defeated  Braddock;  St.  Pierre, 
La  Force,  and  Joncaire — names  that  have  become  celebrated  in  the  history 
of  the  French  occupation  in  America,  were  once  familiar  with  this  county ; 
and  the  war-path  of  veritable  savage  warriors  armed  with  tomahawk  and 
scalping-knife,  may  have  led  through  its  forests ;  and  later,  during  the  Amer- 
ican Revolution,  it  is  probable  that  an  armed  force  of  British  and  Indians 
had  been  borne  upon  the  waters  of  our  beautiful  lake.  But  this  treaty 
suddenly  opened  the  West  to  receive  the  tide  of  emigration  that  has  not, 
from  that  time  to  this  day,  ceased  to  flow. 

The  state  of  Ohio,  September  5th,  1795,  conveyed  to  the  "Connecticut 
Land  Company"  the  Western  Reserve,  and  on  the  4th  of  July,  1796,  the 
first  permanent  settlement  of  Northern  Ohio  was  made  at  Conneaut,  in  Ash- 
tabula county.  The  fall  following,  a  settlement  was  commenced  at  Cleve- 
land, where  it  was  designed  by  the  proprietors  of  the  Western  Reserve  to 
establish  the  capital  of  a  new  state,  to  be  called  "  New  Connecticut,"  under 
the  mistaken  idea,  that  by  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  the  rights 
they  had  acquired  by  the  purchase  of  the  soil  gave  them  political  jurisdiction 
also,  and  authority  to  found  a  state.  Emigration  from  the  east  at  first  pressed 
towards  the  Western  Reserve,  passing  by  the  Holland  Purchase,  the  lands  of 
which  had  not  yet  been  put  into  market.  When  these  lands  were  offered 
for  sale  (as  the  Holland  Land  Company  sold  theirs  for  $2.50  and  $3.00  per 
acre  on  a  credit,  while  Western  lands  were  sold  at  a  less  price  for  cash),  those 
who  possessed  the  ready  means,  and  were  able  to  pay  at  once  for  their  farms, 
sought  more  attractive  homes  in  the  fertile  prairies  and  flowery  openings  of 
Ohio  and  the  West ;  consequently  the  first  settlers  of  the  Holland  Purchase, 
and  those  particularly  of  the  county  of  Chautauqua,  were  the  poorest  class 
of  people — men  who  often  expended  their  last  dollar  to  procure  the  article 
for  their  land.  Chautauqua  county  then  was  densely  covered  with  a  majes- 
tic forest  of  the  largest  growth,  which  cast  its  dark  shadows  everywhere — 
over  hills  and  valleys,  and  along  the  streams  and  borders  of  the  lakes.  No- 
where in  northern  latitudes  could  be  found  trees  so  tall  and  large ;  and  while 
none  could  behold,  without  awe  and  pleasure,  the  grandeur  and  grace  of  these 
mighty  woods,  yet  a  home  here,  to  cope  with  and  subdue  them,  promised  a 
life-time  of  toil  and  privation ;  and  no  one  felt  invited  hither  but  strong  and 
hardy  pioneers — men  of  the  frontier  who  were  accustomed  to  wield  the  axe 
and  handle  the  rifle  ;  who  could  grapple  with  the  forest,  and  rough  it  in  the 
wilderness,  and  think  it  ease  ;  who  could  reap  the  thin  harvest,  and  live  upon 
the  coarse  and  often  scanty  fare  of  the  woods,  and  call  it  plenty ;  conse- 
quently the  first  settlers  of  this  county  were  mostly  from  the  backwoods 
region,  at  the  western  verge  of  settlement.  They  brought  with  them  strong 
arms,  stout  hearts,  and  a  thorough  knowledge  of  the  rude  expedients  of  life 


in  the  woods.  They  were  a  body  of  picked  young  men,  possessing  vigorous 
bodies  and  practical  minds.  Among  their  number  were  often  men  of  marked 
abihty,  whose  talents  would  honor  any  station.  Although  the  most  of  them 
possessed  but  little  of  the  learning  of  books  and  schools,  not  a  few  were 
cultivated  and  accomplished---men  and  women  of  refinement  and  education, 
whose  attainments  were  such  as  to  prepare  them  to  adorn  any  society.  The 
most  of  the  early  settlers  were,  however,  educated  in  a  true  sense  :  they 
possessed  that  learning  which,  in  the  situation  in  which  it  was  their  fortune 
to  be  cast,  best  fitted  thep  for  a  life  of  usefulness,  and  enabled  them  to  con- 
tribute their  full  share  in  the  great  work  of  progress  and  improvement  allotted 
to  them.  They  were  skillful  adepts  in  their  calling ;  accomplished  masters 
in  wood  craft,  and  in  all  that  pertained  to  the  formidable  task  of  preparing  the 
way  for  the  westward  expansion  of  civilization  and  population.  Where  and 
when  they  performed  this  labor  will  be  told  in  the  succeeding  pages  of  this 
history.  How  quickly,  and  how  well  it  was  done,  the  green  hillsides  and 
blooming  valleys  of  our  county  fully  attest. 



America  was  discovered  by  Columbus  in  1492.  In  1497,  John  Cabot,  a 
Venetian,  and  his  son  Sebastian,  under  the  auspices  of  Henry  VII.,  king  of 
England,  discovered  North  America.  He  sailed  along  the  coast  300  leagues, 
and  planted  on  the  soil  the  bailners  of  England  and  of  Venice.  He  saw  no 
person,  though  he  believed  the  country  not  uninhabited. 

Efforts  were  early  made  by  Spain,  France  and  England,  to  establish  colo- 
nies in  North  America.  More,  however,  than  a  century  elapsed  before 
many  permanent  settlements  were  made.  In  1568,  the  Spaniards  established 
a  small  colony  in  Florida.  The  French,  in  1605,  planted  a  small  colony  in 
Nova  Scotia,  and  in  1608,  founded  the  city  of  Quebec.  In  1607,  the 
English  made  a  settlement  at  Jamestown,  in  Virginia.  New  York  was  set- 
tled by  the  Dutch  in  161 4.  In  1620,  the  "Pilgrim  Fathers''  landed  on 
Plymouth  Rock,  and  commenced  the  settlement  of  New  England. 

The  tract  of  country  called  New  England,  granted  by  James  I.,  king  of 
England,  to  the  Plymouth  Company,  extended  from  the  Atlantic  to  the 
Pacific  Ocean.  In  1628,  a  part  of  this  tract,  alsp  extending  to  the  Pacific, 
was  granted  by  the  Plymouth  Company  to  Sir  Henry  Roswell  and  his  asso- 
ciates, called  the  Massachusetts  Bay  Company.  The  province  of  New  York 
was  granted  in  1663,  by  Charles  II.,  to  the  Duke  of  York  and  Albany 
[afterwards  King  James  II.],  who  subsequently  granted  to  Berkeley  and 
Cartaret  the  province  of  New  Jersey.  The  remainder  of  the  country  granted 
by  Charles  II.  constituted  the  province  of  New  York,  which  extended 
north  to  the  Canada  line;  but  its  extent  westward  was  not  definitely  stated. 


The  first  charter  of  Massachusetts,  granted  by  King  Charles  I.,  in  1628, 
appears  to  have  been  vacated  by  quo  warranto  in  1684;  and  a  second 
charter  was  granted  by  Wilham  and  Mary,  in  1691,  in  which  the  territorial 
limits  of  the  province,  although  differently  bounded,  are  also  made  to  extend 
to  the  Pacific  Ocean.  Under  these  conflicting  grants,  disputes  arose  between 
some  of  the  states  as  to  the  extent  of  their  respective  territorial  rights  and 

Those  who  are  familiar  with  the  political  history  of  this  country,  will 
remember  that,  near  and  soon  after  the  close  of  the  Revolutionary  war, 
several  of  the  states  ceded  their  western  lands  to  the  general  government  as  a 
fund  to  aid  in  the  payment  of  the  war  debt.  New  York  ceded  hers  by 
deed  dated  March  i,  1781,  two  years  before  the  peace.  In  1783,  Congress 
requested  those  states  which  had  not  already  done  so,  to  cede  portions  of 
their  territory  for  that  purpose.  Virginia  ceded  March  i,  1784;  Massachu- 
setts, April  19,  1785  ;  and  Connecticut,  September  13,  1786,  transferred  her 
claim,  reserving  about  3,000,000  acres  in  the  north-east  part  of  the  present 
state  of  Ohio.  This  tract  was  called  the  "  Western  Reserve  of  Connecticut." 
On  the  30th  of  May,  1800,  the  jurisdictional  claims  of  that  state  to  this 
Reserve  were  surrendered  to  the  United  States. 

The  dispute,  however,  between  the  states  of  New  York  and  Massachusetts 
was  not  yet  settled.  Of  the  territory  which,  by  the  treaty  of  peace  of  1783, 
was  ceded  to  the  United  States,  each  of  the  individual  states  claimed  such 
portions  as  were  comprehended  within  their  original  grants  or  charters.  Mas- 
sachusetts consequently  claimed  a  strip  of  land  extending  to  the  westerly 
bounds  of  the  United  States,  thus  dividing  the  state  of  New  York  into  two 
parts.  Both  New  York  and  Massachusetts  had  ceded  all  their  lands  westerly 
of  the  same  meridian  line,  namely,  a  line  running  from  the  most  westerly 
bend  of  Lake  Ontario,  south  to  the  northern  line  of  Pennsylvania,  and  form- 
ing the  present  western  boundary  of  the  state  of  New  York.  But  Massa- 
chusetts still  claimed  nearly  20,000  square  miles  -east  of  that  line.  The 
controversy  was  finally  settled  by  commissioners  on  the  part  of  each  of  the 
two  states,  who  met  at  Hartford,  December  16,  1786.  In  accordance  with 
this  decision,  Massachusetts  ceded  to  New  York  all  claim  to  the  government, 
sovereignty,  and  jurisdiction  of  all  the  lands  in  controversy;  and  New  York 
ceded  to  Massachusetts  and  to  her  grantees  the  preemption  right  or  fee  of 
the  land,  subject  to  the  title  of  the  natives,  of  all  that  part  of  the  state  of 
New  York  lying  west  of  a  line  beginning  on  the  north  boundary  line  of 
Pennsylvania,  on  the  parallel  of  42  degrees  of  north  latitude,  82  miles  west 
of  the  north-east  corner  of  said  state,  and  running  thence  due  north  through 
Seneca  lake  to  Lake  Ontario,  excepting  a  mile's  breadth  along  the  east  bank 
of  the  Niagara  river.  The  land,  the  preemption  right  of  which  was  thus 
ceded,  was  about  six  million  acres. 

In  April,  1788,  Massachusetts  contracted  to  sell  to  Oliver  Phelps  and 
Nathaniel  Gorham  the  right  of  preemption  in  all  the  lands  ceded  by  the 
convention  of  the   i6th  of  December,   1786,  at  Hartford.     In  July,  1788, 


Gorham  and  Phelps  purchased  the  Indian  title  to  about  2,600,000  acres  of 
the  eastern  part  of  their  purchase  from  Massachusetts.  The  western  bound- 
ary of  these  lands  was  a  line  running  from  the  north  line  of  Pennsylvania 
north  to  the  junction  of  the  Shanahasgwaikon  (now  called  Canascraga)  creek 
and  the  Genesee  river ;  thence  northwardly  along  the  Genesee  river  to  a  point 
two  miles  north  of  Canawaugus  village;  thence  due  west  12  miles;  thence 
in  a  direction  northwardly,  so  as  to  be  1 2  miles  distant  from  the  most  west- 
ward bend  of  the  Genesee  river  to  Lake  Ontario.  This  tract,  the  Indian 
title  to  which  had  been  extinguished  by  Phelps  and  Gorham,  was  confirmed 
to  them  by  an  act  of  the  legislature  of  Massachusetts,  November  21,  1788, 
and  is  that  which  has  been  designated  as  the  "  Phelps  and  Gorham  Purchase." 

The  survey  of  this  tract  into  townships  and  lots  was  immediately  com- 
menced ;  and,  within  the  space  of  two  years,  about  fifty  townships  had  been 
disposed  of,  principally  by  whole  townships  or  large  portions  of  townships, 
to  individuals  and  companies. 

Phelps  and  Gorham,  having  paid  about  one-third  of  the  purchase  money 
of  the  entire  tract  purchased  of  Massachusetts,  were  unable  to  make  further 
payments.  They  had  stipulated  to  pay  in  a  kind  of  scrip,  or  "  consolidated 
stock,''  issued  by  that  state.  This  scrip  they  could  buy  at  70  or  80  per  cent, 
below  par.  But  this  stock  having  risen  to  par,  they  were  unable,  at  this  rate, 
to  fulfill  their  engagements.  On  the  isth  of  February,  1790,  they  proposed 
to  the  legislature  of  Massachusetts  to  surrender  to  the  state  two-thirds  in 
quantity  and  value  of  the  whole  of  the  contracted  lands ;  two  of  their  three 
bonds  for  ^100,000  each,  given  for  the  purchase  money,  to  be  canceled.  The 
tract  released  by  the  Indians  was  to  be  retained  by  Gorham  and  Phelps ;  but 
if  the  contents  should  exceed  one-third  of  the  whole,  the  surplus  was  to  be 
paid  for  in  money  at  the  average  price  of  the  whole. 

Two  other  proposals,  made  a  few  days  later,  were  accepted  by  the  legisla- 
ture, but  reserving  to  themselves  the  right  of  accepting,  in  preference,  at  any 
time  within  one  year,  the  proposal  of  the  15th  of  February,  1790;  and  on 
the  19th  of  February,  17  91,  notice  was  given  to  Gorham  and  Phelps  that 
the  legislature  had  elected,  that  the  two  third  parts  of  the  lands  should 
remain  the  property  of  the  commonwealth ;  and  the  unpaid  bonds  were 
relinquished  to  Phelps  and  Gorham.  The  tract  released  by  the  Indians  was 
found  to  exceed  in  quantity  one-third  of  the  whole  territory ;  and  the  excess 
was  subsequently  [April  6,  18 13]  paid  by  Phelps  and  Gorham.  That  tract, 
with  the  exception  of  the  parts  sold,  and  of  two  townships  reserved  by  Gor- 
ham and  Phelps,  was  sold  by  them  to  Robert  Morris,  and  is  described  in  the 
conveyance,  dated  i8th  November,  1790,  as  containing  2,100,000  acres. 

In  March,  1791,  Massachusetts  agreed  to  sell  to  Samuel  Ogden,  agent  for 
Robert  Morris,  all  the  lands  ceded  to  that  state  by  New  York,  except  that 
part  which  had  been  conveyed  to  Phelps  and  Gorham,  the  state  reserving 
one  equal  undivided  sixtieth  part  of  the  unexcepted  lands.  This  reservation 
in  the  original  sale  to  Morris,  was  caused  by  a  contract  made  by  Gorhami 
and  Phelps,  prior  to  the  surrender  of  their  claim  to  Massachusetts,  for  the 


sale  of  one-sixtieth  of  the  entire  territory  to  John  Butler.  Butler  subse- 
quently assigned  his  right  to  this  one-sixtieth  to  Morris,  who  was  thus  enabled 
to  acquire  a  title  from  Massachusetts. 

In  pursuance  of  this  contract,  Massachusetts,  on  the  nth  of  May,  1791, 
conveyed  to  Robert  Morris,  as  the  assignee  under  Samuel  Ogden,  a  tract  of 
land  containing  about  500,000  acres,  bounded  on  the  west  by  a  line  drawn  from 
a  point  in  the  north  line  of  Pennsylvania,  twelve  miles  west  from  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  land  confirmed  to  Gorham  and  Phelps,  to  Lake  Ontario. 
This  tract  forms  no  part  of  the  lands  subsequently  sold  by  Morris  to  the 
Holland  Land  Company,  and  is  still  known  as  the  "  Morris  Reserve.'' 

The  lands  of  the  Holland  Land  Company  are  embraced  in  four  deeds  from 
Massachusetts  to  Robert  Morris,  all  dated  May  11,  1791,  Samuel  Ogden 
concurring  in  these  conveyances.  Each  deed  conveyed  a  distinct  tract  of 
land,  supposed  to  contain  800,000  acres.  The  ^rst  tract  is  sixteen  miles 
wide,  from  the  Pennsylvania  north  line  to  the  northern  boundary  of  the  state, 
and  comprehends  ranges  r,  2  and  3,  as  laid  down  in  the  map  of  Ellicotts 
survey.  The  second  tract  is  of  the  same  breadth,  and  comprehends  ranges  4, 
5  and  6.  The  third  tract  is  of  the  same  breadth,  and  comprehends  ranges  7 
and  8,  and  263  chains  and  76  links  off  the  easterly  side  of  range  9.  The  fourt/i 
tract  embraces  all  the  land  in  the  state  west  of  the  third  tract,  and  compre- 
hends the  remaining  westerly  part  of  range  9,  and  the  whole  of  ranges  10, 
II,  12,  13,  14  and  15.  The  consideration  of  the  first  three  tracts  was 
;^i5,ooo  each;  for  the  fourth,  ;^io,ooo.  By  these  conveyances,  Robert 
Morris  became  seized  of  the  preemptive  title  to  all  the  lands  in  the  state  west 
of  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  excepting  only  the 
reserved  strip  of  land,  one  mile  in  width,  along  the  Niagara  river. 

Aliens  being  legally  incompetent  to  hold  and  convey  real  estate,  the  lands 
of  the  Dutch  proprietors  within  the  state  of  New  York  were  purchased  for 
their  account  from  Robert  Morris,  and  conveyed,  for  their  benefit,  to 
trustees.  On  the  nth  of  April,  1796,  a  special  act  was  passed  for  the  relief 
of  Wilhem  Willink,  Nicholas  Van  Staphorst,  Christian  Van  Eeghen,  Hen- 
drick  VoUenhoven,  Rutger  Jan  Schimmelpenninck,  and  Pieter  Stadnitski ; 
and  on  the  Z4th  of  February,  1797,  a  supplementary  act  was  passed,  includ- 
ing the  names  of  Jan  Willink,  Jacob  Van  Staphorst,  Nicholas  Hubbard, 
Pieter  Van  Eeghen,  Isaac  Ten  Cate,  Jan  Stadnitski,  and  Aernout  Van  Beef- 
tingh.  By  these  two  acts,  the  trustees  were  authorized  to  hold  the  lands 
contracted  and  paid  for  by  all  or  any  of  these  individuals,  and  for  the  period 
of  seven  years  to  sell  the  same  to  citizens  of  the  United  States.  Under  the 
general  alien  act  of  April  2d,  1798,  the  titles  were  afterwards  vested  in  the 
names  of  the  Dutch  proprietors  by  new  conveyances.  By  this  general  act, 
which  was  to  continue  for  three  years,  all  conveyances  to  aUens,  not  being 
.the  subjects  of  powers  or  states  at  war  with  the  United  States,  were  declared 
to  be  valid,  so  as  to  vest  the  estate  in  such  aliens,  their  heirs  and  assigns  for- 
ever. The  construction  of  this  was  settled  by  an  act  passed  March  5th,  18 19, 
which  declared  and  enacted  that  all  conveyances  made  to  aliens  under  the 


act  of  April,  1798,  should  be  deemed  valid,  and  vest  the  lands  thereby  con- 
veyed in  the  several  grantees,  so  as  to  authorize  them  and  their  heirs  and 
assigns,  although  aliens,  to  devise  or  convey  the  same  to  any  other  alien  or 
aliens,  not  being  the  subjects  of  a  power  or  state  at  war  with  the  United 

The  lands  purchased  by  the  Holland  Land  Company  embraced  an  area 
of  about  3,600,000  acres,  and  were  originally  conveyed  in  several  tracts  or 
parcels,  and  at  different  times,  by  Robert  Morris,  to  trustees  for  the  benefit 
of  the  Dutch  proprietors.  The  first  tract  thus  conveyed,  called  the  "  Million 
and  a  half  Acre  Tract,"  embracing  422  chains  and  56  links  off  the  west  part 
of  range  7,  and  all  the  land  west  thereof  to  the  Pennsylvania  line,  was  con- 
veyed, December  24,  1792,  in  two  parcels.  The  first  of  these,  containing 
one  million  acres,  embraced  the  eastern  part  of  the  tract ;  the  second  parcel, 
the  western  part,  comprehending  ranges  11,  12,  13,  14  and  15,  as  laid  down 
on  EUicott's  map. 

The  second  tract,  called  the  "One  Million  Acre  Tract,"  was  conveyed 
February  27,  1793,  and  embraced  townships  5  to  16,  inclusive,  in  range  i  ; 
4  to  1 6  in  ranges  2  and  3  ;  and  i  to  4  in  ranges  4,  5  and  6. 

The  third  tract,  called  the  "  Eight  Hundred  Thousand  Acre  Tract,"  was 
conveyed  July  20,  1793. 

The  fourth  tract,  called  the  "  Three  Hundred  Thousand  Acre  Tract,''  was 
conveyed  July  20,  1793.  Though  named  as  being  a  single  tract,  it  embraced 
three  different  parcels,  neither  two  of  them  consisting  of  contiguous  territory. 
The  first  of  these  parcels  comprehended  townships  i,  2,  3,  and  the  east  half 
of  4,  of  range  i,  and  i,  2  and  3,  of  ranges  2  and  3,  intended  tcr  contain 
200,000  acres."  The  second  and  third  parcels  comprehended  113  chains 
and  68  links  of  the  east  part  of  range  7,  which  was  not  included  in  the 
million  and  a  half  acres  before  described.  The  portion  of  this  strip  lying 
south  of  the  Buffalo  creek  reservation,  was  intended  to  contain  54,000  acres, 
and  the  part  north  of  the  reservation,  46,000  acres. 

The  names  of  the  trustees  to  whom  the  conveyances  were  made  by 
Morris,  were  not  in  all  cases  the  same,  as  will  appear  from  the  following 
statement  of  the  chain  of  title  to  each  tract : 

Deed  of  first  tract  [1,500,000  acres],  i.  Robert  Morris  to  Herman  Le 
Roy  and  John  Lincklaen,  December  31,  1792.  2.  Le  Roy  and  Lincklaen 
to  William  Bayard,  May  30,  1795.  3.  Wm.  Bayard  to  Le  Roy,  Lincklaen, 
and  Gerrit  Boon,  June  i,  1795.  4.  Le  Roy,  Lincklaen  and  Boon  to  Paul 
Busti,  July  9,  1798.  5.  Busti  to  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  James  McEvers,  Linck- 
laen, and  Boon,  upon  trust  for  the  benefit  of  Wilhem  Willink  and  others, 
with  covenant  to  convey  the  same  according  to  their  direction  and  appoint- 
ment— deed  dated  July  10,  1798.  6.  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  McEvers,  Linck- 
laen, and  Boon,  to  Wilhem  Willink,  Nicholas  Van  Staphorst,  Pieter  Van 
Eeghen,  Hendrick  Vollenhoven,  and  Rutger  Jan  Schimmelpenninck,  Dec. 
31,  1798.  7.  The  title  of  the  last  named  grantees  was  confirmed  to  them 
by  Thomas  L.  Ogden  ahd  Gouverneur  Morris,  by  deed,  February  18,  1801. 


Deed  of  second  tract  [1,000,000  acres],  i.  Robert  Morris  to  Le  Roy, 
Lincklaen,  and  Boon,  Feb.  27,  1793,  confirmed  after  the  extinguishment  of 
the  Indian  tide,  by  deed  between  the  same  parties,  June  i,  1798.  2.  Le 
Roy,  Lincklaen,  and  Boon  to  Paul  Busti,  July  9,  1798.  3.  Busti  to  Le  Roy, 
Bayard,  McEvers,  Lincklaen,  and  Boon,  in  trust  for  the  benefit  of  Wilhem 
Willink  and  others,  July  10,  1798.  4.  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  McEvers,  Linck- 
laen, and  Boon,  to  Wilhem  Willink  and  others,  December  31,  1798.  5. 
The  title  of  the  last  named  grantees  was  confirmed  to  them  by  Thomas  L. 
Ogden,  February  13,  1801. 

Deed  of  the  third  tract  [800,000  acres],  i.  Robert  Morris  to  Le  Roy, 
Lincklaen,  and  Boon,  July  20,  1793,  confirmed  after  the  extinguishment  of 
the  Indian  title,  by  deed  between  the  same  parties,  June  i,  1798.  2.  Le 
Roy,  Lincklaen,  and  Boon,  to  Paul  Busti,  July  9,  1798.  3.  Busti  to  Le  Roy, 
Bayard,  McEvers,  Lincklaen,  and  Boon,  in  trust  for  Wilhem  Willink  and 
others,  July  10,  1798.  4.  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  McEvers,  Lincklaen,  and  Boon, 
to  Wilhelm  Willink  and  others,  July  10,  1798.  5.  The  title  of  the  last 
named  grantees  was  confirmed  by  Thomas  L.  Ogden,  Feb.  13,  1801. 

Deed  of  the  fourth  tract  [300,000  acres],  i.  Robert  Morris  to  Le  Roy, 
Bayard,  and  Thomas  Clarkson,  July  20,  1793,  confirmed  after  the  extin- 
guishment of  the  Indian  title,  by  deed  between  the  same  parties,  June  i, 
1798.  2.  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  and  Clarkson,  to  Paul  Busti,  July  9,  1798.  3. 
Busti  to  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  and  Clarkson,  in  trust  for  Wilhem  Willink  and 
Jan  Willink,  July  10,  1798.  4.  Le  Roy,  Bayard,  and  Clarkson,  to  Wilhem 
Willink,  Jan  Willink,  Wilhem  Willink,  Jr.,  and  Jan  Willink,  Jr.,  as  joint 
tenants,  Jan.  3r,  1799.  5.  Title  of  last  named  grantees  confirmed  by  T.  L. 
Ogden,  Feb.  27,  1801. 

It  appears  from  the  foregoing  that  all  the  lands  of  the  Company  were  con- 
veyed by  the  trustees  to  Paul  Busti,  of  Philadelphia,  an  alien.  The  design 
of  this  conveyance,  it  is  presumed,  was  merely  to  change  the  title  of  the 
trust  estate  to  the  hands  of  Busti,  who  was  general  agent  of  the  proprietors 
in  Holland. 

The  necessity  of  the  confirmatory  deeds  of  Thomas  L.  Ogden  and  Gouver- 
neur  Morris  will  appear  from  the  following  facts :  Two  judgments  against 
Robert  Morris  had  been  docketed  in  the  supreme  court  of  the  state  of  New 
York,  which  were  found  to  overreach  the  titles  of  several  of  the  purchasers 
under  him.  The  first  was  in  favor  of  Wm.  Talbot  and  Wm.  Allum,  docketed 
June  8,  1797  ;  the  second,  in  favor  of  Solomon  Townsend,  docketed  August 
10,  1798.  Previously  to  the  year  1800,  an  execution  was  issued  on  the  last 
judgment ;  and  all  the  lands  conveyed  to  Morris  by  Massachusetts  were  sold, 
and  conveyed  by  the  sheriff  of  Ontario  county  to  Thomas  Mather,  in  whose 
name  actions  of  ejectment  founded  upon  this  conveyance  were  prosecuted 
in  the  court  In  the  spring  of  1800,  during  the  pendency  of  these  ejectments, 
an  execution  was  issued  on  the  earlier  judgment ;  and  the  whole  tract  of 
country  was  again  levied  upon  and  advertised  for  sale  by  the  sheriff. 

Under  these  circumstance,  Mr.  Busti,  the  general  agent  of  the  Holland 


Land  Company,  entered  into  an  arrangement  with  Gouvemeur  Morris,  -the 
assignee  of  the  earher  judgment,  to  put  an  end  to  the  claims  set  up  under 
both  judgments.  It  was  agreed  that  both  judgments,  and  also  a  release  of 
Mather's  interest  under  the  sheriff's  deed  to  him,  should  be  purchased  by  the 
Land  Company,  which  was  done ;  and  the  judgments  were  assigned  to  the 
Company,  April  22,  1800  ;  that  of  Townsend  by  his  attorney,  Aaron  Burr  ; 
that  of  Talbot  and  AUum,  by  Gouvemeur  Morris,  the  assignee  of  Robert 
Morris.  Articles  of  agreement  were  at  the  same  time  entered  into  between 
Thomas  L.  Ogden  of  the  first  part,  the  individuals  of  the  Holland  Company 
of  the  second  part,  and  Gouvemeur  Morris  of  the  third  part,  by  which  it  was 
agreed  that  the  release  from  Mather  should  be  taken  in  the  name  of  Thomas 
L.  Ogden  ;  that  he  should  also  become  the  purchaser  at  the  approaching  sale 
under  the  judgment  of  Talbot  and  Allum ;  and  that  the  title  thus  derived 
under  both  judgments  should  be  held  by  him  in  trust  for  the  purposes 
expressed  in  the  agreement. 

It  was  provided  in  that  instrument,  that  the  million  and  a  half  acre  tract 
should  be  held  subject  to  the  issue  of  amicable  suit,  to  be  instituted  on  the 
equity  side  of  the  circuit  of  the  United  States  for  the  district  of  New  York, 
to  determine  the  operation  and  effect  of  the  conveyance  of  this  tract  by 
Robert  Morris,  so  that  if,  by  a  decree  of  that  court,  or  of  the  supreme  court 
of  the  United  States,  in  case  of  an  appeal,  such  conveyance  should  be 
adjudged  to  be  absolute  and  indefeasible,  then  the  tract  should  be  released 
and  confirmed  by  Gouvemeur  Morris  to  the  Holland  LandCompany.  It 
was  further  provided  by  this  agreement,  that  the  residue  of  the  entire  tract 
of  country  should  be  released  and  confirmed  by  Thomas  L.  Ogden  to  the 
several  proprietors  under  Robert  Morris,  according  to  the  award  and  appoint- 
ment of  Alexander  Hamilton,  David  A.  Ogden  and  Thomas  Cooper. 

In  pursuance  of  this  agreement,  Mather's  rights  under  the  sale  on  Town- 
send's  judgment,  were  conveyed  to  Thomas  L.  Ogden,  April  22,  1800;  and 
a  sale  having  been  made  under  the  execution  issued  upon  the  judgment  of 
Talbot  and  Allum,  the  entire  tract  of  country,  as  to  all  the  interest  which 
Robert  Morris  had  therein  on  the  8th  of  June,  1797,  was  conveyed  by  Roger 
Sprague,  sheriff  of  Ontario  county,  by  deed  dated  May  13,  1800.  Hamilton, 
D.  A.  Ogden  and  Cooper  made  an  award  or  appointment,  January  22,  1801, 
directing  conveyances  by  Thomas  L.  Ogden,  of  the  whole  of  the  lands  to  the 
several  grantees  under  Robert  Morris,  the  parcels  to  be  conveyed  to  each  to 
be  defined  by  appropriate  descriptions  and  boundaries.  In  conformity  with 
this  appointment,  the  several  confirmations  were  executed  by  Thomas  L. 



The  first  inquiry  suggested  to  the  reader  of  a  history  of  any  country  or 
territory,  is  :  "Where,  when,  and  by  whom  was  its  settlement  commenced?" 
Amongst  the  diverse  and  conflicting  statements  respecting  the  earliest  settle- 
ment in  Chautauqua  county,  it  is  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  answer  the 
question.  It  was  the  purpose  of  the  writer  not  to  become  a  party  in  this 
controversy,  but  to  present  sketches  of  the  several  early  settlements,  without 
any  allusion  to  the  discussion  which  has  so  long  agitated  the  public  mind. 
It  has,  however,  been  repeatedly  intimated  that  this  would  not  be  satisfactory 
to  the  people  generally.  And  as  many  are  known  to  be  looking  for  the 
result  of  the  author's  investigation  of  this  question,  he  deems  it  proper  to 
present  such  facts  and  statements  as  have  come  to  his  knowledge,  for  the 
consideration  of  those  who  think  the  subject  worthy  of  investigation. 

The  late  Hon.  Samuel  A.  Brown,  in  a  course  of  lectures  at  the  Academy 
in  Jamestown,  in  1843,  said  in  his  second  lecture:  "Col.  McMahan  and  Mc- 
Henry,  both  from  Pennsylvania,  may,  with  propriety,  I  think,  be  styled  the 
pioneers  of  Chautauqua  county,  as  they  were  the  first  who  purchased  and  set- 
tled with  the  intention  of  making  this  county  their  permanent  residence ; 
though  one  Amos  Settle  had  resided  from  1796  to  1800  on  the  Cattaraugus 
bottoms  in  Hanover ;  was  then  absent  two  or  three  years ;  but  afterwards 
returned  and  became  a  permanent  resident." 

This  statement  was  probably  made  on  the  authority  of  Heiuy  H.  Hawkins, 
of  Silver  Creek,  who,  in  a  letter  to  Mr.  Brown,  dated  Hanover,  Feb.  2,  1843, 
wrote  as  follows : 

"  Sir  :  Amos  Sottle  came  on  to  the  Cattaraugus  bottoms,  and  settled  in 
the  year  1796,  being  then  about  twenty-one  years  old,  and  has  resided  here 
ever  since  that  time,  with  the  exception  of  between  two  and  three  years, 
from  about  1800  or  1801,  which  he  spent  in  what  was  then  called  the  North- 
western Territory.  He  is  one  who  helped  make  the  survey  of  the  whole 
country  in  1798  and  1799,  under  Joseph  EUicOtt,  surveyor  of  the  Holland 
Land  Company." 

Judge  Warren,  in  his  History  of  Chautauqua  County,  published  in  1846, 
says : 

"  The  first  purchase  of  lands  for  the  purpose  of  settlement  within  the 
present  limits  of  this  county,  was  made  by  Gen.  McMahan,  in  i8oi. 
*  *  *  The  first  attempt  to  subdue  the  dense  forest  was  made  in  1802, 
by  CoL  James  McMahan,  near  where  the  village  of  Westfield  is  now 
located.  On  this  spot  ten  acres  weK  cleared,  and  the  first  dwelling  of  the 
white  man  erected.  Edward  McHeriry  settled  on  an  adjoining  tract  during 
the  same  year.  These  jwere  tKe  first  locations  of  proprietors  within  the 
county,  with  the  intention  of  making  it  a  permanent  residence.  It  should  be 
mentioned,  however,  that  for  nearly  four  years  previously  to  1800,  Amos 
Sottle  had  resided  near  Cattaraugus  creek,  in  the  present  town  of  Hanover. 
After  which  he  was  absent  for  several  years,  and  finally  returned  and  became 
a  permanent  citizen." 


Another  says:  "In  1796,  one  Amos  Sottle  located  in  Hanover,  but 
removed  in  1800  from  the  county,  and  did  not  return  for  several  years." 

Turner,  in  his  History  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  says  :  "  The  first  white 
resident  of  Chautauqua  was  Amos  Sottle.  He  had  resided  near  the  mouth 
of  Cattaraugus  creek  for  three  years  before  the  sale  of  the  Holland  Com- 
pany's lands  commenced."  ^ 

The  State  Gazetteer  says  :  "  The  first  settlement  in  the  county  was  made 
at  the  mouth  of  Cattaraugus  creek,  in  1797,  by  Amos  Sottle.  Soon  after 
making  the  first  improvements,  Sottle  left,  and  returned  in  1801,  with  Mr. 
Sydney  and  Capt.  Rosecrantz." 

Judge  Foote,  in  a  communication  in  the  Mayville  Sentinel,  of  July  20, 
1859,  gives  the  result  of  his  investigation  of  the  subject,  as  follows  : 

"  Editor  Sentinel  :  I  thank  you  for  your  efforts  to  preserve  the  early 
history  of  our  county;  and  I  trust  the  people  will  gratefully  appreciate  your 
efforts.  In  your  article  in  the  Sentinel,  oi  hyA  20  [1859],  are  some  mistakes 
that  should  be  corrected,  lest  they  become  conceded  as  facts,  and  copied  as 
such  by  future  historians.  Amos  Sottle  was  not  the  first  white  settler  in  the 
county,  although  I  know  he  claimed  to  be,  and  to  have  settled  in  the  east  part 
of  the  town  of  Hanover,  in  1796. 

"  By  a  reference  to  the  surveyors'  minutes  of  the  meridian  and  township 
line  surveys,  made  in  1798-9,  copies  of  which  are  in  the  County  Clerk's  office, 
it  will  be  seen  that  Sottle  was  an  axeman  under  Amzi  Atwater,  one  of  the 
principal  surveyors,  although  his  name  does  not  appear  in  the  list  of  surveyors 
in  Turner's  History  of  the  Holland  Purchase.  The  surveyors,  as  required, 
returned  a  list  of  their  assistants  and  their  places  of  residence,  and  the 
capacity  in  which  they  served.  Sottle  was  reported  as  a  resident  of  Chenango 
county,  N.  Y. ;  and  I  presume  the  first  time  he  ever  saw  the  land  where  he 
subsequently  settled,  was  when  Atwater  surveyed  the  9th  meridian,  or  present 
line  between  the  counties  of  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus,  in  1798.  He  was 
also  an  axeman  in  1799.  After  he  left  the  surveyors  he  went  into  the  North- 
west Territory,  and  was  there  some  years,  but  finally  returned  and  settled  in 
the  present  town  of  Hanover,  about  1804,  and  resided  there  with  his  squaw, 
or  colored  wife,  until  his  death,  about  1848  or  '49.  His  statements  were  not 
very  reliable.  I  do  not  find  his  name  on  any  land  records  for  several  years 
after  his  actual  residence  in  the  county.  Col.  James  McMahan  was  unques- 
tionably the  first  bona  fide  white  settler  in  the  county ;  he  and  his  elder 
brother.  Gen.  John  McMahan,  having  been  early  and  conspicuous  pioneers, 
and  the  first  purchasers  of  land  in  the  county." 

It  is  difficult  to  determine,  from  these  statements,  who  was  the  first  actual 
settler.  Mr.  Brown  thinks  McMahan  and  McHenry  are  properly  styled  the 
pioneers  of  Chautauqua ;  yet  he  says  Sottle  had  resided  on  the  Cattaraugus 
from  1796  to  1800,  and  then  was  absent  two  or  three  years,  and  afterwards 
became  a  permanent  resident.  This  would  seem  to  indicate  that  Mr.  B.  did 
not  consider  Sottle  a  settler  until  after  his  second  residence,  which,  if  he  had 
been  absent  two  or  three  years,  must  have  commenced  in  about  1802  or 
1803.  Judge  Warren's  statement  naturally  leads  to  the  same  conclusion. 
Turner  gives  Sottle  a  residence  at  Cattaraugus,  and  probably  considered  him 
a  settler.  The  State  Gazetteer  states  that  he  made  a  settlement  there  in 
1797 ;  and  on  the  same  page  refers  to  Judge  Foote  to  prove  that  the  first 


settlement  in  the  county  was  made  in  1794,  which  nobody  here  beHeves,  nor 
has  the  Judge  ever  authorized  such  statement.  From  such  contradictory 
statements,  who  can  decide  the  question  ?  The  first  inquiry  then  should  be 
respecting  the  credibility  of  authors.  These  authors  probably  made  no  thorough 
investigation.  Messrs.  Brown  and  Warren  both  state  that  Joh7i  McMahan 
bought  the  town  of  Ripley,  ^.nA.  James  McMahan  bought  4,000  acres  in  West- 
field.  Mr.  B.  could  not  have  made  close  inquiry,  or  he  would  not  have 
committed  so  palpable  an  error ;  and  Judge  Warren  probably  copied  it,  pre- 
suming it  to  be  correct.  But  a  worse  error  is  that  of  the  State  Gazetteer. 
And  so  numerous  are  the  mistakes  of  Mr.  Turner  in  regard  to  the  settlement 
of  this  county,  that  his  authority  is  not  reliable.  He,  too,  makes  James 
McMahan  the  purchaser  of  Westfield,  and  the  builder  of  mills  at  the  mouth 
of  Chautauqua  creek.  And  he  also  calls  Sottle  the  first  white  resident  of 
Chautauqua,  and  McMahan  "  the  pioneer  settler." 

This  exposure  of  the  errors  of  these  writers  is  not  intended  to  invalidate 
the  claim  of  either  party  to  priority  of  settlement ;  but  only  to  show  that 
their  several  publications  are  not  reliable  authority.  A  hasty  canvass  for 
the  material  of  a  history  has  been  made,  and  the  statements  have  been  pub- 
lished without  seeking  confirmation  from  any  other  source.  Presuming  them 
to  be  correct,  later  authors  have  copied  them,  and  thus  have  aided  in  trans- 
mitting them  to  succeeding  generations.  Hence  we  are  still  left  to  form 
opinions,  in  a  great  measure,  from  oral  testimony  from  early  settlers,  long 
since  deceased,  through  those  of  a  later  generation ;  especially  so  in  the 
case  of  the  Cattaraugus  settlement,  which  shows  no  record  of  a  purchase  ot 
land  prior  to  that  of  Charles  Avery,  in  1804.  It  is,  however,  generally  con- 
ceded that  Sottle  (or  rather,  Sawtel,  as  hig  name  appears  in  the  list  of  sur- 
veyors) was  there  at  an  earlier  date ;  and  we  have  his  word  that  he  was  a 
settler  before  there  was  one  at  Westfield.  It  is  urged  by. the  other  party, 
that  his  word  is  not  reliable,  his  veracity  having  been  impeached  in  court  by 
a  score  or  more  of  witnesses.  Several  others,  however,  have  certified  their 
belief  in  his  credibility. 

The  foregoing  is  a  summary  of  the  testimony  on  which  the  parties  in  this 
controversy  have  based  their  respective  claims.  Other  facts,  however,  have 
come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  writer,  which,  as  a  faithful  historian,  he  deems 
it  his  duty  to  add  to  what  has  been  given. 

An  early  resident  of  the  county  says  Sottle,  long  before  his  death,  told 
him  that  he  lived,  at  first,  for  a  time  with  the  Indians.  Another  old  settler 
confirms  this  statement,  and  adds,  that  Sottle  gave  as  a  reason  for  leaving  the 
Indians,  and  settling  on  the  south  side  of  the  creek,  that  he  might  accumu- 
late property  for  his  individual  use  and  benefit. 

Some  concede  Sottle's  claim  to  having  an  earlier  home  or  residence  at 
Cattaraugns,  than  that  of  James  McMahan  at  Westfield ;  but  question  the 
propriety  of  calling  the  place  a  settlement.  No  clearings  of  consequence 
were  made,  nor  was  grain  raised.  Wm.  Sydney,  who  came  with  Sottle  from 
Ohio,  to  ferry  emigrants  across  the  creek,  built  a  log  house  for  their  enter- 


tainrnent;  but  it  is  known  that,  as  late  as  1804,  travelers  were  unable  to 
procure  forage  for  their  teams,  except  from  Indians  in  the  vicinity.  In  cor- 
roboration of  this  statement,  John  Mack,  son  of  John  Mack  who,  in  1806, 
bought  the  Sydney  tavern  and  ferry,  wrote  to  this  county,  in  1873,  as  follows: 

"There  were  then  [1806]  but  three  white  men  on  Cattaraugus  Flats — 
Amos  Sottle,  Ezekiel  Lane,  and  Charles  Avery.  Settle  and  Lane  had  buUt 
cabins,  made  small  improvements,  and  resided  in  them.  Common  report 
says  Amos  Sottle  came  to  Cattaraugus  in  1797,  located  ij4  miles  from  the 
mouth  of  the  creek,  and  made  improvements  as  above  stated,  and  where  he 
lived  in  1806.  There  was  no  land  cleared  for  grain  raising;  and  no  grain  to 
be  had,  except  that  bought  of  the  Indians  to  supply  our  own  wants  or  those 
of  the  traveler.  These  wants  were  soon  remedied  by  the  energy  and  perse- 
verance of  early  settlers. 

"  The  ferrying  of  the  creek  was  very  unsafe.  A  small  scow  only,  sufficient 
to  float  a  wagon  placed  therein  by  hand.  Horses  and  oxen  were  taken  over 
separately,  or  caused  to  swim  the  river  by  the  side  of  a  canoe,  guided  by  a 
line.  My  father  soon  provided  a  safe  conveyance,  by  building  a  scow  suffi- 
ciently large  to  transport  teams  of  all  kinds.  The  tavern  was  kept  by  widow 
Sydney  in  a  small  log  cabin  with  leantoes  attached,  which  served  for  lodging 
rooms  and  stowaways,  and  a  plank  addition  serving  as  parlor  and  dining 
room.     Her  husband  had  died  a  short  time  previous." 

Whatever  difference  of  opinion  may  exist  respecting  the  claims  of  the 
respective  parties  to  priority  of  settlement,  it  will  not  be  disputed  that 
the  first  settlement  of  any  considerable  extent  was  commenced  at  what 
was  long  known  as  Cross  Roads,  in  the  present  town  of  Westfield,  by 
persons  from  the  state  of  Pennsylvania.  Among  the  first  of  these  immi- 
grants were  John  and  James  McMahan.  After  an  examination  of  the  lands 
along  the  lake,  they  made  contracts  for  large  tractsin  1801.  John's  purchase 
embraced  the  whole  of  township  4,  in  range  14,  containing  22,014  acres, 
which,  at  $2.50  per  acre,  amounted  to  $55,035.  He  paid  down  $1,035  J  ^^ 
remainder  to  be  paid  in  eight  annual  installments  with  annual  interest. 
James  contracted  for  a  tract  in  township  3,  range  15.  This  tract  extended 
from  the  lake  shore  about  2  miles  south,  and  from  the  east  line  of  the 
township  [now  Ripley],  about  3j{  miles  westward  to  within  about  half  a 
mile  of  the  village  of  Quincy,  containing  4,074  acres ;  the  terms  of  payment 
similar  to  those  expressed  in  the  contract  made  with  his  brother  John.  These 
contracts,  though  considered  as  made  in  1801,  were  not  perfected,  or  fully 
executed,  until  May  and  July,  1803,  after  portions  of  the  land  had  been  sold 
by  the  first  contractors.  The  early  settlers  on  these  lands  bought  o£  the 
McMahans,  the  Land  Company  giving  title  deeds  on  the  payment  to  them 
of  the  purchase  money,  which  was  credited  on  the  McMahans'  contract  with 
the  company. 

Although  James'  purchase  was  in  Ripley,  he  selected  and  bought  for  him- 
self, within  his  brother's  tract,  a  lot  on  which  he  settled,  about  three-fourths 
of  a  mile  west  of  Chautauqua  creek,  and  which  extended  east  to  the  old 
"  Cross  Roads.'' 


The  next  spring,  [1802,]  Mr.  McMahan  commenced  clearing  his  farm,  and 
is  said  to  have  cleared  about  ten  acres,  which  he  planted  and  sowed  the  rirst 
season.  This  was  the  first  field  cleared  in  the  county.  Although  Mr. 
McMahan  had  previously  built  a  log  house,  and  was  properly  the  first  settler, 
he  did  not  move  his  family  into  it,  it  is  said,  until  late  in  r8o2.  The  first 
family  was  that  of  Edward  McHenry,  at  the  "  Cross  Roads,"  so  called  from 
its  being  the  place  where  the  Buffalo  &  Erie  road  crossed  the  old  "  Portage 
Road."  At  the  solicitation  of  McMahan,  as  is  said,  McHenry  came  with 
him,  not  only  to  settle,  but  to  keep  a  house  of  entertainment  for  emigrants 
westward,  "  New' Connecticut,"  in  Ohio,  being  then  rapidly  settling  from  the 
East.  A  few  months  after  McHenr/s  arrival,  his  son  John  was  bom,  the  first 
child  in  the  county  born  of  white  parents.  The  death  of  the  father  the 
next  year,  who  was  drowned  in  the  lake  by  the  capsizing  of  a  small  boat, 
while  on  his  way  to  Erie  to  obtain  a  supply  of  provisions,  was  the  first  death 
of  a  white  settler  in  the  county.  His  two  companions  were  saved  by  cling- 
ing to  the  boat.     His  body,  it  is  said,  was  never  recovered. 

In  the  discussion  of  the  conflicting  claims  of  different  places  in  the 
county  to  priority  of  settlement,  it  is  somewhat  strange  that  Col.  McMahan 
should  have  been  so  long  spoken  of  as  the  earliest  settler  here.  On  his 
tour  of  inspection  in  iSor,  with  a  view  to  a  location,  he  was  accompanied 
by  one  Andrew  Straub,  a  Pennsylvania  German,  who  selected  for  himself  a 
place  a  short  distance  east  of  where  the  village  of  Westfield  now  is,  and 
built  on  it  a  house  and  occupied  it  the  same  year.  He  made  clearings  and 
resided  there  many  years.  The  stream  on  or  near  which  he  settled,  derived 
its  name  from  him,  and  was  long  known  as  "  Straub's  Creek.''  Stones  from 
his  fireplace,  and  other  relics  of  his  house,  have  been  found  at  a  compara- 
tively recent  date ;  and  there  are  persons  now  living  who  have  personal 
knowledge  of  his  residence  here.  He  had  no  family.  After  the  lands  were 
surveyed,  he  contracted  for  450  acres. 

After  the  settlement  of  Col.  McMahan  and  Mr.  McHenry,  settlers  came 
in  rapidly.  Most  of  them  settled  on  the  road  early  opened  towards  Erie  : 
David  Kincaid,  who  bought  in  November,  1802,  north  of  McMahan's ;  in 
1803,  Arthur  Bell,  in  January;  Christopher  Dull,  in  June;  James  Mont- 
gomery, in  July ;  and  Andrew  Straub,  in  September ;  all  of  whom  are 
believed  to  have  settled  on  their  lands  the  year  of  their  purchase,  except 
Straub,  who  is  known  to  have  settled  on  his  a  year  or  two  earlier,  and  before 

the  land  was  surveyed  into  lots ;  and  Culbertson,  George  and  John 

Degeer — all  of  whom,  it  is  said,  came  from  Pennsylvania.  Also  Jeremiah 
George,  who  bought  in  1803;  Jacob  George  and  Laughlin  McNeil,  in  1804; 
and  George  Whitehill,  in  1805,  are  believed  to  have  settled  at  or  near  the 
times  of  their  purchases.  In  1806  and  1807,  came  David  Eason,  Matthew 
McClintock  and  Low  Minigerfrom  Canadaway,  [Fredonia,]  who  also  were 
from  Pennsylvania,  and  who  had  resided  one  or  two  years  at  Fredonia. 
Miniger  settled  on  a  farm  about  a  mile  east  from  the  village  of  Westfield,  in 
1806.     McClintock  also,  before  Eason,  came  to  Westfield,  having  sold  his 



land  at  Canadaway  to  Judge  Gushing,  Hezekiah  Barker  and  others.  He 
opened  a  tavern  at  Westfield,  and  owned,  it  is  said,  the  larger  portion  of  the 
site  of  the  village.  He  afterwards  moved  to  what  was  since  known  as  the 
Bradley  farm,  below  Westfield ;  thence  to  Ripley,  and  finally  to  Illinois, 
where  he  died  in  1838.  David  Eason,  in  the  winter  of  1806-7,  sold  his  farm 
to  Hezekiah  Turner,  and  on  the  31st  of  March,  1807,  came  to  Westfield, 
having  purchased  of  John  McMahan,  on  the  east  side  of  Chautauqua  creek, 
about  150  acres  in  what  is  now  the  south-east  part  of  the  village,  east  of 
South  Portage  street.     [See  David  Eason  in  historical  sketch  of  Westfield.] 

In  Ripley,  Alexander  Cochran,  a  native  of  Ireland,  and  the  first  settler  in 
that  town,  settled  in  1804,  about  a  mile  west  of  Quincy.  Along  the  Erie 
road,  west  of  the  Westfield  line,  the  following  named  persons  were  early  pur- 
chasers :  Charles  Forsyth,  William  Alexander,  Farley  Fuller,  Basil  Burgess, 
Robert  Dickson,  Thomas  Prendergast,  Oliver  Loomis,  Josiah  Farnsworth, 
Asa  Spear,  Israel  Goodrich,  Wm.  Crosgrove,  Nathan  Wisner,  Andrew  Spear, 
Perry  G.  Ellsworth,  Noah  P.  Hayden,  Hugh  Whitehill,  Samuel  Harrison, 
and  others,  bought  in  Ripley  prior  to  and  including  the  year  1809  ;  and  most 
of  them  probably  settled  on  their  lands  the  years  of  their  purchases. 

The  settlement  at  the  "  Cross  Roads  "  was  soon  followed  by  that  at  Cana- 
daway, which  place  took  its  name  from  the  name  of  the  creek,  and  embraced 
the  site  of  the  present  village  of  Fredonia  and  the  surrounding  country.  The 
first  three  settlers  there  were  Thomas  McClintock,  David  Eason,  and  Low 
Miniger,  all  from  Pennsylvania.  All,  it  is  believed,  settled  the  same  year, 
and  so  nearly  at  the  same  time,  as  to  render  it  uncertain  who  was  first  on  the 
ground.  The  first  purchase  was  undoubtedly  made  by  McClintock,  who,  as 
appears  from  the  Company's  book,  entered  as  early  as  Dec.  22,  1803,  lots 
or  parts  of  lots  8,  14  and  20,  township  6,  range  12,  embracing  most  of  the 
land  on  which  the  village  of  Fredonia  stands.  In  1804,  he  made  a  small 
beginning  at  clearing,  and  built  a  cabin.  The  land  was  not  yet  surveyed 
into  lots.  It  is  said  that  "  the  lands  were  afterwards  surveyed  into  lots  by 
George  Moore,  of  Erie,  under  a  contract  between  Mr.  EUicott  and  Mr. 
McClintock,"  the  latter  then  residing  in  Erie  county.  Pa.  David  Eason,  of 
Northumberland  county,  Pa.,  also  selected  land  near  McClintock's,  subse- 
quently owned  by  Gen.  Elijah  Risley,  in  the  north  part  of  the  village  of 
Fredonia,  and  erected  a  log  cabin.  He  spent  here  the  summers  of  1803  and 
1804,  and  went  back  to  spend  the  winters. 

In  the  spring  of  1805  he  was  married,  and  in  April  he  set  out  with  Low 
Miniger,  Samuel  Eason,  a  cousin  of  David,  and  one  Covert,  and  their  families, 
for  Lake  Erie.  They  ascended  the  west  branch  of  the  Susquehanna  and 
the  Sinemahoning,  through  the  wilderness  to  Olean,  where  Major  Adam 
Hoops  had  just  commenced  a  settlement,  having  been  six  weeks  on  the  way, 
and  camped  out.  most  of  the  nights.  Here  they  built  canoes ;  descended 
the  Allegany  to  Warren  ;  came  up  the  Connewango  creek  and  Chautauqua 
lake  to  its  head  ;  and  thence  over  the  Portage  road  to  McMahan's  settlement. 
Covert  left  them  at  Warren,  and  went  down  the  Allegany.     Samuel  Eason 


went  to  North-east,  where  he  soon  died.  David  Eason  and  Miniger  proceeded 
to  Canadaway.  McClintock  arrived  there  about  the  same  time,  and  occupied 
his  cabin  in  the  south  part  of  the  village,  near  where  Judge  Gushing  subse- 
quently lived  and  died.  Miniger  settled  a  mile  or  more  north-west  from  the 

None  of  these  men  were  in  better  than  moderate  circumstances ;  Mr.  Eason 
was  quite  poor ;  and  he  and  his  wife  entered  their  cabin  with  little  else  than 
their  hands.  He  had  but  $io  in  money,  which  he  paid  for  a  barrel  of  flour 
brought  from  Canada  across  the  lake.  Upon  this,  with  fish  and  wild  game, 
he  relied  for  subsistence  until  he  could  raise  vegetables,  which  were  their 
principal  food  during  the  first  year.  Seated  on  lands  so  desirable  in  respect 
to  fertility  and  location,  it  was  natural  to  suppose  they  would  have  become 
permanent  settlers  at  Canadaway.  Yet  but  little  more  than  a  year  elapsed 
before  they  all  sold  their  lands  and  removed  to  the  settlement  at  the  Cross 

Canadaway,  too,  increased  rapidly  in  population.  We  find  on  the  Land 
Company's  books,  the  names  of  purchasers  in  the  present  town  of  Pomfret, 
in  1805,  Eliphalet  Burnham,  Zattu  Cushing,  Samuel  Perry,  Augustus  Burnham. 
In  1806,  purchases  were  made  by  Philo  Orton,  Elijah  Risley,  David  Cooley, 
Jr.  In  1806  and  1807  came  Hezekiah  Barker  and  Richard  Williams,  who 
built  a  grist  mill.  Dr.  Squire  White  came  in  1809.  Thomas  Bull  bought  in 
1808.  Outside  of  Pomfret,  but  within  a  few  miles  of  Fredonia,  in  the  present 
town  of  Sheridan,  early  considered  as  embraced  in  the  Canadaway  settlement, 
Francis  and  Wm.  Webber,  Hazadiah  Stebbins,  Abner  and  Alanson  Holmes, 
bought  in  1804.  In  1805,  Gerard  Griswdld,  Orsamus  Holmes,  Joel  R.  Lee, 
John  Walker,  Wm.  Gould,  Jonathan  Webber,  and  others.  In  1806,  Ozias 
Hart,  Justus  Hinman.     In  1807,  Abiram  Orton,  in  what  is  now  Arkwright. 

Portland  was  settled  early.  James  Dunn,  from  Lycoming  county,  Pa., 
came  to  this  county  in  1803.  In  May,  1804,  he  bought  a  large  tract  of  land, 
before  it  was  surveyed  into  lots.  His  purchase  amounted  to  nearly  1,200 
acres.  Among  those  who  soon  followed  him  were  Benjamin  Hutchins, 
David  Eaton,  Nathan  and  Elisha  Fay  and  Peter  Kane,  who  purchased  in 

In  Hanover,  the  earliest  purchases  were  made  in  that  part  of  the  town 
lying  on  Cattaraugus  creek,  and  which  was  surveyed  as  "  Cattataugus  Vil- 
lage." Charles  Avery  and  Wm.  G.  Sydney  appear  on  the  Land  Company's 
book  as  purchasers  in  December,  1804;  Amos  Settle,  in  July,  1806;  and 
Sylvanus  Maybee  articled  land  transferred  to  him  by  Charles  Avery,  who 
bought  in  i8o6.  Abel  Cleveland  and  David  Dickinson  bought  where  the 
village  of  Silver  Creek  stands.  The  land  was  taken  up  in  1803  or  1804,  and 
the  greater  part  of  it  articled  to  John  E.  Howard.  The  settlement  appears 
to  have  been  slow  for  several  years,  as  Mr.  Howard  is  said  to  have  been,  in 
1806,  the  only  settler  there.  Artemas  Clothier  came  in  1808  or  1809,  and 
Norman  Spink  the  same  year.  Jehial  Moore  came  to  Forestville  in  1808, 
and  built  a  saw-mill.     In  1809,  he  brought  his  family  in,  and  erected  a  grist- 


mill,  which  he  finished  the  next  spring.  The  same  year,  Guy  Webster  and 
Joseph  Brownell  settled  in  the  south-east  part  of  the  town. 

The  earliest  settlement  in  the  south-east  part  of  the  county  was  made  at 
the  present  village  of  Kennedy,  in  the  town  of  Poland,  followed  by  tiie 
settlement  of  a  few' families  in  the  present  town  of  Ellicott  Dr.  Thomas 
R.  Kennedy,  of  Meadville,  Pa.,  in  1805,  commenced  the  erection  of  saw- 
mills, chiefly  for  the  manufacture  of  pine  lumber  to  be  run  down  by  water  to 
the  southern  market.  To  these  inills  was  subsequently  added  a  grist-mill. 
[For  a  minute  description  of  the  building  and  operation  of  these  mills,  see 
historical  sketch  of  Poland.]  For  several  years  there  were  few  families 
here,  besides  those  employed  in  the  milling  business.  Among  them  was 
that  of  Edward  Shillito,  who  boarded  Kennedy's  workmen.  Dr.  Ken- 
nedy never  moved  his  own  family  to  this  place.  In  the  south-west  part  of 
Poland  we  find,  as  original  purchasers,  in  1808,  Gideon  Gilson ;  in  1809, 
Stephen  Hadley,  John  Owen  and  John  Arthur ;  in  1810,  John  Brown  and 
Colt  and  Marlin ;  in  181 1,  Abraham  Tupper.  How  many  of  these  became 
actual  settlers  we  have  not  the  means  of  knowing.  ^ 

In  the  east  part  of  Ellicott,  at  and  near  Levant,  a  settlement  was  com- 
menced in  1806  by  Wm.  Willson,  followed  soon  by  James  Culbertson  and 
George  W.  Fen  ton.  In  1807,  Dr.  Kennedy  and  Edward  Work  bought  some 
1,200  acres  on  both  sides  of  the  outlet  below  Dexterville  ;  and  mills  were 
built  and  a  settlement  commenced  at  Worksburg,  in  Ellicott,  nearly  three 
miles  north-east  from  Jamestown,  now  known  as  Falconer's,  a  station  on  the 
Dunkirk,  Allegany  "Valley  &  Pittsburgh  railroad. 

In  the  town  of  Chautauqua,  Alexander  Mclntyre  appears  to  have  been 
the  first  purchaser,  at  the  head  of  the  lake,  in  r8o4.  In  1806,  the  Prender- 
gast  families  settled  on  the  west  side  of  the  lake,  where  they  purchased 
several  thousand  acres.  On  the  east  side  of  the  lake,  Filer  Sacket  and 
Peter  Barnhart  bought  in  1805,  and  Miles  Scofield  in  1806.  Further  north, 
Philo  Hopson,  William  and  Darius  Dexter,  and  John  W.  Winsor,  in  1809. 
In  EUery,  Wm.  Bemus  settled  at  Bemus  Point  in  1806,  and  later  in  the  same 
year  Jeremiah  Griffith  in  the  south  part  of  the  town,  where  a  number  of 
families  soon  followed.  Ii>  Harmony,  north  of  Ashville,  Thomas  Bemus 
commenced  a  clearing  in  1806,  and  in  1807  Jonathan  Cheney  settled.  At 
Ashville,  Reuben  Slayton  and  others  settled  in  1809.  Josiah  Carpenter  and 
several  of  his  sons  settled  in  1809  and  18 10,  on  lands  bought  by  him  in  1808. 

South  of  Jamestown,  a  settlement  was  commenced  on  the  Stillwater  creek, 
•in  Kiantone.  Joseph  Akin  was  the  first  settler  there,  in  1810.  (?)  Soon  after, 
in  the  vicinity  of  Akin's  and  in  other  parts  of  the  town,  came  Solomon 
Jones,  Wm.  Sears,  Ebenezer  Davis,  Ebenezer  Cheney,  and  William  and 
Isaac  Martin.  About  the  same  time  was  commenced  the  settlement  at 
Jamestown,  where,  however,  there  were  few  families  before  the  war  of  181 2. 
The  foregoing  are  the  principal  settlements  made  prior  to  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  county  in  1811. 



Early  Dwellings. 

The  labors  of  the  pioneer  commence  with  the  opening  of  a  place  in  the 
forest  for  the  erection  of  a  dwelling.  A  description  of  those  early  domiciles, 
familiarly  termed  log  cabins,  may  be  interesting  to  readers  who  were  bom 
and  reared  in  the  "  ceiled  houses  "  of  their  fathers,  and  especially  to  their 
descendants,  who  will  never  see  a  structure  of  this  kind. 

Trees  of  uniform  size,  as  nearly  as  may  be,  are  selected,  cut  into  pieces  of 
the  desired  length,  and  carried  or  hauled  to  the  site  of  the  proposed  building. 
There  is  at  each  corner  an  expert  hand  with  an  axe  to  saddle  and  notch  the 
logs.  The  saddling  is  done  by  so  hewing  the  end  of  the  log  as  to  give  the 
upper  half  the  shape  of  the  roof  of  a  building.  A  notch  is  then  cut  into 
the  next  log  to  fit  the  saddle,,  and  of  such  depth  as  to  bring  the  logs  together. 
The  usual  height  was  one  story.  The  gable  was  laid  up  with  logs  gradually 
shortened  up  to  the  top  eg-  peak,  giving  the  shape  or  pitch  of  the  roof.  On 
the  logs  which  formed  these  gables,  were  laid  stout  poles  reaching  from  one 
gable  to  the  other,  at  suitable  distances,  to  hold  the  covering,  which  con- 
sisted of  bark  peeled  from  elm  or  basswood  trees.  The  strips  of  bark  were 
about  four  feet  long,  and  about  two  or  three  feet  wide,  and  laid  in  tiers,  each 
lapping  on  the  preceding  one,  after  the  manner  of  shingling.  The  bark  was 
kept  down  by  a  heavy  pole  laid  across  each  tier,  and  fastened  at  the  ends. 
Sometimes,  instead  of  bark,  a  kind  of  shingles  was  used,  split  from  straight 
rifted  trees,  and  resembling  undressed  staves  of  flour  or  liquor  barrels.  These 
were  by  some  called  shakes.  They  were  laid  about  two  feet  to  the  weather. 
They  were  then  fastened  down*  by  heavy  poles,  called  weight  poles,  as  in 
the  case  of  bark  roofs. 

At  one  end  of  the  building,  a  square -about  8  feet  in  length  and  5  or  6 
feet  in  height  is  cut  out,  and  the  space  filled  by  a  stone  wall  laid  in  clay  or 
mortar  for  a  fire-place.  The  chimney,  resting  on  props  made  in  various 
ways,  was  commenced  at  a  proper  height  above  the  hearth,  very  wide,  to 
correspond  with  the  broad  fire-place  beneath  it.  It  was  built  with  split 
sticks  of  timber,  resembling  common  strip  lath,  but  being  much  larger. 
They  were  laid  up  in  the  manner  of  a  cob-house,  the  chimney  being  gradu- 
ally narrowed  upward  to  the  top,  where  its  size  was  about  the  same  as  was 
that  of  an  ordinary  brick  chimney  of  a  frame  house  fifty  years  ago.  The 
inside  was  plastered  with  clay  or  mud  and  chopped  straw,  the  latter  answering  • 
the  same  purpose  as  hair  in  the  mortar  used  in  plastering  the  inside  walls  of 
a  house.  This  "  stick  chimney,"  or  "  stick  and  clay  chimney,''  was  far  from 
being  fire-proof.  Fire  would  sometimes  be  communicated  to  the  sticks  from 
burning  soot,  and  alarm  the  family.  A  speedy  application  of  water  thrown 
up  plentifully  inside,  soon  allayed  all  fears. 

A  door-way  was  cut  through  one  side  of  the  house,  and  split  pieces  for 
door  posts,  sometimes  called  "  door-cheeks,"  were  pinned  to  the  ends  of  the 


logs  with  wooden  pins.  For  the  want  of  boards  to  make  doors,  a  blanket 
was  used  to  close  the  door  entrance  until  boards  could  be  obtained.  The 
hinges  and  the  latch  were  both  made  of  wood.  The  latch  was  raised  from 
the  outside  by  a  string  passing  through  the  door  and  fastened  to  the  latch 
inside.  The  safety  of  the  family  during  the  night  was  effected  by  drawing  in 
the  latchstring.  Floors  were  made  of  split  slabs,  hewed  on  one  side,  and 
were  sometimes  called  puncheons.  For  a  window,  a  hole  was  cut  in  the  wall 
large  enough  to  admit  a  sash  of  four  or  ^Lx  panes  of  7  by  9  glass. 
When  glass  could  not  be  had,  the  hole  was  sometimes  closed  with  paper 
pasted  over  it.  The  interstices  or  cracks  between  the  logs  were  filled  with 
mud  or  clay.  The  larger  cracks  or  chinks  were -partly  closed  with  split 
pieces  of  wood  before  the  mortar  was  applied. 

Immigrants  from  a  great  distance  brought  no  bedsteads.  A  substitute  was 
made  by  boring  holes  in  the  walls,  in  a  corner  of  the  house,  into  which  the 
ends  of  poles  were  fitted.  Three  corners  of  the  bedstead  being  thus  fast- 
ened to  the  walls,  it  required  but  a  single  post.  It  now  wanted  only  a  cord, 
which  was  sometimes  made  of  elm  or  basswood  bark. 

A  view  of  the  internal  arrangements  of  one  of  these  primitive  dwellings 
would  be  interesting  to  those  who  are  unacquainted  with  pioneer  life. 
On  entering,  (supposing  it  to  be  meal  time,)  the  smaller  children  are 
seen  standing  or  sitting  around  a  large  chest  in  which  some  of  the  more 
valuable  articles  had  been  brought,  and  which  now  serves  as  a  table ;  the 
parents  and  older  children  sitting  at  a  table  made,  perhaps,  of  a  wide 
puncheon  plank,  partaking  of  their  plain  meal  cooked  by  a  log-heap  fire. 
In  one  corner  of  the  room  are  one  or  two  small  shelves  on  wooden  pins, 
displaying  the  table  ware,  (when  not  in  use,)  consisting  of  a  few  teacups  and 
saucers,  a  few  blue-edged  plates,  with  a  goodly  number  of  pewter  plates, 
perhaps  standing  single,  on  their  edges,  leaning  against  the  wall  to  render 
the  display  of  table  furniture  more  conspicuous.  Underneath  this  cupboard 
are  seen  a  few  pots,  a  spider,  and  perhaps  a  bake-kettle.  Not  a  sufficient 
number  of  chairs — perhaps  none — having  been  brought,  the  deficiency  ha-s 
been  supplied  with  three-legged  stools  made  of  puncheon  boards.  Over  the 
door-way  lies  the  indispensable  rifle  on  two  wooden  hooks  nailed  to  a  log  of 
the  cabin.  On  the  walls  hang  divers  garments  of  female  attire  made  of 
cotton  and  woolen  fabrics,  some  of  which  had  done  long  service  before  their 
removal  hither. 

Log  cabins  were  lighted  in  the  night  time  in  different  ways.  In  absence 
of  candles  and  lamps,  light  was,  through  the  winter  season,  emitted  from  the 
fire-place,  where  huge  logs  were  kept  burning.  A  kind  of  substitute  for 
candles  was  sometimes  prepared  by  taking  a  wooden  rod  ten  or  twelve 
inches  in  length,  wrapping  around  it  a  strip  of  cotton  or  linen  cloth,  and 
covering  it  with  tallow,  pressed  on  with  the  hand.  These  "  sluts,''  as  the\' 
were  sometimes  called,  afforded  light  for  several  nights.  Lamps  were  pre- 
pared by  dividing  a  large  turnip  in  the  middle,  scraping  out  the  inside  quite 
down  to  the  rind,  and  then  inserting  a  stick  about  three  inches  in  length,  in 


the  center,  so  as  to  stand  upright.  A  strip  of  linen  or  cotton  cloth  was  then 
wrapped  around  it ;  and  melted  lard  or  deer's  tallow  was  poured  in  till  the 
turnip  rind  was  full,  when  the  lamp  was  ready  for  use.  [Lamps  of  this 
description  were  probably  very  rare.]  By  the  light  of  these  and  other  rudely 
constructed  lamps,  the  women  spun  and  sewed,  and  the  men  read,  when 
books  could  be  obtained.  When  neither  lard  nor  tallow  could  be  had,  the 
large  blazing  fire  supplied  the  needed  light.  By  these  great  fire-places  many 
skeins  of  thread  have  been  spun,  many  a  yard  of  linsey  woven,  and  many  a 
frock  and  pantaloons  made. 

Living  in  houses  like  those  described,  was  attended  with  serious  discom- 
forts. A  single  room  served  the  purposes  of  kitchen,  dining-room,  sitting- 
room,  bed-room  and  parlor.  In  many  families  were  six,  eight  or  ten 
children,  who  were,  with  their  parents,  crowded  into  one  room.  In  one 
comer  was  the  father  and  mother's  bed,  and  under  it  the  trundle-bed  for  the 
smaller  children.  The  larger  ones  lodged  in  the  chamber,  which  they 
entered  by  a  ladder  in  another  corner,  and  sometimes  made  tracks  to  and 
from  their  beds  in  the  snow  driven  through  the  crevices  by  the  wind.  Nor 
did  the  roofs,  made  of  barks  or  "  shakes,"  protect  them  from  rains  in  the 
summer.  How  visitors  who  came  to  spend  the  night  were  disposed  of,  the 
reader  may  not  easily  conceive.  Some,  as  their  families  increased,  added  to 
their  houses  an  additional  room  of  the  same  size  and  manner  of  construction 
as  the  former.  Such  were  the  dwellings  and  condition  of  many  of  the  early 
settlers  of  the  Holland  Purchase.  A  few  of  these  men  still  linger  among  us, 
in  possession  of  ample  fortunes,  and  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  conveniences 
and  improvements  of  the  present  age — the  reward  of  their  early  privations 
and  toils. 

Clearing  Land. 

The  lands  in  the  county  were  covered  with  a  dense  and  heavy  forest.  To 
clear  the  soil  of  its  timber  required  an  amount  of  hard  labor  of  which  many 
of  its  present  occupants  have  no  adequate  conception.  Many  now  living  on 
the  hard-earned  fortunes  of  their  pioneer  fathers  and  grandfathers,  could  not 
be  induced  to  enter  upon  a  similar  course  of  labor. 

The  first  part  of  the  clearing,  process  was  "  underbrushing."  The  bushes 
and  smallest  sapplings  were  cut  down  near  the  ground  and  piled  in  heaps. 
The  trees  were  then  felled,  their  bodies  cut  into  lengths  of  1 2  to  15  feet,  and 
the  brush  and  small  limbs  of  the  trees  were  thrown  into  heaps.  After  the  brush 
heaps  had  become  thoroughly  dry,  they  were  burned.  As  a  "  good  bum  " 
was  desirable,  a  dry  time  was  chosen.  The  old  leaves  being  dry  and  cover- 
ing the  ground,  the  whole  field  would  be  burned  over,  and  an  abundant  crop 
assured.  The  next  part  of  the  process  was  "  logging,"  or  log-rolling.  This 
required  the  associated  labor  of  a  number  of  men,  who  would,  in  turn,  assist 
each  other.  The  neighbors,  on  invitation,  would  attend  with  their  hand- 
spikes. These  were  strong  poles,  about  six  feet  in  length,  and  flattened  at 
the  larger  end,  in  order  to  their  being  more  easily  forced  under  or  between 


the  logs.  Logs  too  heavy  to  be  carried,  were  drawn  to  the  pile  by  a  team, 
[generally  oxen,]  and  rolled  up  on  the  pile  on  skids,  one  end  lying  on  the 
ground,  the  other  on  the  heap.  The  heaps  were  then  burne^,  and  the  soil 
was  ready  for  the  seed.  Most  of  the  logging  was  done  by  "  bees.''  A  num- 
ber of  the  neighbors  would  come  with  their  teams,  attended  by  a  sufficient 
number  of  extra  hands ;  and  a  whole  field  of  several  acres  would  be  logged 
in  an  afternoon.  At  these  logging  bees,  as  at  house  and  barn  raisings,  was 
generally  a  2-gallon  bottle — perhaps  two — filled  with  whisky.  Most  of  the 
men  were  moderate  drinkers ;  some,  however,  gave  indications,  by  their 
many  witty  sayings,  that  they  had  overstepped  the  bounds  of  moderation. 
But  there  were  also,  thus  early,  a  few  teetotal  temperance  men,  whose  incre- 
dulity as  to  the  magic  power  of  strong  drink  as  an  assistant  to  manual  labor, 
had  caused  them  to  abandon  its  use. 

Wild  Animals. 

The  wild  animals  inhabiting  this  region  at  the  time  of  its  settlement,  were 
the  deer,  wolf,  bear,  wild  cat,  fox,  otter,  porcupine  or  hedge-hog,  raccoon, 
woodchuck  or  ground-hog,  skunk,  mink,  muskrat,  opossum,  rabbit,  weasel 
and  squirrel.  None  were  much  feared  except  the  bear  and  the  wolf  The 
former  was  the  most  dangerous ;  the  latter  most  destructive  to  property. 
The  bear  is  generally  ready  to  attack  a  person ;  the  wolf  seldom  does  so 
unless  impelled  by  hunger,  or  in  defense.  For  many  years  it  was  difficult  to 
protect  sheep  from  the  ravages  of  the  wolves.  They  had  to  be  penned  every 
night.  Many  were  destroyed,  even  in  the  day  time,  near  the  house.  It  is 
the  nature  of  the  wolf  to  seize  a  sheep  by  the  throat  and  suck  its  blood,  and 
leave  the  carcass  as  food  for  other  carniverous  animals  ;  provided  the  number 
of  sheep  is  sufficient  thus  to  satisfy  the  hunger  of  their  destroyers.  Pigs  and 
calves  also  were  sometimes  victims  to  these  pests  of  the  early  settlers.  Per- 
sons were  followed  by  them  to  the  doors  of  their  dwellings ;  and  the  sleep 
of  families  was  often  disturbed  during  a  great  portion  of  the  night  by  their 
bowlings.  "  The  noise  made  by  these  animals,"  as  described  by  a  citizen  of 
Stockton,  "  was  not,  as  some  imagine,  a  coarse  bass  growl,  but  a  strong 
crakely  tenor.  Seemingly  a  leader  began  the  concert  by  a  solo  of  a  firm, 
prolonged  sound,  when  the  rest  would  pitch  in  with  a  grand  chorus  of  the 
most  terrible  jargon  of  sounds,  dying  away  at  the  place  of  beginning,  as  the 
reverberations  sounded  over  the  far  off  hills." 

To  effect  the  destruction  of  these  animals,  bounties  for  their  scalps  were' 
offered  by  the  public  authorities.  The  state  offered  a  bounty  of  $20  for  the 
destruction  of  a  full  grown  wolf,  or  half  that  sum  for  a  young  one ;  and  the 
county  gave  the  same  bounty ;  and  most,  if  not  all,  of  the  towns  gave  not 
less  than  $10  as  a  town  bounty — making,  in  the  aggregate,  a  bounty  of  $50 
for  the  destruction  of  every  full  grown  wolf  This  large  bounty  induced 
hunters  and  trappers  to  devote  much  time  to  the  destruction  of  wolves. 
From  an  examination  of  the  records  by  Judge  Foote  many  years  since,  it  was 
found  that  the  county  paid  in  r8i5,  $420;  in  1816,  $480;  in  1817,  $580; 
Jf  6 


in  1818,  $710;  in  i8ig,  $472;  and  in  1820,  $510.  The  wolves  having 
become  so  reduced  by  these  large  bounties,  the  board  of  supervisors  peti- 
tioned the  legislature  to  leave  the  amount  of  bounty  discretionary  with  the 
board;  and  the  petition  was  granted.  The  bounty  was  reduced  in  1820  to 
$5  for  every  full  grown  wolf,  and  for  every  whelp  $2.50.  The  same  bounties 
were  voted  the  nejct  year.  To  what  amount  bounties  were  paid  subsequently 
to  1820,  the  public  records  do  not  show.  In  1834,  "  two  certificates  granted 
by  justices  for  killing  wolves  were  allowed,  and  one,  being  informal,  was 
rejected."  The  records  show  no  later  action  of  the  board  in  relation  to 

As  wolves  hunt  in  the  night,  when  they  can  not  be  shot,  most  of  them 
were  probably  caught  in  traps,  of  which  there  were  several  kinds.  One 
kind  was  a  small  pen  built  of  small  logs  or  heavy  poles,  6  or  7  feet  high, 
and  narrowed  upward.  Into  this  pen  a  bait  was  thrown.  A  wolf  could 
easily  enter  it  at  the  top,  but  was  unable  to  get  out.  Another  was  the  steel 
trap,  with  jaws  a  foot  or  more  in  length.  The  clamps  were  notched  like  a 
cross-cut  saw.  It  resembled,  in  form,  a  common  spring  rat  trap.  Attached 
to  it  was  a  chain  with  hooks,  not  to  fasten  it,  but  to  make  it  difficult  for  the 
wolf  to  drag  it.  Caught,  as  he  probably  would  be,  by  a  fore  leg  while 
trying  to  paw  out  the  bait,  if  the  trap  were  made  fast,  he  would  gnaw  off  his 
leg  and  be  gone.  There  have  been  still  other  traps,  but  descriptions  of 
them  will  not  be  attempted. 

The  following  description  of  a  wolf  hunt  is  from  the  pen  of  Mr.  Judge  L. 
Bugbee,  of  Stockton : 

"Perhaps  no  town  in  the  county  suffered  so  severely  as  Stockton.  The 
deep  recesses  of  the  Cassadaga  swamp,  in  this  town,  formed  for  the  wolf  a 
secure  retreat,  where,  during  the  day  time,  he  could  quietly  digest  his  mutton 
of  the  night  before. 

"  At  length,  the  inhabitants  became  deeply  exasperated,  and  resolved  on 
the  extermination  of  the  wolf.     Meetings  were  held  and  a  plan  devised. 

"The  battle  ground  was  selected  nearly  east  of  the  fork  of  the  Cassadaga 
and  Bear  creeks.  The  plan  of  battle  was  a  simultaneous  attack  upon  all 
sides  of  the  swamp  at  once.  On  the  east  the  line  was  formed  on  the 
town  line,  between  Stockton  and  Charlotte ;  on  the  north  by  the  line  of 
lots  near  Cooper's  mill ;  on  the  west  by  the  Cassadaga  creek,  and  on  the 
south  by  another  line  of  lots  near  the  Swamp  road,  east  of  the  residence  of 
Abel  Brunson.  The  ground  was  prepared  under  the  supervision  of  Col. 
■Charles  Haywood,  of  EUery,  assisted  by  Return  Tabor,  Bela  Todd,  and 
Royal  Putnam.  These  lines  were  rendered  very  plain  by  blazing  trees  and 
lopping  brush. 

"  By  previous  arrangement,  the  forces  met  on  the  second  day  of  October, 
1824.  The  north  line  of  attack  was  commanded  by  Gen.  Leverett  Barker, 
of  Fredonia,  assisted  by  Elijah  Risley  and  Walter  Smith  as  lieutenants. 
Col.  Obed  Edson,  of  Sinclairville,  with  Judge  J.  M.  Edson  and  Joy  Handy, 
commanded  the  last  division ;  Major  Asael  Lyon  and  Gen.  George  T.  Camp 
on  the  west,  and  Col.  Charles  Haywood  on  the  south,  with  Elias  Clark,  of 
Ellery,  as  his  lieutenant.  These  commanders  all  wore  pistols  in  their  belts 
to  designate  their  office,  and  were  assisted  by  the  four  men  as  guides,  who 


had  prepared  the  lines  a  short  time  before.  Before  going  into  the  swamp, 
each  division  had  chosen  its  place  of  rendezvous :  The  east  at  Sinclairville, 
the  north  at  Cassadaga  village,  the  west  at  Delanti,  and  the  south  at  the 
residence  of  Newell  Putnam,  Esq.,  in  the  south  part  of  Stockton.  Dr. 
Waterman  Ellsworth,  of  Delanti,  was  the  captain  of  the  men  from  Stockton, 
and  very  active  in  getting  up  the  '  hunt' 

"  Early  in  the  forenoon  the  men  were  all  upon  the  ground,  forming  a  con- 
tinuous line  and  encircling  a  goodly  portion  of  the  swamp.  Mr.  Royal 
Putnam,  who  assisted  in  marking  the  lines  on  all  sides,  thinks  the  square  was 
full  one  mile  and  a  half  upon  each  side.  The  number  of  men  on  the 
lines  were  sufficient  to  be  within  easy  speaking  distance  from  each  other. 
The  signal  for  advance  was  '  Boaz,'  being  given  by  Gen.  Barker,  and  as  it 
returned,  the  lines  moved  forward  in  splendid  order,  growing  more  compact 
until  they  arrived  on  the  battle  grounds,  forming  a  square  about  one  mile  in 
circumference,  or  eighty  rods  on  a  side.  No  man  was  to  fire  his  gun  until  he 
received  the  pass-word  from  the  general,  and  it  was  known  that  the  lines 
were  closed  up.  The  men  now  stood  shoulder  to  shoulder.  '  Jachin,'  the 
pass-word,  quickly  made  its  round,  and  the  signal  gun  was  discharged,  and 
in  a  moment  the  firing  became  general.  After  the  first  discharge  of  fire-arms 
the  deer  and  rabbits  within  the  lines  became  frantic  with  fright,  making  the 
rounds  and  seeking  an  opening  through  which  to  escape.  One  stately  buck, 
making  the  rounds,  gallantly  charged  the  line,  by  forcing  his  head  between 
the  legs  of  Charles  P.  Young,  from  ESery,  and  carrying  him  several  rods 
astride  his  neck,  then  bounding  away,  unharmed,  into  the  free  wilderness, 
save  perhaps  a  few  sore  ribs,  from  the  numerous  punches  received  by  the 
muskets  in  the  hands  of  the  men,  before  they  had  time  to  reload  their  pieces. 
After  all  the  game  had  been  dispatched  that  could  be  seen,  a  committee  of 
three  or  more  was  sent  within  the  inclosure,  to  search  under  old  logs  and 
fallen  trees  to  ascertain  if  any  game  had  fled  to  any  of  these  places  for  safety. 
Dr.  Ellsworth  is  the  only  man  remembered  as  being  upon  that  committee. 

"  After  the  return  of  the  committee,  the  men,  by  orders,  moved  towards 
the  center  of  the  inclosure,  bringing  in  the  game,  consisting  of  two  large 
wolves,  one  bear,  several  deer  and  a  large  number  of  rabbits.  The  men 
were  evidently  disappointed  in  the  number  of  wolves  captured,  but  after 
speeches  from  a  number  of  the  officers,  the  woods  rang  with  their  hearty 
cheers,  and  they  resolved  for  another  hunt,  which  took  place  in  about  three 
weeks,  killing  one  wolf  and  several  deer  and  other  small  game.  The  third 
hunt  was  in  May,  1825 ;  but  no  wolves  were  found,  and  only  a  few  deer.  The 
fourth  and  last  hunt  under  this  organization  was  in  June,  1828,  but  like  the 
two  former,  caught  no  wolves. 

"  The  county  had  offered  a  large  bounty  for  the  scalp  of  the  wolf,  fifty 
dollars  or  upward,  and  by  resolution.  Gen.  Barker,  Elijah  Risley  and  Walter 
Smith  were  elected  a  committee  to  forward  the  scalps,  and  obtain  the  money, 
and  expend  it  in  ammunition,  provision  and  whisky  to  assist  the  men  in 
future  hunts.  From  this  date,  wolves  ceased  to  be  troublesome  in  this  part 
of  the  county,  and  very  soon  left  our  borders  for  more  secure  quarters." 

A  hazardous  encounter  with  a  bear  is  thus  related  by  J.  L.  Bugbee,  Esq.,  of 
Stockton  : 

"  Wyman  Bugbee,  of  Ellington,  in  1815,  with  two  of  his  neighbors  started 
on  a  deer  hunt;  and  his  dog  soon  discovered  and  attacked  a  bear.  The 
outcry  of  the  dog  brought  the  hunters  to  the  rescue.     Wyman  advanced  and 


made  a  pass  at  the  bear  with  his  axe,  when  Bruin,  with  a  dexterous  movement 
with  his  paw,  knocked  the  axe  from  his  hands,  dropped  the  dog,  and  with 
his  strong  jaws  laid  hold  of  Wyman's  leg  just  above  the  ankle.  Then  came 
the  'tug  of  war;'  and  the  result  was,  for  sometime,  doubtful.  His  com- 
rades durst  not  shoot,  as  the  position  of  the  combatants  was  constantly 
changing ;  the  bear  still  holding  his  grip  on  Bugbee's  leg ;  and  his  friends 
undecided  as  to  what  it  was  best  to  do.  Evidently,  they  did  not  wish  to 
hazard  too  much  in  the  probability  of  becoming  the  chief  party  in  the  strug- 
gle for  life  with  this  shaggy  and  fearful  monster.  However,  they  were  con- 
tiijually  doing  what  they  could,  looking  well  to  every  dangerous  position. 
Bugbee  soon  gained  the  battle,  by  the  aid  of  his  jack-knife,  cutting  the 
bear's  throat ;  but  it  was  six  months  before  he  was  able  to  leave  his 

Among  the  materials  of  our  early  history,  is  the  following  account  of  a 
bear  eiuounter  : 

"In  1822,  Jehiel  Tiffany,  returning  through  the  woods  to  Jamestown, 
treed  a  bear  with  three  cubs,  a  short  distance  north  of  the  village.  He 
came  to  the  village  and  rallied  several  men  with  guns  to  go  and  kill  the 
bears.  On  arriving  at  the  place,  two  of  the  cubs  were  spied  high  up  in  a  pine 
tree  ;  and  John  Pickard,  a  good  marksman  with  a  rifle,  soon  shot  them  both. 
The  other  cub  and  the  old  bear  not  being  discovered,  most  of  the  party 
started  for  the  village.  Mr.  Tiffany,  Samuel  Barrett,  Thomas  W.  Harvey, 
and  John  Pickard  remained  to  watch  for  the  missing  bears.  They  soon 
heard  the  cub  in  the  top  of  a  tall  hemlock,  the  limbs  of  which  were  so  dense 
as  to  conceal  the  animal.  Determined  to  capture  it,  Major  Barrett  climbed 
the  tree,  and  shook  it  from  one  of  the  highest  limbs ;  but  in  its  fall  it  caught 
another  limb.  From  this,  too,  it  was  shaken,  and  again  caught  a  limb  lower 
down.  This  limb  being  too  stiff  to  admit  of  the  cub's  being  shaken  off, 
Barrett  cut  the  limb  partly  off  with  his  jack-knife,  when  it  lopped  down,  and 
the  bear  fell  to  the  ground,  and  was  so  stunned  by  the  fall,  that  Gen.  Harvey 
caught  it  and  tied  its  feet. 

"  When  the  cub  made  a  noise,  the  old  bear  was  heard  near  by  in  the 
bushes.  Harvey  found  that  by  biting  the  cub's  ear,  he  could  make  it  squeal. 
This  brought  the  old  bear  near,  but  not  fully  in  sight.  Pickard  then  stepped 
off  a  few  rods  into  the  woods,  and,  while  watching  the  bear,  Harvey  rallied  the 
bear  by  biting  the  cub's  ear,  and  brought  her  in  sight  of  Pickard,  who  sent 
a  rifle-ball  into  her  head  and  neck.  Pickard  and  Barrett,  after  having  taken 
out  the  entrails,  brought  her  on  a  pole  to  the  village,  while  Gen.  Harvey 
carried  the  cub  home  and  tamed  it." 

Among  the  numerous  instances  of  men's  coming  in  contact  with  bears, 
wolves,  and  other  ravenous  beasts,  it  is  believed  there  is  not  one  in  which  a 
man  has  been  killed. 

Of  the  native  animals  of  the  forest  which  have  disappeared,  was  the 
porcupine  or  hedge-hog.  It  was  nearly  as  large  as  a  raccoon,  had  a  round 
head,  and  was  covered  all  over  with  quills  from  an  inch  to  two  inches  long, 
and  as  hard  and  as  sharp  as  a  needle.  It  was  a  terror  to  dogs.  Young 
dogs,  not  knowing  the  consequence,  would  seize  the  animal,  and  get  the 
quills  stuck  into  their  mouths.  It  is  the  nature  of  these  quills  to  work 
deeper  into  the  flesh  and  kill  the  dogs,  if  not  extracted  in  season,  which 



was  usually  done  with  nippers.  A  dog  once  stuck  with  quills  would  not  be 
likely  again  to  touch  a  porcupine. 

But  while  the  forest  was  infested  with  noxious  animak,  it  was  of  no  small 
value  as  a  hunting  ground.  Deer  hunting  in  the  winter  was  a  common  busi- 
ness. Much  of  the  meat  of  deer  was  sometimes  lost.  The  hunter,  if  alone 
and  far  from  home,  would  shoulder  the  more  valuable  part — the  hams  and 
skin — and  leave  the  rest  for  the  wolves  ;  or,  as  was  sometimes  done,  he  would 
hang  it  to  a  sapling  or  a  large  limb  of  a  tree,  which  had  perhaps  been  bent  down 
for  the  purpose,  and  which,  springing  back,  would  raise  the  meat  beyond  the 
reach  of  the  wolves.  Having  delivered  his  first  load  at  his  cabin,  he  would 
return,  conducted  by  his  tracks  in  the  snow,  and  bring  home  the  remainder. 
The  opossum,  the  rabbit  and  the  squirrel,  were  also  a  part  of  the  pioneer's 
fare.  To  the  variety  of  meats  enumerated,  may  be  added  several  of  the 
feathered  tribes,  as  pigeons,  wild  turkeys,  partridges,  and  several  others. 

But  the  principal  meat  of  early  settlers  did  not  long  consist  of  game. 
Pork  and  poultry  were  soon  raised  in  abundance.  The  common  fowl  fur- 
nished meat  and  eggs.  Geese,  though  sometimes  eaten,  were  raised  chiefly 
for  the  feathers,  with  which  old  beds  were  replenished  and  new  ones  filled. 
Doubtless,  many  still  repose  on  beds  made  by  their  mothers  or  grahdmothers 
half  a  century  ago. 

Early  Farming. 

Agriculture  is  a  term  hardly  applicable  to  pioneer  farming.  The  imple- 
ments used  would,  in  this  age  of  improvement,  attract  attention  as  great 
curiosities.  The  "  virgin  soil,"  as  has  been  observed,  was  ready  for  the  seed 
when  cleared  of  its  timber.  The  principal  instrument  of  tillage  for  several 
years  was  the  triangular  harrow,  usually  called  drag.  This  instrument  con- 
sisted principally  of  two  pieces  of  timber,  (hewed,  before  there  were  mills  for 
sawing,)  about  five  inches  square  and  six  feet  long,  put  together  in  the  form 
of  the  letter  A.  The  drag  was  sometimes  made  of  a  crotched  tree,  and 
needed  no  framing.  The  teeth  were  nearly  double  the  size  of  those  now 
used,  in  order  to  stand  the  severe  trial  they  were  to  undergo.  The  drag 
bounded  along  over  stubs  and  roots  and  stones,  drawn  by  oxen  often  driven 
by  boys. 

When  the  roots  had  become  sufficiently  brittle  to  admit  of  the  use  of  the 
plow,  an  instrument  was  used  which  it  would  puzzle  the  young  men  of  the 
present  day  to  give  a  name.  The  idea  of  a  cast  iron  plow  had  not  then  been 
conceived  by  the  inventor.  It  is  said  to  have  been  invented  by  Jethro  Wood, 
of  Sclpio,  Cayuga  county,  N.  Y.,  about  fifty  years  ago,  though  it  is  a  much 
less  number  of  years  since  it  came  into  general  use.  Late  improvements  in 
the  plow  and  the  harrow,  and  the  invention  of  cultivators,  drills,  and  other 
labor-saving  implements,  have  wonderfully  changed  the  aspect  of  farming, 
and  increased  the  power  of  production. 

In  harvesting,  the  change  is  not  less  striking.  Before  the  decay  and 
removal  of  stumps  permitted  the  use  of  the  grain  cradle,  wheat  was  cut  with 


the  sickle,  now  a  rare  instrument.  It  was  then  a  staple  article  of  merchan- 
dise. In  the  old  day-books  and  journals  of  the  early  merchants,  if  they 
could  be  found,  und|f  the  names  of  scores  of  customers  would  be  seen  the 
charge,  "  To  i  Sickle,"  followed,  in  many  cases  by  that  other  charge,  "  To  i 
gallon  Whisky,"  an  article  deemed  by  some  as  necessary  in  the  harvesting 
operation  as  the  instrument  itself.  The  cradle,  which  superseded  the  sickle, 
is  now  fast  giving  way — in  many  parts  of  the  country  has  already  entirely 
given  place — to  the  reaper,  an  instrument  then  no  more  likely  to  be  invented 
than  the  photographic  art,  or  the  means  of  hourly  intercourse  with  the  inhab- 
itants of  the  opposite  side  of  the  globe.  Fields  of  wheat  of  one  hundred 
to  five  hundred  acres  each,  are  not  rare  in  some  of  the  Western  States.  Let 
a  person  imagine  an  attempt  to  cut  these  immense  fields  of  grain  by  hand- 
fuls  with  the  sickle,  and  he  cannot  fail  to  appreciate  the  invention  of  the 

Grain  was  generally  threshed  by  the  early  settlers  with  a  flail,  ten  to  twenty 
bushels  a  day.  There  were  no  fanning-mills  to  separate  the  grain  from  the 
chaff.  For  many  years  the  mill-peddlers  did  not  venture  so  far  west  as 
Chautauqua.  Grain  was  cleaned  with  a  fan.  Neither  the  instrument  nor 
the  operation  is  easily  described  ;  nor  was  it  probably  ever  nmch  used  here. 
Another  method  was  nearly  as  follows  :  A  riddle  [a  very  coarse  sieve]  about 
30  inches  in  diameter  and  5  or  6  inches  deep,  was  filled  with  wheat  in  the 
chaff.  To  "  raise  the  wind,"  a  linen  sheet,  perhaps  taken  from  the  bed,  was 
held  at  the  corners  by  two  men,  who  gave  it  a  semi-rotary  motion,  or  sudden 
swing.  Another  man  holding  up  and  shaking  the  riddle  with  its  contents, 
the  chaff  was  blown  from  the  falling  wheat.  About  ten  bushels  were  thus 
cleaned  in  half  a  day.  When  at  length  farmers  had  the  means  of  buying 
mills,  and  the  roads  admitted  of  their  transportation,  fanning-^mills  were 
introduced.  A  large  portion  of  this  county  was  early  supplied  with  mills  of 
an  exceMent  quality,  by  one  of  its  present  worthy  and  distinguished  citizens, 
the  Hon.  George  W.  Patterson,  of  Westfiekl.  But  this  once  common  and 
useful  article  has  been  superseded  by  machines  propelled  by  horse-power  or 
by  steam.  A  single  machine  now  receives  the  sheaves  and  delivers  the 
cleaned  grain  at  the  rate  of  from  one  hundred  to  two  hundred  bushels  a  day. 
A  reaper  is  in  use  in  some  of  the  Western  states,  which  carries  two  binders, 
who  drop  along  its  track  the  cut  grain  in  sheaves  bound. 

In  hay  harvesting,  also,  improvements  would  seem  to  have  attained  perfec- 
tion. A  lad  of  sufficient  age  to  drive  a  team  can  mow  from  fifty  to  one 
hundred  acres  in  an  ordinary  haying  season ;  and  the  hay  may  all  be  raked 
during  the  same  season  by  one  person. 

While,  by  the  invention  of  the  cultivator  and  other  implements,  the  power 
and  facility  of  producing  corn  has  been  greatly  increased,  there  has  not  yet 
appeared,  nor  is  there  likely  to  appear,  any  invention  that  will  materially 
facilitate  the  process  of  harvesting  it.  The  husking  of  corn  was  'generally 
done  in  the  field,  as  at  present.  In  those  portions  of  the  country  settled  by 
the  Dutch,  the  ears,  when  fully  ripe,  were  broken  from  the  stalk,  thrown  into 


heaps,  and  then  hauled  into  the  barn,  and  thrown  into  a  long  heap  across 
the  barn  floor,  ready  for  a  corn-husking,  in  which  the  neighbors,  old  and 
young,  were  invited  to  participate  on  some  evening.  The  anticipation  of  a 
"  good  time  '  secured  a  general  attendance.  A  good  supper,  which  several 
of  the  neighboring  women  had  assisted  in  preparing,  was  served  at  eight  or 
nine  o'clock.  The  "  old  folks  "  would  then  leave,  and  in  due  time  the  boys 
would  gallant  the  girls  to  their  homes.  The  recreation  aflforded  to  the  young 
people  on  the  yearly  recurrence  of  these  festive  occasions  was  as  highly 
enjoyed,  and  quite  as  innocent,  as  most  of  the  amusements  of  the  present 
boasted  age  of  refinement. 

Early  Cooking. 

To  witness  the  several  processes  of  cooking  in  pioneer  times,  would  alike 
surprise  and  amuse  those  who  have  grown  up  since  cook-stoves  came  into 
■use.  The  first  thing  likely  to  attract  notice  would  be  the  wide  fire-place 
already  described.  Kettles  were  hung  over  the  fire  to  a  stout  pole,  some- 
times called  lug  pole,  the  ends  of  which  were  fastened  into  the  sides  of  the 
chimney  at  such  height  as  not  to  be  likely  to  ignite  from  the  heat  or  sparks. 
The  kettles  were  suspended  on  trammels,  which  were  pieces  of  iron  rods 
with  a  hook  at  each  end.  The  uppermost  one  reached  nearly  down  to  the 
fire,  and  with  one  or  more  shorter  ones,  the  kettle  was  brought  to  the  proper 
height  above  the  fire.  For  the  want  of  iron,  wooden  hooks  were  sometimes 
used  for  trammels.     Being  directly  above  the  kettles,  they  were  safe  from  fire. 

The  long  handled  frying  pan  was  a  common  cooking  utensil.  It  was  held 
over  the  fire  by  hand  ;  or,  to  save  time,  the  end  of  the  handle  was  sometimes 
laid  on  the  back  of  a  chair,  the  pan  resting  on  the  fire,  while  the  cook  was 
"setting  the  table."  The  pan  was  also  used  for  baking  short  cakes.  It  was 
placed  in  a  nearly  perpendicular  position  before  the  fire,  leaning  slightly 
backward,  with  coals  under  or  back  of  it  to  bake  the  under  side.  A  more 
convenient  article  was  the  cast  iron,  three  legged,  short  handled  spider  which 
was  set  over  coals  on  the  hearth  for  frying  meat.  Its  legs  were  of  such 
length  and  so  adjusted,  that,  when  used  for  baking  cakes  or  bread,  being 
turned  up  towards  the  fire,  to  the  proper  slope,  handle  upwards,  it  would 
keep  its  position.  An  early  mode  of  baking  com  bread,  (cast  iron  ware 
being  scarce,)  was  to  put  the  dough  on  a  smooth  board,  about  2  feet  long 
and  8  inches  wide,  placed  on  the  hearth  in  a  slanting  position  before  the  fire. 
When  the  upper  side  was  baked,  the  bread  was  turned  over  for  baking  the 
other  side.  When  lard  was  plenty,  the  bread  was  shortened,  and  called 
johnny-cake.  But  a  better  article  for  baking  bread  than  either  the  pan  or 
spider,  was  the  cast  iron  bake-kettle,  in  some  places  called  "  Dutch  oven,'' 
with  legs  and  a  closely  fitted  cover.  Standing  on  the  hearth  with  coals  under 
and  over  it,  bread  and  biscuit  were  nicely  baked.  Bread  for  large  families 
was  usually  baked  in  large  out-door  ovens  built  of  brick  or  fire-proof  stones. 
Turkeys  and  spare-ribs  were  roasted  before  the  fire,  suspended  by  a  string, 
a  dish  or  pan  being  placed  underneath  to  catch  the  drippings. 


Some  of  the  inconveniences  of  cooking  in  these  open  fire-places  will  be 
readily  imagined.  Women's  hair  was  singed,  their  hands  were  blistered, 
and  their  dresses,  scorched.  But  framed  houses  with  jamb  fire-places 
measurably  relieved  the  pioneer  house-wives.  In  one  of  the  jambs  was  fixed 
an  iron  crane,  which  could  be  drawn  forward  when  ketdes  were  to  be  put 
on  or  taken  off.  But  the  invention  of  cook-stoves  commenced  a  new  era 
in  cookery ;  and  none,  most  averse  to  innovation,  have  intimated  a  desire  to 
return  to  the  "  old  way,"  which  will  hereafter  be  known  only  in  history. 

Fare  of  the  Early  Settlers. 

Among  the  many  hardships  of  pioneer  life,  not  the  least  is  the  diflnculty 
in  procuring  bread.  For  at  least  two  years  the  settler  in  the  woods  must 
obtain  his  family  supplies  chiefly  from  other  sources  than  his  own  land.  This 
difficulty  is  enhanced  by  the  remoteness  of  his  residence  from  older  settle- 
ments, where  his  supplies  are  to  be  obtained.  Hence,  those  who  settled  in 
this  county  within  the  first  few  years,  had  a  severer  experience  than  those  who 
came  after  a  surplus  of  grain  was  produced,  and  mills  for  grinding  it  were 
built  in  the  earlier  settlements. 

The  first  settlement  in  the  county  where  grain  was  produced,  was  com- 
menced at  Westfield  in  1802.  The  settlers  there  had  to  go  to  Erie,  a  distance 
of  more  than  thirty  miles,  for  provisions,  as  we  learn  from  the  fact  that 
Edward  McHenry,  on  his  way  thither  for  that  purpose,  lost  his  life  by  the 
upsetting  of  his  boat  on  Lake  Erie.  In  the  Memoir  of  Zattu  Gushing,  by 
O.  W.  Johnson,  Esq.,  we  are  informed  that  the  first  settlers  at  Canadaway, 
[now  Fredonia,]  went  to  Niagara  Falls  and  to  Canada  to  get  their  grain 
ground.  When  intending  to  cross  Lake  Erie,  they  started  when  the  lake 
was  likely  to  be  calm.  Three  men  were  required  to  row  the  boat.  On  one 
occasion  Judge  Gushing  and  his  companions  were  wrecked  on  the  Ganada 
shore,  losing  their  boat  and  grain.  As  they  were  absent  ten  days,  their 
families  gave  them  up  for  lost. 

John  Eason  settled  at  Fredonia  in  1804.  All  the  money  he  had  on  his 
arrival  was  ten  dollars,  which  he  paid  for  a  barrel  of  flour  procured  from 
Canada,  across  Lake  Erie.  Upon  this,  together  with  fish  and  wild  game,  he 
chiefly  relied  for  sustenance  until  he  could  raise  vegetables,  which  were  his 
principal  means  of  support  during  the  first  year.  Whole  families,  for  many 
days,  tasted  not  a  morsel  of  bread,  subsisting  upon  game  and  other  products 
of  the  forest.  Leeks,  with  which  the  woods  abounded,  furnished,  to  some 
extent,  food  for  man  and  beast.  The  leaves,  which  were  in  some  regions 
far  advanced  before  the  disappearance  of  the  winter  snows,  furnished  for 
cattle  a  valuable  pasture  ground ;  and  the  bulbs,  later  in  the  season,  were,  in 
times  of  scarcity,  used  by  settlers  as  a  substitute  for  common  articles  of 
food.  There  are  probably  still  living  on  the  Purchase  persons  who  have 
eaten  many  a  meal,  consisting  in  great  part,  of  cooked  leeks. 

Before  there  were  mills  within  a  convenient  distance,  families  lived  for 
weeks  on  hulled  wheat,  and  on  meal  from  corn  pounded  out  at  home.    For  this 


purpose,  one  end  of  a  large  block  was  scooped  out,  making  a  cavity  holding 
half  a  bushel  or  less  of  corn.  A  spring  pole  was  fixed  over  the  rafters,  or  to 
something  else  of  proper  height.  On  the  end  of  the  pole-  a  wooden  pestle 
was  suspended  by  a  rope.  It  will  readily  be  imagined  that- the  principal  use 
of  flie  pole  was  to  assist  in  raising  the  pestle ;  and  that  a  small  quantity  of 
grain  was  pounded  at  a  time.  The  pestle  was  not  in  all  cases  hung  to  a  pole, 
but  was  sometimes  used  wholly  with  the  hands  of  the  operator.  Probably 
hominy-Mocks,  or  hominy-mills,  as  they  were  called,  will  never  again  appear  in 
any  part  of  our  country.  A  "  corn  cracker  "  of  this  kind  was  attached  to 
the  saw-mill  built  by  David  Dickinson,  an  early  settler  at  Silver  Creek. 

Household  Manufactures. 

Nearly  all  the  clothing  of  the  early  settlers  was  made  from  cloth  of  home 
manufacture.  Long  after  the  country  had  passed  its  pioneer  state,  the  farmer's 
house  continued  to  be  a  linen  and  woolen  factory.  Where  more  spinning 
was  to  be  done  than  the  wife  could  do  in  addition  to  her  ordinary  house-work, 
or  where  the  daughters  were  too  young  to  help,  spinsters  were  employed  to 
come  into  families  to  spin  flax  in  the  winter  season,  and  wool  in  the  summer. 
The  price  usually  paid  these  itinerant  spinsters  was  a  shilling  a  day,  the  day's 
work  ending  at  early  bed  time.  Some  will  be  surprised  when  told  that  many 
of  these  women  had  money  to  show  at  the  year's  end.  It  was  the  custom, 
to  some  extent,  to  count  a  certain  number  of  "  runs  "  as  a  day's  work.  This 
had  a  tendency  to  accelerate  the  motion  of  the  wheel,  and  lessen  the  hours 
of  labor.  These  small  earnings  would  not  go  far  toward  clothing  Chautauqua 
farmers'  daughters  of  the  present  generation. 

The  spinning  exercise  is  one  which  the  young  women  of  modern  times 
have  never  enjoyed.  The  wheel  used  for  spinning  flax  was  called  the  "little 
wheel,"  to  distinguish  it  from  the  "  big  wheel,"  used  for  spinning  wool.  These 
"  stringed  instruments  "  furnished  the  principal  music  of  the  family,  and  were 
operated  by  our  mothers  and  grandmothers  with  great  skill,  attained  without 
expense,  and  by  far  less  practice,  than  is  necessary  for  our  modern  dames  to 
acquire  a  skillful  use  of  their  elegant  and  costly  instruments.  They  were 
indispensable  household  articles,  and  were  to  be  found  in  nearly  every  family. 
The  loom  was  not  less  necessary  than  the  wheel.  There  were  some  houses, 
however,  in  which  there  was  none.  But  there  were  always  some,  who, 
besides  doing  their  own  weaving,  did  some  for  others. 

Woolen  cloth  was  made  in  families.  There  being  at  first  no  carding 
machines,  wool  was  carded  and  made  into  short  rolls  with  hand  cards.  These 
rolls  were  spun  on  the  "  big  wheel,"  which  is  still  to  be  seen  in  the  houses  of 
some  old  settlers,  being  occasionally  used  for  spinning  and  twisting  stocking 
yam.  It  was  turned  with  one  hand,  and  with  such  velocity  as  to  give  it 
sufficient  momentum  to  enable  the  nimble  mother,  by  her  backward  step,  to 
draw  out  and  twist  a  thread  of  nearly  the  length  of  the  cabin.  The  same 
loom  was  used  for  both  linen  and  woolen.  A  .cloth  was  sometimes  made 
called  linsey,  or  linsey-woolsey,  the  warp  being  linen  and  the  filling  woolen. 


Woolen  for  men's  outer  garments  was  generally  sent  to  the  fuller  and 
cloth-dresser  to  be  finished,  if  fulling-mills  and  cloth-dressing  establishments 
were  within  a  convenient  distance.  Woolen  flannel  was  also  made  and  worn 
by  the  mothers  and  daughters.  Flannel  for  women's  wear,  after  dye-stuffs 
were  to  be  had,  were  dyed  such  color  as  the  wearer  fancied.  It  was  softie- 
times  a  plaid  made  of  yarn  of  various  colors,  home-dyed.  To  improve  their 
appearance,  these  flannels  were  sent  to  a  cloth-dressing  shop  for  a  slight 
dressing,  which  was  finished  by  a  powerful  pressing  between  large  sheets  of 
smooth  pasteboard,  to  give  them  a  glossy  surface. 

Much  dyeing,  too,  was  done  in  the  family.  Dye-woods  and  dye-stuffs 
formed  no  small  portion  of  a  merchant's  stock.  Barrels  of  chipped  Nicara- 
gua, log-wood,  and  other  woods,  k«gs  of  madder,  alum,  copperas,  vitriol, 
indigo,  etc.,  constituted  a  large  part  of  teamsters'  loading  for  the  merchants. 
Many  remember  the  old  dye-tub  standing  in  the  chimney  corner,  covered 
with  a  board,  and  used  also  as  a  seat  for  children  when  chairs  were  wanted 
for  visitors,  or  when  new  supplies  of  furniture  failed  to  keep  pace  with  the 
increase  of  the  family.  Mr.  Goodrich,  [Peter  Parley,]  describing  early  life 
in  his  native  town  in  Connecticut,  speaks  of  this  "  institution  of  the  dye- 
tub,"  as  having,  "  when  the  night  had  waned  and  the  family  had  retired, 
frequently  become  the  anxious  seat  of  tne  lover,  who  was  permitted  to  carry 
on  his  courtship,  the  object  of  his  addresses  sitting  demurely  in  the  opposite 
comer.''  We  have  no  authority  for  saying  that  it  was  ever  used  here  on  such 

Nearly  all  the  cloth  wj)rn  was  "  home-made."  Rarely  was  a  farmer  or  his 
son  seen  in  any  other.  If,  occasionally,  a  young  man  appeared  in  a  suit  of 
"boughten  cloth,"  he  was  an  object  of  envy  to  his  rustic  associates.  Few, 
except  merchants,  lawyers,  doctors,  and  some  village  mechanics,  wore  cloth 
that  had  not  passed  through  the  hands  of  the  country  cloth-dresser.  Hence, 
the  early  merchants  kept  small  stocks  of  broadcloth.  Cloths  of  the  finer 
qualities  they  sometimes  bought  in  small  pieces  containing  a  certain  number 
of  full  patterns — one,  two,  or  three — to  avoid  loss  on  remnants. 

There  were  also  itinerant  tailoresses,  who  came  into  families  to  make  up 
men's  and  boys'  winter  clothing.  The  cutting  was  mostly  done  by  the 
village  tailor,  if  a  village  was  near.  "  Bad  fits,"  which  were  jiot  uncommon, 
were  generally  charged  to  the  cutter.  Hence  the  custom  of  tailors,  when 
advertising,  "  Cutting  done  on  short  notice,  and  warranted  to  fit,"  to  append 
the  very  prudent  proviso,  "if  properly  made  up."  These  seamstresses 
charged  for  their  work  two  shillings  a  day.  This  was  thought  by  some  a 
little  exorbitant,  as  the  usual  price  of  help  at  housework  was  but  six  shil- 
lings a  week,  Sundays  not  excepted. 

Boots  and  shoes  also  were  made  in  many  families.  Farmers  got  the  hides 
of  their  slaughtered  cattle  tanned  "on  shares;''  or,  if  their  share  was  judged 
insufficient  to  shoe  a  whole  family,  the  tanning  and  dressing  were  otherwise 
paid  for.  Then  there  was  in  the  neighborhood  a  circulating  shoemaker,  who 
made  his  yearly  autumnal  circuit  with  his  "  kit."     The  children  had  a  happy 


time  during  his  sojourn,  which  lasted  one,  two,  or  more  weeks,  according  to 
the  number  of  feet  to  be  shod.  The  boys  who  had  doffed  their  old  shoes 
when  the  winter  snows  had  scarcely  disappeared,  to  enjoy  the  luxury  of 
going  barefoot,  were  now  no  less  joyful  in  the  anticipation  of  new  ones  to 
protect  their  feet  from  the  frosts  or  early  snows. 

Large  boys  and  girls,  when  leather  was  scarce  and  dear,  have  been  knc^Wn 
to  go  barefoot  the  greater  part  of  the  year.  And  it  was  not  a  rare  thing  to 
see  girls  as  well  as  boys,  not  of  the  poorer  families,  at  the  age  of  twelve,  at 
Sunday  meetings,  with  feet  unshod.  Some  made  shoes  for  themselves  and 
their  families.  Boots  were  little  worn,  even  by  men,  except  in  the  winter 
season.  Men's  boots  and  shoes  were  usually  made  of  coarse  leather,  called 
cowhide.  Occasionally  a  young  man  attained  tlie  enviable  distinction  of 
appearing  in  a  pair  of  calf-skin  boots,  made  by  a  skillful  workman.  Boots 
and  shoes  for  both  feet  were  made  on  one  last.  In  those  days  "  rights  and 
lefts  "  were  unknown.  In  this  department  of  dress  as  in  others,  in  respect 
to  style  and  cost,  the  past  and  the  present  exhibit  a  remarkable  contrast. 

We  only  add,  a  general  revolution  in  household  labor  has  taken  place 
within  the  last  fifty  years.  The  substitution  of  cotton  for  flax,  and  of  the 
various  kinds  of  labor-saving  machinery  for  hand-cards  and  spinning-wheels 
and  looms,  has  vastly  lightened  the  labor  of  women.  One  of  the  results  of 
these  improvements  is  the  opportunity  they  afford  for  mental  and  intellectual 
culture.  That  the  mass  of  American  women  duly  improve  these  opportuni- 
ties, will  hardly  be  affirmed. 

Stores  and  Trade. 

A  great  inconvenience  incident  to  pioneer  life,  is  the  want  of  the  many 
articles  essential  to  the  comfort  of  a  family,  which  the  farm  cannot  supply. 
Therefore,  no  immigrant  is  more  welcome  in  a  new  settlement  than  the  first 
merchant.  Fortunately,  there  are  seldom  wanting  those  who  are  ready  to 
establish  a  store  when  and  where  there  is  a  population  sufficient  to  sustain 
one.  Some  of  the  early  stores  were  kept  in  log  buildings.  The  first  stocks 
of  goods  were  not  large ;  yet  they  comprised  most  of  those  articles  which 
were  needed  by  the  settlers. 

But  the  gratification  of  some  at  the  advent  of  the  early  merchant,  was 
greatly  moderated  by  their  inability  to  purchase  his  wares.  The  inhabitants 
generally  were  poor.  They  had  expended  nearly  all  their  money  in  their 
removal ;  and  the  little  they  had  left  was  wanted  to  buy  breadstuffs  and  other 
absolute  necessaries.  Farmers  who  had  been  here  long  enough  to  raise  a 
small  surplus,  obtained  some  money  from  new-comers.  But  the  majority 
were  not  so  fortunate. 

Goods  were  dear,  being  transported  at  great  cost.  They  were  principally 
brought  from  Albany  in  wagons,  a  large  part  of  the  way  over  new  and  very 
bad  roads.  A  trip  from  Buffalo  to  Albany  and  back  required  for  its  perform- 
ance three  or  four  weeks,  and  sometimes  even  a  longer  time.  Bet%veen  Cat- 
taraugus creek  and  Buffalo,  the  roads  were  for  a  considerable  distance  almost 


impassable.  But  the  high  price  of  the  merchant's  goods  was  but  one-half  of 
the  farmer's  misfortune.  While  he  had  to  pay  a  double  price  for  nearly  every 
staple  article  of  store  goods,  he  was  obliged  to  sell  the  products  of  his  farm 
at  about  one-half  of  their  cost  in  labor.  There  are  yet  many  living  who  dis- 
tinctly recollect  the  condition  of  the  country  from  its  early  settlement,  and 
the  relative  prices  of  merchandise  and  the  products  of  the  farm.  More 
accurate  information,  however,  may  be  obtained  from  the  books  of  the  early 
merchants,  to  which  reference  will  be  made. 

The  books  of  J.  &  M.  Prendergast,  [Jediah  and  Martin,]  early  merchants 
at  Mayville,  show  the  prices  of  goods  from  September,  1811,  to  January, 
18 1 5.  They  were  among  the  earliest  merchants  in  the  county.  The  sur- 
rounding country  was  as  yet  very  sparsely  settled ;  yet  their  books  show  a 
considerable  trade,  to  which  the  Prendergast  families  were  liberal  contributors. 
The  first  four  sales  appear  to  have  been  made  to  four  different  persons  of  that 
name.  The  county  seat  and  a  land  office  having  been  established  there, 
Mayville  was  a  convenient  place  of  trade  to  many  in  remote  parts  of  the 

On  a  glance  at  the  pages  of  these  old  books,  our  modern  clerks  would 
find,  in  the  keeping  of  accounts,  something  of  which  they  have  no  practical 
knowledge.  The  old  mode  of  reckoning  was  by  pounds,  shillings  and  pence. 
And  to  most  adults  it  is  known  that,  until  a  comparatively  late  period,  the 
prices  of  goods  per  yard  or  pound,  both  in  buying  and  selling,  at  wholesale 
and  retail,  were  given  in  shillings  and  pence.  Merchants  generally  marked 
their  goods  in  this  currency,  and  so  charged  them  to  their  customers ;  but 
the  aggregate  cost  of  the  number  of  yards  or  pounds  of  the  article  sold,  was 
"carried  out"  in  dollars  and  cents.  But  in  the  books. alluded  to,  the  aggre- 
gate cost  of  the  number  of  yards  or  pounds  sold  was  also  carried  out  in 
pounds,  shillings  and  pence,  and  set  down  in  three  separate  columns.  The 
footing  of  a  bill  of  many  articles  would,  at  the  bottom  of  the  columns,  be 
^S  7s.  pd. — 8  pounds,  7  shillings  and  9  pence.  Happily,  this  clumsy  method 
of  reckoning  and  Ijeeping  accounts  has  been  superseded  by  the  decimal 
method — by  dollars,  cents  and  mills. 

The  prices  of  some  articles,  in  shillings  and  pence,  are  here  given :  Wool 
cards,  8s.  a  pair;  spider  net,  7s.  6d.  a  yard  ;  loaf  sugar,  3s.  a  pound;  calico, 
3s.  4d.  a  yard;  hyson  tea,  r4S.  a  pound;  pins,  zs.  6d.  a  paper;  powder,  8s. 
a  pound;  shot,  2S.;  unbleached  cotton,  2s.  7d.  a  yard.  Farmers  found  it  no 
easy  matter  to  pay  for  iron  is.  3d.  a  pound ;  steel,  2s. ;  nails,  is.  yd.  to  2S. 
6d. ;  paper,  3s.  a  quire  ;  skin  tea,  los.  a  pound  ;  nutmegs,  is.  each.  Before 
the  close  of  the  year,  prices  began  to  be  affected  by  the  war.  In  December, 
1814,  flannels  were  8s.  to  9s.  6d.  a  yard;  cambric  muslin,  i8s.;  book  muslin, 
i6s. ;  factory  cotton,  5s.  a  yard;  satinet,  27s.  6d. ;  nails,  2s.  to  2s.  6d. ; 
Swedes  steel,  4s.  a  pound ;  maccoboy  snuff,  8s.  a  pound ;  coffee,  5s. ;  pow- 
der, i2s. ;  skin  tea,  20s. ;  imperial  tea,  26s. ;  cotton  yam,  9s. ;  cotton  stock- 
ings, 13s.  a  pair. 

If  medical  services  rose  to  a  point  corresponding  to  the  prices  of  the 


drugs  and  medicines  used  by  the  physicians,  their  patients  would  have  had 
no  less  cause  to  complain  of  onerous  "  doctors'  bills  "  than  they  who  are 
now  so  unfortunate  as  to  need  such  services.  One  of  this  mercantile  firm 
[Jediah]  being  himself  a  physician,  we  find  a  charge  :  "  To  call  and  puke, 
2  oz.  val.  sylv.,  and  caskarel,  and  epispastic,"  in  all,  ;£i  4s.  Jacob  Rush 
was  charged  6  oz.  laudanum,  4s.  oz.,  and  2  pukes,  2s.  each, — j£i  8s.  Dr. 
Alexander  Mclntyre,  who,  being  a  physician,  might  be  expected  to  buy 
medicines  at  a  discount  from  ordinary  retail  prices,  was  charged  as  early  as 
181 2,  for  glauber  salts,  3s.  6d.  lb. ;  bark,  32s. ;  camomile  flowers,  3s.  6d.  oz. ; 
gum  Arabic,  is.  6d.  oz. ;  opodeldoc,  to  ordinary  customers,  5s.  Whisky, 
that  staple  article  in  those  days,  kept  pace  with  other  goods  till  it  reached 
i2s.  to  14s.  a  gallon.  But  the  books  indicate  no  perceptible  decrease  in  its 

The  day-book  of  Douglass  &  Houghton,  merchants  at  Cattaraugus,  in 
July,  18 1 2,  exhibits  prices  as  follows  :  Hyson  skin  tea,  i6s.  ;  bohea  tea,  8s. ; 
calico,  6s.  6d.  yd.;  white  flannel,  los. ;  tow  cloth,  4s.;  salt,  20s.  bushel; 
paper,  4s.  qr. ;  ginger,  6s.  lb.;  whisky,  12s.  a  gallon.  Their  store  was,  in 
December,  18 12,  removed  to  Fredonia,  where  we  see  nails  charged  at  2s.  6d. 
lb. ;  spelling  books,  3s.  a  copy;  Harmony  cloth  at  68s.  [$8.50]  a  yard.  Pins 
were  charged  4s.  a  paper;  stockings,  i6s.  6d.  a  pair.  Broadcloth  is  charged, 
May  22,  1813,  to  James  Hale,  by  order  of  Elijah  Risley,  80s.  [$io]  per 
yard;  and  cassimere,  36s.  yd  !     These  far  exceed  the  war  prices  of  1861-65. 

But  our  surprise  at  these  prices  will  be  less  when  we  consider  the  cost  of 
transportation.  Charles  Hill  and  Thomas  Hill  returned  from  Albany,  Sept. 
12,  18 14,  with  loads  of  merchandise  for  J.  &  M.  Prendergast,  Mayville;  the 
former  having  brought  1635  lbs,  the  latter  1800  lbs.,  for  which  they  were 
allowed  $6  per  100  lbs.  Their  expenses  appear  to  have  been  $40  each;  and 
the  time  spent  in  making  the  trip  must  have  been  about  four  weeks. 

In  18 1 9,  freight  from  New  York  to  Buffalo  was  $3.50  per  100  lbs. ;  from 
Buffalo  to  Fredonia,  $1.50 — total,  $5  per  hundred,  or  $ioo  per  ton.  With 
the  products  of  their  farms  at  the  prices  they  bore  a  few  years  later, 
farmers  could  hardly  have  paid  for  store  goods  at  the  prices  charged.  Prices 
of  farm  products  had  not  reached  the  lowest  point.  They  continued  to  de- 
cline until  they  were  scarcely  sufficient  to  pay  transportation  to  the  nearest 
cash  market.  Nor  did  farmers  find  permanent  relief  until  after  the  comple- 
tion of  the  Erie  canal,  and  until  adequate  encouragement  had  been  secured 
to  American  manufactures. 

J.  &  M.  Prendergast  established  in  November,  1813,  a  branch  store  in 
EUicott,  where  Jamestown  now  stands.  A  part  of  the  first  day-book  having 
been  torn  from  its  cover,  the  earUest  date  that  appears  is  Sept.  20,  1814; 
and  the  business  there  was  continued  until  March,  1816.  The  prices  appear 
to  have  varied  but  slightly  from  those  at  Mayville.  In  the  whisky  trade  we 
judge  that,  in  the  price  and  quantity  sold,  the  Jamestown  store  surpassed 
that  of  Mayville.  In  July,  1815,  we  count,  on  five  successive  pages,  69 
separate  and  distinct  charges  for  this  article ;  the  least  number  on  any  one 


page  being  12  ;  on  two  of  them,  15  each.  During  a  considerable  part  of 
the  war  time,  flour  stood  at  $12  a  barrel.  On  the  Jamestown  day-book, 
John  Burgess  is  charged,  Jan.  6,  1815,  with  2  bbls.  flour,  at  $19  bbl. ;  and 
Israel  Knight  previously  credited  by  2  bbls.  flour,  (probably  the  samp  flour,) 
at  $18.65  bbl.  Wm.  Forbes  is  charged  Jan.,  1816,  for  hollow  castings,  10 
cts.  lb. ;  cheese  2s. ;  salt,  $12  bbl.  Salt  rose  suddenly  from  $7  to  $12  and 
$15  ;  and  in  November,  1814,  Solomon  Shepard  stands  credited  bX  the  May- 
ville  store,  by  2  bbls.  salt  at  $22  per  barrel  ! 

Considering  the  low  prices  of  farm  produce,  and  the  difficulty  of  con- 
verting it  into  cash,  we  can  hardly  imagine  how  either  the  settlers  could  buy 
the  merchants'  goods,  or  how  the  merchants  could  sell  enough  to  keep  up 
their  establishments.  Immigration  having  nearly  ceased,  the  market  formerly 
furnished  by  new-comers  no  longer  existed.  Grain  bore  prices  merely  nomi- 
nal. Wheat,  at  times,  could  not  be  sold  at  the  farmer's  barn  for  more  in 
cash  than  the  cost  of  transportation  to  the  nearest  cash  market.  Cases  are 
known  in  which  loads  of  com  have  been  taken  to  Dunkirk,  twenty  miles, 
over  woods  roads,  and  sold  for  12^  cents  a  bushel  to  realize  the  money  to 
pay  taxes — the  round  trip  taking  two  days.  Wheat  was  taken  to  the  same 
market  and  sold  for  37^  cents.  Maple  sugar,  at  4,  5,  or  6  cents  a  pound, 
was  exchanged  for  goods;  butter  at  6  to  8  cents;  oats,  lo  to  12  cents; 
other  kind  of  grain  in  about  the  same  proportion.  Dressed  pork  sold  for 
about  2  OT  2)4  cents  a  pound.  No  wonder  that,  with  hard  labor  and  rigid 
economy,  the  settlers  were  slow  in  paying  for  their  lands.  Indeed,  it  would 
seem  almost  impossible,  under  such  adverse  circumstances,  to  avoid  extreme 
suffering.  Yet  the  various  kinds  of  business  were  more  or  less  successfully 
pursued.  How  this  was  done,  will  appear  from  the  nature  of  trade,  which 
will  be  the  subject  of  succeeding  pages. 

Ashes  were  for  many  years  the  most  important  article  of  trade,  being 
almost  the  only  one  which  could  be  readily  turned  into  cash.  For  some 
purposes  money  must  be  had.  Certain  articles  or  merchandise  could  not  be 
got  in  exchange  for  grain,  or  on  credit.  Taxes  could  not  be  paid  in  kind  ; 
and  to  raise  "  tax-money,"  farmers  were  sometimes  obliged  to  sell  grain  and 
other  products  of  their  farms  for  prices  which  scarcely  paid  for  their  trans- 
portation to  market.  Ashes  afforded  material  relief  Many  a  settler  who 
had  a  large  surplus  of  grain  which  he  was  unwilling  to  sell  at  the  ruinously 
low  prices  offered,  cut  and  burned  timber  for  the  ashes  from  which  to  get 
money  to  pay  taxes  and  for  other  necessary  uses.  These  ashes,  and  those 
from  burned  log  heaps,  were  sometimes  drawn  several  miles  over  rough  roads, 
and  exchanged  for  goods,  or  at  a  reduced  price  for  cash,  if  cash  must  be  had. 
The  price  was  5,  6,  or  8  cents,  according  to  quality,  as  ashes  from  old  and 
partially  decayed  timber,  or  having  an  admixture  of  the  soil,  which  was  some- 
times scraped  up  with  them,  were  of  little  value.  Hence  it  is  seen  that  an 
ashery  was  a  necessary  appendage  to  a  store  in  a  new  settlement.  The  lye 
of  the  ashes  was  boiled  down  to  a  proper  consistency  and  red  heat,  resembling 
molten  iron  in  a  furnace,  and  dipped  into  smaller  kettles  holding  several 

STORES   AND   TRADE.         •  95 

pailfuls,  and  left  to  cool,  when  it  was  emptied  out  of  the  kettle  in  a  single 
lump,  solid  as  a  stone.  It  was  then  broken  and  put  into  strong  barrels,  ready 
for  transportation  to  market. 

But  raw  ashes  not  admitting  of  transportation  a  great  distance,  it  was 
necessary  to  concentrate  their  virtue  into  smaller  bulk.  The  lye  was  boiled 
down  to  the  consistence  of  thick  mortar,  and  was  called  black  salts,  being  of 
a  dark  color,  and  converted  into  pearl  ashes.  Hence  the  necessity  of  a  pearl 
ashery  also.  The  salts  were  thrown  into  a  large  brick  oven,  6  or  8  feet  in 
diameter,  and  baked,  or  rather  burned,  being  brought  almost  to  a  red  heat. 
When  cool,  the  color  had  been  changed  to  a  pearly  white.  Always  com- 
manding cash  in  every  market,  merchants  having  pearl  asheries  would  readily 
pay  cash  for  black  salts.  Pot  and  pearl  ashes,  containing  great  value  in 
small  weight  and  bulk,  would  bear  transportation  to  the  most  distant  markets. 
They  were  generally  sent  to  New  York  and  Montreal,  and  thence  a  large 
portion  of  them  was  shipped  across  the  Atlantic. 

Before  there  were  stores  and  pearl  asheries  in  the  southern  and  south- 
western towns  of  the  county,  black  salts  were  principally  bought  by  the  mer- 
chants in  the  lake  shore  towns.  Many  had  no  wagons  on  which  to  carry 
them ;  nor  did  the  roads  admit  of  their  being  carried  on  wagons  all  the  way 
from  the  back  settlements.  A  more  simple  vehicle  was  used.  From  a  small 
tree  was  taken  a  piece  having  at  one  end  two  prongs.  The  single  end  was 
put  into  the  ring  of  the  ox-yoke,  the  other  resting  on  the  ground.  Acros.s 
the  prongs  the  trough  containing  the  salts  was  placed,  and  kept  from  sliding 
backward  by  a  long  wooden  pin  set  perpendicularly  in  each  prong.  On  car- 
riages of  this  description  were  many  tons  of  this  valuable  product  of  the 
forest  yearly  conveyed  to  market.  Sometimes  the  oxen  were  simply  hitched 
by  a  chain  to  the  fore  end  of  the  trough  containing  the  salts,  the  bottom  of 
which  had  been  flattened,  and  the  end  hewed  away  from  the  under  side  to 
fit  it,  like  a  sled  runner,  for  sliding  over  the  rough  ground. 

To  facihtate  the  collection  of  debts,  merchants,  after  cattle  had  become 
plenty,  sometimes  received  cattle  in  payment  from  their  customers,  and  drove 
them  to  eastern  markets,  or  sold  them  to  drovers  from  the  East.  Cattle  were 
then  cheap.  A  pair  of  good  working  oxen  could  be  bought  for  about  $50  ; 
steers,  three  years  old,  for  $15  a  head;  two  years  old,  for  about  $10.  Pork 
also  was  taken  on  account  at  prices  which  contrast  strikingly  with  the  present. 
Well  fatted  pork,  dressed,  was  sold  for  $2,  or  $2.50,  per  100  pounds. 

Of  the  quantity  and  value  of  the  products  of  the  forest  timber,  a  pretty 
correct  idea  may  be  formed  from  the  following  statements  of  the  manufacture 
of  pot  and  pearl  ashes  by  a  few  of  the  merchants  of  this  county.  The  most 
minute  and  accurate  statement  from  any  source  is  that  of  Albert  H.  Camp, 
Forestville,  prefaced  thus  . 

"  Statement  of  pearl  and  pot  ashes  sent  to  Montreal  and  New  York 
markets,  or  sold  at  Buffalo,  by  Albert  H.  Camp  on  his  own  account,  or  on 
account  of  the  finns  of  which  he  was  a  partner  at  Forestville,  Chautauqua 
county,  N.  Y.,  from  May  i,  1820,  to  Sept.  i,  1850." 


The  number  of  barrels  sold  from  1820  to  1836,  inclusive,  was  2830.  The 
price  per  cwt.  of  ii2lbs.  varied  from  $4.25  to  $8,  averaging  about  $6.  These 
appear  to  have  been  all,  or  nearly  all,  pearls.  The  timber  having  princi- 
pally disappeared,  the  statement  shows  the  annual  sales  to  have  decreased 
from  289  barrels,  the  greatest  quantity  sold  in  any  year,  to  40  barrels,  in 
1836.  During  this  period  the  price  paid  for  black  salts,  from  which  pearls 
are  made,  was  from  $2  to  $3.50  per  cwt.  of  ii2lbs.  From  1837  to  1850, 
inclusive,  the  amount  was  648  barrels,  nearly  all  pots  made  of  house  ashes, 
for  which  12^  cents  per  bushel  were  paid,  if  delivered,  or  to  cents,  if  hauled 
by  the  merchants  themselves.     With  the  year  1850,  the  business  ceased. 

George  T.  Camp,  brother  of  Albert  H.  Camp,  was  a  merchant  for  several 
years  at  Mayville,  before  he  moved  his  business  to  Westfield.  While  at  the 
former  place,  he  paid  in  a  single  week  $1200  for  black  salts;  and  for  some 
time  averaged  $800  to  $1000  a  week.  The  price  was  between  $2  and  $3 
per  hundred.  This  was  about  the  years  1829  and  1830.  From  the  fact 
that  there  were  at  that  time  many  asheries  in  the  county,  we  have  some  idea 
of  the  amount  of  money  paid  to  settlers  for  the  products  of  their  otherwise 
valueless  timber. 

Alvin  Plumb,  an  early  merchant  in  Jamestown,  and  afterward  at  Mayville, 
furnishes  the  following  statement : 

"  Before  the  completion  of  the  Erie  canal,  Montreal  was  the  market  for 
ashes,  which,  with  lumber  from  the  south-eastern  towns,  constituted  nearly  all 
the  products  of  exportation  from  the  county.  I  was  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  pearl  ashes  at  Jamestown  for  several  years,  from  1824,  and  at 
Mayville  from  1825.  The  quantity  produced  at  the  former  place  in  the  best 
years  of  the  trade  was  some  50  tons,  and  at  the  latter  place  about  100  tons. 
I  also  bought  largely  from  other  merchants  in  that  trade,  in  the  years  1825 
and  1826.  The  quantity  manufactured  and  purchased  at  these  places  was 
about  500  tons,  the  most  of  which  was  sent  from  Barcelona  Harbor." 

Daniel  Williams,  now  and  for  many  years  a  resident  of  Ashville,  states 
that,  at  an  early  period  of  the  settlement  of  the  county,  [1819,]  he  com- 
menced manufacturing  pot  and  pearl  ashes,  at  Westfield,  where  he  worked 
at  the  business  for  four  or  five  years,  for  Alvin  Williams  and  Budlong  &  Bab- 
cock.  During  the  first  three  years  there  was  made  about  r  ton  per  week — 
or  about  156  tons  in  three  years.  The  best  salts  averaged  in  price  about 
$2.50  per  cwt.  of  ii2lbs.  The  price  of  the  pearl  ashes  in  the  eastern  cities 
was  from  $5  to  $7  per  cwt.  During  the  last  two  years  he  worked  in  West- 
field,  there  were  made  about  2  tons  per  week — about  200  tons  in  the  two 
years  in  both  asheries.  On  his  removal  to  Ashville — the  place  being  so 
named  from  the  extensive  manufacture  of  ashes  in  that  section  of  the  county 
— there  were  three  asheries  there,  which  were  run  for  several  years,  and  at 
which  were  made  from  100  to  150  tons  a  year.  The  salts  bought  at  the 
latter  part  of  this  period  cost  $2.50  to  $3  per  cwt.  Many,  unable  to  sell  the 
products  of  their  farms  for  cash,  were  obliged  to  cut  down  and  bum  green 
timber,  and  make  salts  of  lye,  which  alone  could  be  sold  for  money. 

Walter    Smith,    more   extensively  engaged  in  the  manufacture  and   the 


purchase  and  sale  of  ashes  than  any  other  merchant  in  the  county,  has  fur- 
nished the  following : 

"  The  sales  of  our  pot  and  pearl  ashes,  during  the  six  years'  trade  in  Fre- 
donia,  varied  in  different  years,  both  in  quantity  and  price.  The  smallest 
amount  sold  was  $20,000  ;  the  largest,  $45,000.  These  pot  and  pearl  ashes 
were  shipped  to  Montreal  for  market  until  the  Erie  canal  was  finished. 
They  were  taken  by  vessel  to  Black  Rock  ;  by  open  boat  to  Schlosser  ;  by 
ox-teams  to  Lewiston  ;  by  vessel  to  Cape  Vincent ;  thence  by  batteaux  down 
the  St.  Lawrence  to  Montreal.  John  R.  Coney  had  an  ashery  in  Portland ; 
Brockway  in  Ripley ;  Alvin  Williams  in  Westfield,  and  afterwards  at  Ash- 

ville,  where  he  continued  business ;  Guy  Webster  in  Hanover ;  and 

in  Perrysburgh,  Cattaraugus  county.     All  these  bought  goods  of  me, 

and  sold  me  their  pot  and  pearl  ashes,  or  had  me  send  them  to  Montreal ; 
and  I  accounted  to  them  for  the  net  proceeds,  and  paid  them  the  balance 
due  them  in  money.  Harriot  &  McGunnigle,  of  Mayville,  were  large  manu- 
facturers ;  also  Wm.  Holbrook,.  Holbrook  &  Camp,  and  Camp  &  Colville, 
at  Forestville.  I  think  three-fourths  of  all  the  ashes  from  Chautauqua  county 
were  shipped  by  me  the  first  six  years.  After  that,  the  manufacture  dimin- 
ished rapidly." 

Although  this  product  of  the  forest  always  commanded  cash,  or  could  be 
turned  into  cash,  its 'price,  like  the  prices  of  other  articles,  was  affected  by 
the  law  of  supply  and  demand.  Hence,  the  producers  were  not  always 
adequately  compensated ;  and  the  manufacturers  and  dealers,  who  were 
generally  merchants,  were  sometimes  subjected  to  heavy  losses.  Such, 
especially,  was  the  case  in  1823.  The  Erie  canal  being  not  yet  finished,  the 
ashes  from  this  part  of  the  state  were  chiefly  sent  to  the  Montreal  market. 
The  Fredonia  Censor,  of  July  30,  announces  "bad  news  for  dealers  in  ashes,'' 
and  states,  that  accounts  from  Montreal  were  so  discouraging,  that  dealers 
almost  despaired  of  obtaining  fair  prices.  Pots  were  down  to  $128  per  ton  ; 
pearls  about  the  same  price.  The  price  of  black  salts,  which  had  been  in 
the  spring  $4  per  cwt.,  had  fallen  to  $2.25.  The  high  prices  in  the  English 
market  had  induced  the  merchants  to  engage  deeply  in  this  business,  some 
of  whom  had,  by  this  sudden  depression,  become  heavy  losers.  It  was  stated 
upon  good  authority,  that  more  ashes  were  manufactured  in  this  county  than 
in  any  other  along  the  shores  of  Lake  Erie ;  and  that  the  high  price  given 
for  black  salts  had  been  the  means  of  clearing  much  new  land,  as  the  price 
of  that  article  had  amply  paid  for  clearing. 

Nature  of  Trade. 

From  what  has  been  said  in  preceding  pages,  the  reader  will  readily  infer 
that  trade  was  greatly  restricted  by  the  scarcity  of  the  usual  circulating 
medium.  Few  goods  were  sold  for  cash.  Business  was  done  on  the  credit 
and  barter  system,  not  only  by  and  with  merchants,  but  between  the  people. 
Notes  were  made  payable  in  grain,  lumber,  cattle  and  other  commodities, 
and  sometimes  contained  the  stipulation,  "  at  cash  price."  Almost  every 
country  product,  as  well  as  some  store  goods,  had  a  cash  and  a  barter  or  a 
credit  price.  It  was,  however,  not  always  easy  to  ascertain  the  cash  price. 
.  7 


Merchants  often  suffered  great  loss  by  this  system  of  trade.  Notwithstand- 
ing the  high  percentage  charged  as  profits  on  their  goods,  losses  by  bad 
debts,  and  losses  on  grain  and  other  commodities,  which  it  was  almost  impos- 
sible to  sell  for  cash,  rendered  the  mercantile  business  an  unsafe  one. 

Most  of  the  business  of  the  county  was  for  many  years  done  in  the 
northern  or  lake  towns,  which  were  first  settled,  and  possessed  superior  com- 
mercial advantages.  Maple  sugar,  long  an  important  article  of  trade,  came 
in  large  quantities  from  the  southern  towns.  The  inhabitants  generally  sup- 
plying themselves,  the  price  is  said  to  have  been  at  times  as  low  as  four  or 
five  cents  a  pound.  Brown  sugars  from  the  South  were  rarely  seen  in  the 
early  country  stores.  Almost  the  only  sugar  brought  from  New  York  was 
the  white  refined  sugar,  put  up  in  hard,  tall,  solid  loaves  of  a  conical  form, 
and  called  "loaf"  or  "  lump  sugar,"  and  was  wrapped  in  strong  and  coarse 
paper.  It  was  sold  chiefly  for  sweetening  medicines  and  the  liquors  of  tavern- 
keepers,  who  bought  it  in  large  quantities. 

Division  of  Business. 

The  early  stores  presented,  in  sundsy  particulars,  a  striking  contrast  to 
those  of  the  present  day.  As  the  population  increased,  a  greater  number 
and  variety  of  articles  were  kept  in  the  stores.  After  printing  ofiices  were 
established  within  a  convenient  distance,  the  merchants  advertised  their 
stocks  in  the  papers  and  in  posters,  in  flaming  display  letters,  enumerating 
the  various  kinds  of  goods  kept  for  sale;  as  "dry  goods,  groceries,  crockery 
and  glassware,  hardware,  dye  woods  and  dye  stuffs,  iron  and  nails,  paints, 
oil,  window  glass,  school  books  and  stationery,  rum,  brandy,  gin  and  whisky;" 
to  which  was  sometimes  added,  drugs  and  medicines,  ending  with  a  string  of 
et  ceteras,  or  "  with  other  articles  too  numerous  to  mention." 

The  natural  result  of  the  increase  of  population  and  trade,  is  the  division 
of  business.  For  a  long  time,  in  a  newly  settled  country,  merchants  keep 
goods  of  all  kinds  likely  to  be  wanted  by  their  customers.  Silks  and  iron, 
laces  and  fish,  pins  and  crow-bars,  pork  and  molasses,  tea  and  tar,  cotton 
yam  and  log  chains,  were  all  to  be  had  at  the  same  store.  In  process  of 
time,  stores  were  established  for  the  sale  of  but  one,  or  a  very  few  kinds  of 
goods,  as  hardware  stores,  drug  stores,  bookstores,  etc.  Where  the  first  of 
these  stores  was  commenced,  has  not  been  ascertained ;  but  we  find  Dr. 
Hazeltine  informing  his  friends,  through  a  Jamestown  paper,  as  early  as 
August,  1826,  that  he  had  "just  received  from  New  York  a  small,  but  general 
assortment  of  drugs  and  medicines."  About  a  year  and  a  half  later,  Dr.  E. 
T.  Foote  announces  the  receipt,  at  his  "  Apothecary  Store,"  a  general  assort- 
ment of  not  drugs  and  medicines  only,  but  of  "  Patent  medicines,  oils, 
paints,  dye-stuffs,  surgical  instruments,"  those  articles  which  compose  the 
stock  of  a  modem  dmg  store.  Russell  D.  Shaw  soon  follows  with  the 
advertisement  of  a  similar  stock  with  the  addition  of  groceries.  And  in 
1834,  N.  L.  Sears  enumerates  books  and  stationery  among  the  articles  in  his 
dmg  store. 


In  July,  1831,  Adolphus  Fletcher,  publisher  of  the  Jamestown  Journal, 
announces  the  receipt  of  "  a  general  assortment  of  books  and  stationery"  in 
a  room  adjoining  the  yt^ar^za/ printing  office.  This  appears  to  have  been  an 
establishment  for  the  exclusive  sale  of  those  articles  which  constitute  the 
stock  of  a  modern  bookseller.  In  reading  the  list  of  standard  school  books 
and  the  various  articles  of  stationery,  we  are  reminded  of  the  almost  total 
revolution  that  has  taken  place,  in  regard  to  the  books  and  other  articles  used. 
In  a  long  list  of  school  books  advertised,  there  is  not  one  which  has  not  been 
superseded  by  modern  authors.  In  the  line  of  stationery  were  wafers,  ink- 
powder,  sand-boxes,  letter  stamps,  round  rulers,  quills — all  of  which  have 
become  nearly  obsolete.  By  the  invention  of  gummed  envelopes,  wafers 
have  come  into  disuse  in  letter  writing.  Ink-powder  is  no  longer  to  be 
found  in  the  stores.  As  if  by  common  consent,  the  people  pay  from  400  to 
800  per  cent,  more  for  ink  than  was  done  when  a  "York  shilling,''  or,  after- 
wards, a  dime  was  paid  for  a  paper  of  Maynard  &  Noyes'  powder,  which 
made  a  full  pint  of  the  best  quality  of  ink.  Sand-boxes  have  been  displaced 
by  the  superior  article  of  blotting  paper.  Letter  stamps  have  taken  their 
departure  with  wafers.  But  the  most  valuable  change  is  in  the  substitution 
of  metallic  for  quill  pens. 

Under  date  of  August  23,  1831,  Lakin  &  Haven  gave  notice,  in  a  James- 
town paper,  that  they  "have  opened  a  hardware  store,  in  the  new  building 
on  Second  street.''  They  occupy  the  greater  part  of  a  column  in  the  enum- 
eration of  articles  "  s«t  solid,"  and  without  a  single  display  line.  Although 
the  list  is  long  enough  to  do  honor  to  any  city  house,  these  articles  are  said 
only  to  be  "  among  their  goods,"  intimating  that  the  greater  portion  of  them 
were  not  included  in  the  enumeration.  Even  the  smaller  villages  now  have 
stores  limited  to  a  single  branch  of  trade. 


The  history  of  pioneer  life  generally  presents  only  the. dark  side  of  the 
picture.  The  toils  and  privations  of  the  early  settlers  were  not  a  series  of 
unmitigated  sufferings.  The  addition  of  each  new  acre  to  their  "  clearings  " 
brought  with  it  fresh  enjoyment,  and  cheered  them  on  in  the  pursuit  of  their 
ultimate  object,  an  unincumbered  and  a  happy  home.  They  were  happy 
also  in  their  fraternal  feelings;  or,  as  one  expressed  it,  "  the  feeling  of  brother- 
hood— the  disposition  to  help  one  another  /'  or,  in  the  language  of  another, 
"  Society  was  uncultivated ;  yet  the  people  were  very  (riendly  to  each  other, 
quite  as  much  so  as  relatives  are  at  the  present  day." 

We  could  now  hardly  endure  the  thought  of  exchanging  our  comfortable 
and  splendid  carriages  for  the  rude  ones  of  our  fathers  and  grandfathers, 
which  served  the  various  purposes  of  visiting,  and  of  going  to  mill  and  to 
meeting  ;  yet  who  doubts  that  families  had  a  "  good  time  "  when  they  made 


a  visit  to  a  ."  neighbor  "  at  a  distance  of  several  miles,  through  the  woods,  on 
an  ox-sled  ?  Our  mothers  were  clad  in  homespun  of  their  own  make  ;  and 
not  a  few  remember  the  "  glad  surprise,"  when  fathers,  on  their  return  from 
market,  presented  their  faithful  help-meets  with  a  six  yards  calico  dress 
pattern  for  Sunday  wear.  And  it  is  presumed  the  wearer  was  in  quite  as 
devotional  a  frame  of  mind,  and  enjoyed  Sabbath  exercises  quite  as  well,  as 
she  who  now  flaunts  her  gorgeously  trimmed  silk  of  fifteen  or  twenty  yards, 
made  up  in  a  style  transforming  the  wearer  into  "  the  likeness  ''  of  something 
never  before  seen  or  known  "above,"  or  "on  the  earth  beneath,"  and  altered 
with  every  change  of  moon. 

People  were  happy  in  their  families.  The  boys,  having  labored  hard  dur- 
ing the  day,  sought  rest  an  early  hour.  Parents  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing 
their  sons  acquiring  habits  of  industry  and  frugality — a  sure  prognostic  of 
success  in  life.     The  "higher  civilization"  had  not  yet  introduced — 

"  In  every  country  village,  where 
Ten  chimney  smokes  perfume  the  air," 

those  popular  modem  institutions,  the  saloon  and  the  billiard-room,  in  which 
so  many  youth  now  receive  their  principal  training.  Fewer  parents  spent 
sleepless  nights  in  anxious  thought  about  their  "  prodigal  sons,"  or  had  their 
slumbers  broken  by  the  noisy  entrance  of  these  sons  on  returning  from  their 
midnight  revels.  They  saw  no  clouds  rising  to  dim  the  prospect  of  a  happy 
future  to  their  children.  Never  were  wives  and  mothers  more  cheerful  than 
when,  like  the  virtuous  woman  described  by  Solomon,  "  they  laid  their 
hands  to  the  spindle,  and  their  hands  held  the  distaff;"  or  when,  with  their 
knitting  work  or  sewing,  and  baby,  too,  they  went — unbidden,  as  the  custom 
was — to  spend  an  afternoon  with  their  "neighbor  women,"  by  whom  they 
were  received  with  a  hearty,  unceremonious  welcome.  The  "  latch-string 
was  out "  at  all  times ;  and  even  the  formality  of  knocking  was,  by  the  more 
intimate  neighbors,  dispensed  with.  , 

Nor  did  they  lack  topics  of  conversation  at  these  visits.  Prominent 
among  them  were  their  domestic  affairs — their  manifold  industrial  enter- 
prises and  labors — and  the  anticipated  reward  of  their  privations  and  toils. 
Their  conversation,  some  may  suppose,  evinced  no  high  degree  of  intellect- 
ual culture ;  yet,  as  an  indication  of  such  culture,  surely  it  would  not  suffer 
in  comparison  with  the  gossip  of  many  of  our  modem  educated  ladies  at  their 
social  gatherings. 

The  following  extract  from  a  letter,  from  the  pen  of  a  pioneer  mother  in 
another  county,  and  published  in  3,  county  paper,  may  he  read  with  interest 
by  some : 

"  The  country  around  us  was  an  entire  wildemess,  with  here  and  there  a 
small  cabin,  containing  a  small  family.  We  were  nearly  all  new  beginners  ; 
and  although  we  had  to  work  almost  day  and  night,  we  were  not  discouraged. 
There  were  many  and  serious  trials  in  the  beginning  of  this  country,  with  those 
who  settled  amid  the  heavy  timber,  having  nothing  to  depend  upon  for  a 
living  but  their  own  industry.     Such  was  our  situation.     However,  we  were 


blest  with  health  and  strength,  and  were  able  to  accomplish  all  that  was  nec- 
essary to  be  done.  Our  husbands  cleared  the  ground,  and  assisted  each 
other  in  rolling  the  logs.  We  often  went  with  them  on  these  occasions,  to 
assist  in  the  way  of  cooking  for  the  hands. 

"We  had  first-rate  times,  just  such  as  hard-laboring  men  and  women  can 
appreciate.  We  were  not  what  would  now  be  called  fashionable  cooks  ;  we 
had  no  pound  cakes,  preserves,  or  jellies  ;  but  the  substantial,  prepared  in 
plain,  old-fashioned  style.  This  is  one  reason  why  we  were  blessed  with  health : 
we  had  none  of  your  dainties,  knick-knacks,  and  '  fixings '  that  are  worse 
than  nothing.  There  are  many  diseases  that  we  had  never,  even  heard  of 
thirty  or  forty  years  ago,  such  as  dyspepsia,  neuralgia,  and  many  others  too 
tedious  to  mention.  It  was  not  fashionable  then  to  be  weakly.  We  could 
take  our  spinning-wheels  and  walk  two  miles  to  a  spinning  frolic,  do  our 
da/s  work,  and  after  a  first-rate  supper,  join  in  some,  innocent  amusement  for 
the  evening.  We  did  not  take  particular  pains  to  keep  our  hands  white;  we 
knew  they  were  made  to  use  for  our  advantage;  therefore,  we  never  thought 
of  having  hands  just  to  look  at.  Each  settler  had  to  go  and  assist  his  neigh- 
bors ten  or  fifteen  days,  in  order  to  get  help  in  return  in  log-rolling  time ; 
this  was  the  only  way  to  get  assistance. 

"  I  have  thought  proper  to  mention  these  matters,  that  people  now  may 
know  what  the  first  settlers  had  to  undergo.  We,  however,  did  not  complain 
half  as  much  as  people  do  now.  Our  diet  was  plain;  our  clothing  we  manu- 
factured ourselves ;  we  lived  independent,  and  were  all  on  an  equality.  I 
look  back  on  those  by-gone  days  with  great  interest.  How  the  scene  has 
changed  !  Children  of  these  same  pioneers  know  nothing  of  hardship ;  they 
are  spoiled  by  indulgence,  and  are  generally  planning  ways  and  means  to  live 
without  work." 

It  is,  indeed,  to  many  who  have  been  brought  up  in  the  "lap  of  ease,''  not 
a  little  surprising,  that  a  wife  and  mother  should  do  the,  house-work  of  a 
family  in  which  were  six,  eight,  or  more  children,  and  occasionally  some 
hired  men,  without  hired  help.     Yet  such  instances  were  not  uncommon. 

The  reader  of  family  sketches  in  a  succeeding  part  of  this  history,  will  not 
fail  to  notice  the  contrast  between  the  pioneer  settlers  and  their  descendants 
in  another  T^zx'ixc.vXzx— fecundity.  The  former,  with  comparatively  few  excep- 
tions, fulfilled  the  duty  enjoined  upon  the  original  progenitors  of  the  race,  to 
"multiply  and  replenish  the  earth;"  an  injunction  which  the  present  genera- 
tion seem  to  think  more  "honored  in  the  breach  than  in  the  observance." 
At  the  present  rate  of  the  increase  of  our  native  population,  who  can  tell  the 
number  of  generations  necessary' to  "replenish"  our  vast  national  territory? 
In  writing  out  genealogical  sketches  of  pioneer  families,  which,  in  not  a  few 
instances,  show  a  product,  if  not  of  "  thirty,"  at  least  of  ten  to  fifteen  fold, 
we  have  oftpn  been  reminded  of  what  we  read  more  than  half  a  century  ago, 
in  the  history  of  some  eastern  country,  where  it  was  a  part  of  the  marriage 
ceremony  to  sprinkle  upon  the  head  of  the  bride  a  handful  of  hops,  and  to 
accompany  the  act  with  the  expression  of  a  wish  that  she  might  be  "as  fruitful 
as  the  hop  vine."  As  to  the  cause  of  this  modem  degeneracy,  we  forbear  to 
express  an  opinion.  To  those  who  desire  light  on  this  subject,  we  commend 
Rev.  Dr.  John  Todd's  little  book,  entitled  "  A  Serpent  in  the  Dove's  Nest." 



Though  struggling  under  the  pressure  of  privation  and  poverty,  the  settlers 
made  early  provision  for  the  education  of  their  children.  So  important  an 
object  they  would  not  defer  until  they  could  build  more  comely  and  con- 
venient school-houses ;  they  were  content,  for  a  time,  with  such  as  corre- 
sponded to  their  rude  dwellings.  The  first  school-houses  were  built  of 
logs,  with  fire-qjlaces  and  chimneys  like  those  of  log  dwelling-houses,  and 
were  roofed  in  the  same  manner. .  Many  still  remember  those  houses,  in 
which  they  received  their  limited  education — the  ill-chinked  walls,  the  large 
open  fire-place  filled  with  a  huge  pile  of  logs,  in  the  vain  attempt  to  make  a 
comfortable  place  for  study. 

Benches  were  made  of  split  slabs,  hewed,  and  raised  so  high  as  to  keep 
the  scholars'  feet  swinging  several  inches  above  the  floor.  After  there  were 
saw-mills,  benches  were  made  of  sawed  slabs.  The  writing-desk  was  a  slab 
or  board  extending  along  the  whole  length  of  one  of  the  walls,  fastened  on 
long  pins  driven  into  auger  holes  in  the  logs,  and  slanting  downward  from 
the  wall.  Above  the  writing-table,  holes  for  windows  were  cut  through  the 
wall,  and  filled  with  four  or  six  lighted  window  sashes.  For  the  want  of  sash 
and  glass,  the  window  openings  were  temporarily  covered  with  old  papers, 
greased  with  lard,  for  window-lights. 

Schools  were  not  then  regulated  by  law.  Persons  could  not  be  compelled 
to  pay  for  building  school-houses  and  for  the  services  of  teachers.  These  were 
done  voluntarily  by  the  persons  interested.  They  mutually  agreed  to  contrib- 
ute labor  or  money  toward  the  building  of  a  school-house — chiefly  labor,  as 
little  money  was  needed  to  build  a  log-house.  Teachers  were  paid  by  those 
only  who  sent  children  to  school.  A  subscription  paper,  stating  the  price  of 
tuition  per  scholar  for  the  term  proposed,  was  circulated,  and  each  person 
affixed  to  his  name  the  number  of  scholars  he  would  send.  If  a  sufficient 
number  were  obtained,  the  school  would  commence.  Teachers  were  some- 
times, wholly  or  in  part,  paid  in  produce,  many  of  their  employers  being 
unable  to  pay  in  money.  To  such  it  was  an  object  to  employ  teachers  having 
families  to  consume  the  products  of  the  farm. 

The  course  of  instruction  embraced  but  the  few  more  primary  branches. 
Spelling,  reading,  writing,  and  common  arithmetic,  constituted  for  several 
years  the  entire  course.  The  school  books  used  were  Webster's  Spelling 
Book,  one  or  two  reading  books,  and  an  arithmetic.  A  grammar,  a  geogra- 
phy or  an  atlas,  the  scholars  had  never  seen.  But  many  teachets  were  not 
qualified  to  teach  even  these  few  branches  successfully.  Only  the  simpler 
parts  of  arithmetic  were  taught  by  most  teachers,  especially  in  the  summer 
term.  The  mathematical  ambition  of  many  pupils  was  satisfied  when  they 
could  "  cypher"  to  the  end  of  the  "  Single  Rule  of  Three,"  which,  in  that 
old  popular  work,  "  DaboU's  Arithmetic,"  then  in  general  use,  preceded 
"  Fractions,"  as  it  did  in  other  old  arithmetics.     Nor  did  some  parents  think 


a  higher  attainment  in  this  branch  necessary  for  their  sons,  unless  it  were  the 
knowledge  of  computing  interest,  which  some  of  them  might,  at  some  time 
in  their  lives,  have  occasion  to  practice.  Even  after  the  enactment  of  the 
school  laws  requiring  the  examination  of  teachers,  and  a  certificate  from  a 
board  of  inspectors  pronouncing  them  "  well  qualified  to  teach  a  common 
school,"  most  of  them  were  very  deficient  in  the  "  learning  and  ability"  in- 
tended to  be  secured  by  the  law.  A  knowledge  of  grammar  was  for  many 
years  not  insisted  on  by  the  inspectors,  and  for  the  reason  that,  if  it  had 
been,  there  would  not  have  been  a  sufficient  number  of  teachers  to  supply 
all  the  schools.  And  so  in  respect  to  geography  and  other  branches  now 
considered  indispensable. 

The  manner  of  teaching  and  conducting  a  school  was  also  defective.  Writ- 
ing, in  many  schools,  was  not  required  to  be  done  at  any  fixed  hour,  nor  by 
all  at  the  same  time.  Children  could  not  make  their  own  pens — none  but 
goose-quill  pens  being  used — nor,  indeed,  were  teachers  generally  competent 
to  do  it  properly.  These  pens  needed  to  be  frequently  mended.  To  make 
and  mend  the  pens  and  "set  copies"  for  ten  or  twenty  pupils,  took  no  small 
portion  of  a  teacher's  time,  and  was  often  done  during  reading  and  other 
exercises,  in  which  the  worst  mistakes  escaped  the  observation  of  the  teacher. 
To  avoid  this,  some  teachers  did  this  work  before  or  after  school  hours. 
The  introduction  of  the  metallic  pen  and  the  printed  copy-book  is  a  valua- 
ble improvement,  saving  much  of  the  teacher's  time,  and  furnishing  the 
pupils  with  good  and  uniform  copies. 

The  black-board  had  not  been  invented  ;  or,  if  it  had  been,  it  was  unknown 
in  rural  districts.  Scholars  were  not  taught  arithmetic  in  classes.  They  got 
the  attention  of  the  teacher  as  they  could.  Voices  from  all  quarters,  asking 
for  help  "  to  do  this  sum,"  for  permission  to  "  go  out,"  to  "  go  and  drink," 
and  to  "go  to  the  fire,''  questions  which,  in  many  schools,  were,  to  use  a 
parliamentary  phrase,  "  always  in  order  ;"  and  the  teacher  going  about  the 
room  to  "help"  scholars  at  their  seats;  all  these,  and  other  things  that 
might  be  mentioned,  kept  the  school-room  in  a  continual  bustle.  Not  all 
schools,  however,  were  thus  conducted.  In  many  of  them  order  and  good 
management  prevailed ;  and  many  of  our  most  intelligent  citizens  and  most 
practical  and  successful  business  men,  were  graduated  at  these  institutions. 

A  citizen  of  the  town  of  Stockton  gives  the  following  description  of  the 
school-house  and  school  in  which  he  "  learned  his  ABC,  and  graduated  in 
Webster's  Spelling  Book  as  far  as  '  Crucifix  :'" 

"  This  school-house  was  about  20  by  24,  and  about  7  feet  between  the 
floors.  A  large  Dutch  fire-place  was  in  the  north  end.  There  were  thiee 
nine-lighted  windows  of  the  smallest  pattern  ;  desks  or  writing  tables  against 
the  walls,  and  pine  slab  seats  with  wooden  legs.  The  furniture  consisted  of 
a  plain  cross-legged  table,  a  splint-bottom  chair,  and  a  pine  log  about  two 
feet  in  diameter  and  one  foot  high,  called  a  'dunce  block,'  and  a  pair  of 
leather  spectacles.  It  is  presumable  that  the  last  two  articles  were  con- 
tributed by  the  teacher,  and  hence  omitted  when  not  thought  necessary  for 
the  good  of  the  school. 


"  A  word  of  explanation  may  be  necessary  to  show  the  use  of  the  dunce 
block  and  the  leather  spectacles,  as  these  appliances  have  become  nearly  or 
quite  obsolete.  The  scholar  who  failed  to  get  his  lesson  perfectly,  was  pretty 
sure  to  mount  the  block  with  the  spectacles  across  his  nose ;  and  as  odd  and 
droll  as  he  looked,  with  his  eyes  through  the  leather  belt,  no  one  would  dare 
to  laugh,  for  fear  of  taking  the  same  place,  with  perhaps  an  additional 
'  switching '  about  the  back,  by  those  ominous  looking  beechep  whips  care- 
fully stored  in  a  crack  in  the  floor  overhead.  Young  men  and  women 
fi-equently  mounted  this  dreadful  block,  who  were  too  tall  to  stand  erect, 
because  their  heads  would  come  in  contact  with  the  ceiling  above.  This 
would  occasionally  bring  a  suppressed  titter  from  the  other  scholars ;  but  a 
blow  with  the  great  whip  in  the  hand  of  the  teacher  would  restore  gravity, 
and  make  us  all  feel  thankful  that  it  was  the  table,  and  not  our  backs,  that 
received  the  beating." 

There  were,  however,  some  good  schools  then ;  and  there  are  many  poor 
ones  still ;  yet  a  comparison  of  the  schools  of  the  present  time  with  those  of 
fifty  years  ago,  shows  a  vast  improvement.  Perhaps  the  most  salutary  pro- 
vision in  the  school  laws  of  our  country,  is  that  which  brings  the  advantages  of 
a  sound  and  practical  education  within  the  reach  of  all  classes  of  its  citizens. 

Prior  to  the  year  1813  or  181 4,  little  provision  was  made  by  the  state  for 
the  education  of  its  children.  The  poorest  people  had  to  pay  wholly  for  the 
tuition  of  their  children,  or  keep  them  out  of  school.  This  misfortune  was 
in  part  remedied  by  providing  a  school  fund,  which  consisted  of  lands  and 
other  property  of  the  state,  the  income  of  which  was  annually  distributed 
amongst  the  school  districts  to  be  applied  to  the  payment  of  teachers'  wages. 
The  first  money  thus  distributed  in  this  county  was  in  the  year  1814.  This 
fund  was  many  years  afterward  largely  increased  on  this  wise:  In  1836, 
Congress  passed  an  act  authorizing  the  distribution,  among  the  states,  of 
many  millions  of  dollars  which  had  accrued  from  imposts  and  sales  of  public 
lands.  Propositions  for  distribution  had  been  several  times  defeated  on  the 
ground  of  its  supposed  unconstitutionality.  To  avoid  this  objection,  it  was 
proposed  that,  instead  of  giving  this  money  to  the  states,  it  should  be  "  de- 
posited with  "  the  states,  until  the  general  government  should  call  for  it.  It 
was  to  be  deposited  in  four  annual  installments ;  three  of  which  had  been 
deposited,  when,  in  1838,  it  being  supposed  that  the  government  would  have 
occasion  to  use  a  part  of  the  money,  an  act  was  passed  to  postpone  the  pay- 
ment of  the  fourth  installment.  About  $28,000,000  had  been  deposited 
with  the  states.  The  quota  of  the  state  of  New  York  was  about  $3,500,000. 
No  portion  of  the  sum  deposited  has  ever  been  called  for;  nor  was  it  supposed 
by  many  that  it  ever  would  be. 

\-n  1838,  by  an  act  of  our  state  legislature,  the  income  of  the  United  States 
deposit  fund,  as  this  money  was  called,  was  to  be  appropriated  "  to  the 
purposes  of  education."  For  three  years,  $55,000  was  to  be  expended 
annually  for  the  purchase  of  district  libraries.  The  remainder  was  principally 
paid  toward  the  teachers'  wages.  If  the  public  moneys  were  insufficient  for 
this  purpose,  the  deficiency  was  supplied  by  a  rate  bill. 

By  the  first  school  law,  a  sum  was  to  be  raised  by  a  tax  on  the  inhabitants 


of  every  town  equal  to  the  sum  received  from  the  state  funds ;  in  default  of 
which,  their  claim  to  the  public  money  was  forfeited ;  and  by  a  vote  at  town- 
meeting,  double  the  amount  might  be  raised  in  the  town.  The  districts  were 
also  required  to  have  a  school  kept  at  least  four  months,  [now  six  months,] 
to  entitle  them  to  a  share  of  the  public  money. 


The  establishment  of  the  institutions  of  religion  in  the  new  settlements 
of  this  county,  is  a  prominent  feature  in  its  history.  Reared  under  the 
influence  of  these  institutions,  and  imbued  with  the  sentiment  declared  by 
the  founders  of  our  republic,  that  "  true  religion  and  good  morals  are  the 
only  solid  foundations  of  public  liberty,"  the  settlers,  like  the  "  Pilgrim 
Fathers,''  planted  churches  at  the  earliest  practicable  period. 

The  people  of  Western  New  York,  as  well  as  those  of  the  new  states 
generally,  were  chiefly  supplied  by  the  missionary  societies  of  New  England 
and  other  religious  organizations.  The  tide  of  emigration  to  the  West  was 
followed  up  by  missionaries,  carrying  the  gospel  of  peace  to  the  destitute 
pioneer  settlements,  enduring,  with  the  people,  for  the  Master's  sake,  the 
hardships  and  sacrifices  incident  to  such  a  condition  of  the  country.  There 
is  probably  not  a  town  in  this  county  whose  early  inhabitants  were  not 
indebted  to  these  self-denying  laborers  for  the  religious  instruction  of  their 
families.  We  say  self-denying ;  because  the  pittance  they  received  for  their 
services — their  toilsome  travels,  their  coarse  fare,  and  the  manifold  discom- 
forts they  experienced  in  rude,  unfurnished  dwellings — forbids  the  idea  that 
they  were  actuated  by  mere  mercenary  motives.  Some  of  them  possessed 
talents  which,  if  employed  in  other  pursuits,  would  have  elevated  them  to 
distinction  and  affluence.  And  it  can  scarcely  be  doubted  that  the  health- 
ful influence  of  their  "  preaching  in  the  wilderness"  did  not  cease  with  the 
generation  to  which  they  ministered. 

Perhaps  no  other  minister  labored  so  early  and  so  long  in  the  missionary 
service  in  this  county  as  the  Rev.  John  Spencer,  familiarly  known  as  "  Father 
Spencer."  He  had  been  a  deacon  in  the  Congregational  church  in  Worces- 
ter, Otsego  county ;  and  with  only  such  learning  as  an  ordinary  school  edu- 
cation and  his  own  reading  and  observation  afforded,  he  entered  the  ministry. 
He  was  employed  as  a  missionary  on  the  Holland  Purchase  by  the  Connec- 
ticut Missionary  Society  ;  and  his  labors  were  highly  useful  in  forming  and 
sustaining  churches.  He  preached  in  the  new  settlements  when  his  congre- 
gations consisted  of  but  two  or  three  families,  and  sometimes,  it  is  said, 
of  but  one;  thus  literally  "preaching  from  house  to  house." 

All,  or  nearly  all,  the  churches  formed  by  Mr.  Spencer  were  ctenomina- 
tionally  Congregational.  Most  of  them,  however,  have  long  since  adopted 
the  Presbyterian  form  of  government,  and  formed  connection  with*  Presby- 
teries.    Of  his  labors,  a  citizen  of  this  county  writes  : 


"  Hardly  was  the  first  log  cabin  reared  in  the  wilderness,  before  it  was 
visited  by  that  early  missionary,  the  Rev.  John  Spencer,  to  cheer  and  encour- 
age the  pioneer  in  his  struggle  with  the  formidable  difficulties  that  surrounded 
him.  Mr.  Spencer's  life  in  the  forest  was  an  active  and  a  toilsome  one ;  he 
understood  the  duties  of  his  calling  well,  and  faithfully  he  performed  them. 
There  are  many  anecdotes  still  extant  illustrating  the  clearness  of  his  intellect 
and  cheerfulness  of  his  disposition." 

Another  writes  of  him  as  follows: 

"From  1810  to  1820,  or  later.  Rev.  John  Spencer,  a  CongregationaHst, 
was  the  pioneer  minister.  Priest  Spencer,  as  he  was  called,  entered  all  parts 
of  the  county  where  could  be  assembled  three  or  more  families,  and  preached 
nearly  every  evening.  His  dress  was  ancient — knee  and  shoe  buckles — 
short  breeches  and  long  stockings — a  dress  which  at  that  period  attracted 
attention,  as  it  had  nearly  passed  out  of  date.  Independence  in  thought, 
word  and  deed,  was  characteristic. '  He  was  remarkable  for  the  sharp  twinkle 
of  his  eye,  which  always  preceded  some  witty  reproof.  His  sermons  were 
short,  practical,  and  impressive.  His  manner  of  delivery  was  singular  :  com- 
mencing short  sentences,  he  would  speak  the  first  words  slow  and  very  dis- 
tinct, and  hasten  to  the  close,  accenting  strongly  the  last  words.  Especially 
was  this  the  case  in  his  prayers.  Children  noticed  the  set  formula  with  which 
he  closed  every  petition." 

Several  interesting  anecdotes  are  related  of  Mr.  Spencer ;  but  the  disagree- 
ment between  the  relators  in  some  of  the  particulars,  renders  it  probable  that 
they  are  largely  based  on  tradition.  He  closed  his  useful  life  in  this  county, 
and  was  buried  in  Sheridan. 

In  1 808,  the  Presbyterian  General  Assembly  appointed  Rev.  John  Linds- 
ley  a  missionary  for  four  months,  two  of  them  to  be  spent  in  Steuben  and 
Tioga  counties,  and  the  remaining  two  months  in  the  settlements  of  the  Hol- 
land Purchase.  Although  he  was  here  probably  as  early  as  Mr.  Spencer,  his 
labors  do  not  appear  to  have  continued  beyond  the  term  of  his  appointment. 
The  principal  record  of  his  labors  that  we  have  seen,  is  that  of  his  having 
officiated  at  the  formation  of  the  Presbyterian  church  at  Westfield  in  1808, 
and  at  the  formation  of  a  Congregational,  now  the  Presbyterian,  church  of 
Warsaw,  July  14,  1808.  It  is  said,  however,  that  he  visited  Westfield  as  a 
missionary  in  the  fall  of  1807,  and  was  then  sustained  by  a  Female  Mission- 
ary Society.  He  was  on  his  way  to  Pennsylvania ;  and  on  his  return  in  the 
spring,  formed  the  Westfield  church  as  above  stated.  It  has  been  stated,  and 
probably  truly,  that  he  returned  and  went  over  his  former  missionary  ground, 
and  spent  three  sabbaths  in  Westfield. 

Rev.  Phineas  Camp,,  a  graduate  of  Union  College  in  1810,  and  a  graduate 
of  the  second  class  of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Princeton,  was  appointed 
by  the  Presbyterian  General  Assembly's  Board  of  Missions  as  a  home  mis- 
sionary in  Pennsylvania,  Western  New  York  and  Ohio.  He  assisted  in  the 
reorganiza'tion  of  the  church  in  Westfield,  in  November,  1817,  and  was 
installed  as  pastor  of  the  church  by  the  Erie  Presbytery,  Sept.  8,  1819. 

Bene*ts,  doubtless,  accrued  both  to  Congregationalists  and  Presbyterians, 
from  a  "  Plan  of  Union  "  then  existing.     Their  system  of  religious  belief  was 


substantially  the  same.  They  were  divided  only  on  the  plan  of  church  gov- 
ernment. As  it  was  generally  difficult,  in  new  settlements,  for  either  to 
support  a  separate  and  distinct  organization,  the  Presbyterian  General  Assem- 
bly, in  1 80 1,  adopted  a  plan  which  permitted  Congregational  ministers  to 
become  pastors  of  Presbyterian  churches,  and  Congregational  churches  to  be 
represented  in  Presb)rterian  ecclesiastical  bodies.  On  the  formation  of 
churches,  the  majority  probably  determined  the  mode  of  church  government. 

Rev.  Asa  Turner,  a  Baptist  preacher,  was  also  an  early  missionary  in 
this  county,  and  is  represented  to  have  been  "  very '  popular  among  the 
settlers,  and  warmly  welcomed  among  them."  Rev.  Joy  Handy,  too,  was 
an  early  laborer  in  this  missionary  field,  though  he  soon  became  pastor  of 
the  Baptist  church  at  Jredonia.  As  a  rflissionary  and  pastor  he  made 
"full  proof  of  his  ministry,"  and  closed  his  useful  life  after  a  long  and 
faithful  service  of  the  Master. 

Several  of  the  early  Baptist  churches  in  the  county  were  formed  by  these 
and  other  early  ministers.  The  first  was  at  Fredonia,  the  preparatory  work 
having  been  done  by  that  devoted  layman.  Judge  Gushing.  The  records  of 
the  church  show  that  its  organization  was  completed  by  its  being  received 
into  fellowship  by  a  council,  October  20,  1808. 

The  Methodists,  too,  \vith  their  usual  promptitude,  sent  their  preachers 
into  the  western  wilderness.  Their  missionaries  are  their  circuit  preachers, 
who  appear  to  have  made  their  advent  in  this  country  about  the  year  1808. 
In  Gregg's  "  History  of  Methodism  within  the  bounds  of  the  Erie  Annual 
Conference,"  we  find  the  following : 

"From  1796  to  1812, Western  New  York  was  nominally  within  the  bounds 
of  the  Philadelphia  Conference,  though  most  of  the  time  entirely  unoccu- 
pied. In  1808,  a  circuit  was  formed  by  that  conference  called  the  '  Holland 
Purchase,'  which  embraced  all  of  the  state  of  New  York  west  of  the  Gene- 
see river,  to  which  the  Rev.  George  Lane  was  appointed.  Sometime  in  the 
winter  of  1808-9,  learning  that  a  few  members  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal 
Church  had  settled  a  short  distance  east  of  the  present  village  of  Fredonia, 
in  the  west  part  of  Sheridan,  Chautauqua  county,  Mr.  Lane  started  up 
from  Buffalo  in  a  one-horse  sleigh  to  visit  and  preach  to  them.  On  his  way 
up  he  overtook  Mr.  Gould  and  wife  in  a  two-horse  sleigh,  who  were  members 
of  the  Methodist  church,  and  resided  in  the  place  just  mentioned,  and  who 
had  been  East  on  a  visit,  and  were  returning  home.  The  snow  was  deep 
and  badly  drifted.  Night  came  on  them  while  in  the  woods  some  distance 
below  the  Cattaraugus  creek ;  and  they  became  so  buried  in  the  snow,  that 
they  could  get  their  sleighs  no  further.  After  disengaging  their  horses  from 
their  sleighs,  each  person  mounted  a  horse,  and  rode  on  the  bare  back  to 
Mack's  tavern,  where  they  spent  the  remainder  of  the  night.  Next  morning 
they  succeeded  in  getting  their  sleighs,  and  before  night  reached  Mr.  Gould's 
house,  where  Mr.  Lane  spent  a  few  days  and  preached  several  times,  and, 
during  his  stay  in  the  place,  formed  a  class  consisting  of  Stephen  Bush,  Dan- 
iel G.  Gould  and  wife,  and  Elijah  Risley.  This  was  undoubtedly  the  first 
Methodist  preaching  and  the  first  class  formed  in  Chautauqua  county,  which 
has,  since  that  time,  been  a  very  fruitful  field  for  Methodism,  and  very  pro- 
ductive of  Methodist  ministers." 


As  early  aS  1801,  the  Erie  circuit  existed,  which  embraced  the  first  religious 
organizations  of  the  Methodists  in  this  county,  and  for  a  long  time  afterwards 
the  whole  or  a  considerable  part  of  the  county.  It  was  in  the  Pittsburgh 
district,  which  was  within  the  bounds  of  the  Baltimore  Conference.  The 
presiding  elder  of  the  district  was  Thornton  Fleming ;  and  the  preacher  of 
the  Erie  circuit  was  James  Quinn.  It  is  said  that  Mr.  Quinn's  circuit,  when 
formed,  contained  twenty  appointments,  requiring  him  to  travel  four  hundred 
miles  every  four  weeks.  The  first  class  he  formed  was  near  a  place  called 
Lexington,  in  Springfield  township,  Erie  county.  Pa.  In  1804  the  district 
took  the  name  of  Monongahela,  and  Thornton  Fleming  was  continued  pre- 
siding elder  until  the  meeting  of  the  Baltimore  Conference  in  May,  18 10, 
when  Jacob  Gruber  was  appointed  presiding  elder,  and  Joshua  Monroe, 
preacher  of  Erie  circuit ;  and  the  year  following,  James  Watts  and  James 

Gospel  Land. 

It  is  generally  known  by  the  older  inhabitants,  that  the  Holland  Land 
Company  made  a  donation  of  100  acres  of  land  to  religious  societies  in 
every  town,  usually  designated  as  the  "  gospel  land."  This  was  no  part  of 
the  early  policy  of  the  Company.  The  manner  in  which  this  land  was 
obtained,  is  related  by  Mr.  Turner  in  his  History  of  the  Holland  Purchase. 

In  the  fall  of  1820,  Paul  Busti,  the  general  agent  of  the  Company  at 
Philadelphia,  while  on  a  visit  at  Batavia,  was  importuned  by  a  Presbyterian 
minister  from  a  neighboring  town  for  a  donation  of  land  to  every  society  of 
that  persuasion  then  formed  on  the  Holland  Purchase.  Mr.  Busti  was  for 
a  long  time  indisposed  to  grant  the  request.  But  the  Rev.  gentleman  having 
urged  his  suit  until  the  agent's  patience  was  exhausted,  the  latter  firmly 
replied:  "Yes,  Mr.  R.,  I  will  give  a  tract  of  one  hundred  acres  to  a  religious 
society  in  every  town  on  the  Purchase  ;  and  this  is  finis.''  He  was,  however, 
unwilling  to  give  preference  to  any  particular  denomination.  "  But,"  said 
he,  "  to  save  contention,  I  will  give  it  to  the  first  society  in  every  town." 
Mr.  R.,  it  is  said,  lost  no  time  in  communicating  the  information  to  the 
Presbyterians  in  the  towns  in  his  vicinity.     Mr.  Turner  proceeds  as  follows  : 

"  The  land  office  was  soon  flooded  with  petitions  for  land  from  societies 
organized  according  to  law,  and  empowered  to  hold  real  estate,  and  from 
those  that  were  not,  one  of  which  was  presented  to  Mr.  Busti  before  he  left, 
directed  to  '  Gen.  Poll  Busti,'  on  which  he  insisted  that  it  could  not  be  from  a 
religious  society ;  for  all  religious  societies  read  their  Bibles,  and  know  that 
Po  double  /,  does  not  spell  Paul."  Amid  this  chaos  of  applications,  it  was 
thought  unadvisable  to  be  precipitant  in  granting  these  donations,  the  whole 
responsibility  now  resting  on  Mr.  EUicott  to  comply  with  the  vague  promise 
of  Mr.  Busti.  Therefore  conveyances  of  the  'gospel  land'  were  not  executed 
for  some  space  of  time,  notwithstanding  the  clamor  of  petitions  for  '  deeds 
of  our  land  ;'  during  which  time  the  matter  was  taken  into  consideration 
and  systematized,  so  far  as  such  an  operation  could  be.  Pains  were  taken 
to  ascertain  the  merits  of  each  application,  and  finally  a  tract  or  tracts  of 
land,  not  exceeding  one  hundred  acres  in  all,  were  granted,  free  of  expense. 


to  one  or  more  religious  societies  regularly  organized  according  to  law  in 
every  town  on  the  Purchase,  where  the  company  had  land  undisposed  of, 
which  embraced  every  town  then  organized,  except  B^hany,  Genesee  county, 
and  Sheldon,  Wyoming  county ;  the  donees  being  in  all  cases  allowed  to 
select  out  of  the  unsold  farming  land  in  the  town.  In  some  towns  it  was  all 
given  to  one  society ;  in  others,  to  two  or  three  societies,  separately ;  and  in 
a  few  towns  to  four  societies  of  different  sects,  twenty-five  acres  to  each." 

And  it  is  said  that  the  proceedings  were  so  judiciously  managed  by  Mr. 
Ellicott,  that  partiality  was  in  no  case  charged  against  the  agent  or  his 


A  BRIEF  sketch  of  the  division  of  this  state  into  counties,  of  their  organi- 
zation, and  of  changes  in  their  boundaries,  prior  to  the  formation  of  Chau- 
tauqua county,  will  not  be  deemed  incompatible  with  the  character  and 
design  of  this  work.  From  the  introduction  to  a  history  of  Oneida  County, 
N.  Y.,  a  valuable  and  reliable  work,  written  by  Judge  Pomeroy  Jones,  of  that 
county,  and  published  many  years  ago,  the  following  is  an  extract : 

"The  Dutch  originally  settled  and  governed  the  territory  within  the  limits 
of  the  state  of  New  York,  and  by  them  it  was  called  New  Netherlands.  As 
late  as  1683,  that  portion  of  it  lying  west  of  Fort  Orange,  [Albany,]  was 
termed  by  the  Dutch  chroniclers  '  Terra  Incognito,'  or  Unknown  Land.  In 
1683,  the  colony  having  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  English,  it  was  divided 
into  twelve  counties,  viz.  ;  New  York,  Albany,  Dutchess,  Kings,  Queens, 
Orange,  Ulster,  Richmond,  Suffolk,  Westchester,  Dukes,  and  Cornwall. 
Albany  county  then  included  Albany  and  all  west  of  it.  In  T768  and  1770, 
the  counties  of  Cumberland  and  Gloucester  were  added.  Of  the  original 
counties,  Dukes  and  Cornwall,  after  a  bitter  controversy,  were  suspended  to 
Massachusetts  in  1693  ;  and  a  part  of  Gloucester  and  Cumberland  was,  after 
a  quarrel,  ceded  to  New  Hampshire,  and  now  forms  a  part  of  Vermont ;  and 
and  the  portion  of  the  two  counties  retained  was  formed  into  a  county  called 
Charlotte,  now  Washington  county.  In  1772,  the  county  of  Tryon  was 
formed  from  Albany  county,  lying  westwardly  of  a  line  running  nearly  north 
and  south  through  the  present  county  of  Schoharie.  The  name  of  Tryon 
having  become  highly  obnoxious  from  the  active  hostility  and  acts  of  wanton 
cruelty  of  the  Colonial  Governor  Tryon  towards  the  Americans  during  the 
Revolution,  the  legislature,  in  1784,  changed  the  name  to  Montgomery,  in 
honor  of  the  general  of  that  name  who  had  fallen  at  Quebec." 

Montgomery  county  was  divided  into  five  districts.  German  Flats,  one  of 
the  districts,  included  the  present  town  of  Herkimer  and  all  the  territory 
west  of  it  in  this  state,  and  was  an  entire  wilderness,  with  the  exception  of 
forts  and  Indian  trading  points  and  a  few  Dutch  settlers  along  the  Mohawk 
river.  In  1786,  the  entire  county  of  Montgomery,  embracing  over  one-half 
of  the  state  of  New  York,  contained  but  15,050  inhabitants,  about  one-fourth 
of  the  number  now  in  Chautauqua  county.  In  1788,  the  town  of  Whites 
TowTi,  [thus  written,]  was  erected  from  German  Flats,  and  named  in  honor 


of  Judge  Hugh  White,  who  had  recently  emigrated  from  Middletown,  Ct., 
to  the  present  site  of  the  village  of  Whitesboro',  then  including  the  present 
city  of  Utica,  and  all  of  the  state  west  of  it,  and  probably  did  not  contain 
over  200  inhabitants.  The  late  Judge  Jonas*  Piatt,  of  the  supreme  court, 
was  an  early  supervisor  of  the  town. 

On  the  27th  of  January,  1788,  the  county  of  Ontario  was  erected  from 
Montgomery,  and  the  preamble  of  the  act  read  as  follows  :  "  Whereas  the 
county  of  Montgomery  is  so  extensive  as  to  be  inconvenient  to  those  who 
now  or  may  hereafter  settle  in  the  western  part  of  the  county,  therefore," 
etc.  The  county  of  Ontario  included  all  of  the  state  west  of  a  line  drawn 
due  north  from  the  82d  mile  stone  on  the  line  between  the  states  of  New 
York  and  Pennsylvania,  through  Seneca  lake,  to  Lake  Ontario.  By  the 
last  cited  act,  all  of  the  state  west  of  the  Genesee  river  was  erected  into  the 
town  of  Northampton.  The  counties  of  Herkimer,  Otsego,  and  Tioga,  were 
erected  from  Montgomery  in  1801. 

On  the  30th  of  March,  1802,  the  county  of  Genesee  was  formed  from  the 
county  of  Ontario,  and  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  Genesee  river  and  the 
county  of  Steuben.  Or,  according  to  another  description,  it  comprised  all 
that  part  of  the  state  lying  west  of  the  Genesee  river  and  a  line  extending 
due  south  from  the  point  of  the  junction  of  that  river  and  the  Canescraga 
creek,  to  the  south  line  of  the  state. 

Genesee  county  was  divided  into  four  towns :  Northampton,  Southampton, 
Leicester,  and  Batavia.  The  first  three  embraced  all  the  territory  within  the 
county  lying  east  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  and  Batavia  the  whole  of  the 
Purchase.  Northampton  adjoined  Lake  Ontario ;  Southampton  adjoined 
Northampton  on  the  south,  and  Leicester  embraced  all  the  territory  south  of 
Southampton  to  the  Pennsylvania  hne.  The  first  board  of  supervisors  of 
Genesee  county  was  composed  of  Simon  King,  representing  Northampton ; 
Christopher  Layboum,  Southampton;  John  H.  Jones,  Leicester;  and  Peter 
Vandeventer,  the  town  of  Batavia.  The  first  town  meeting  in  Batavia,  of 
which  the  present  county  of  Chautauqua  formed  a  part,  was  held  at  Van- 
deventer's  inn,  within  the  limits  of  the  present  town  of  Clarence,  Erie 

The  town  of  Chautauqua,  formed  from  Batavia,  April  11,  1804,  embraced 
the  present  county,  excepting  only  the  loth  range  of  townships,  which  was 
annexed  to  Chautauqua  in  the  formation  of  the  county.  At  the  same  time 
[1804]  there  were  formed  from  Batavia  the  towns  of  Willink  and  Erie,  the 
latter,  now  called  Newstead,  comprising,  it  is  believed,  but  a  single  town- 
ship ;  the  two  comprising  all  the  territory  l)ang  within  the  present  counties  of 
Niagara  and  Erie. 

Allegany  county  was  taken  from  Genesee  in  1806;  Cattaraugus,  Chautau- 
qua, and  Niagara,  in  1808 ;  [the  present  county  of  Erie  being  then  included 
in  Niagara;]  parts  of  Livingston  and  Monroe,  in  182 1 ;  a  part  of  Orleans, 
in  1824;  and  Wyoming,  in  1841.  The  town  of  Batavia,  formed  in  1802,  has 
alone  become  the  mother  of  four  whole  counties,  [Chautauqua,  Cattaraugus, 



>fiagara,  and  Erie,]  one-half  of  Allegany,  and  the  greater  parts  of  Orleans 
and  Wyoming. 

In  1805  or  1806,  the  subject  of  erecting  two  or  more  counties  from  Gene- 
see and  Ontario,  along  the  Genesee  valley,  was  agitated  by  settlers  along  the 
river.  Judge  Foote  furnishes  some  interesting  facts  relating  to  the  division 
of  Genesee  county,  which  were  published  in  the  Jamestown  Journal,  of 
October  7,  1859.     He  says  : 

"  I  have  understood  that  the  Hon.  Philip  Church,  now  of  Allegany  county, 
the  Messrs.  Wadsworth,  of  Geneseo,  and  Messrs.  Warner  and  Hosmer,  of 
Avon,  who  were  prominent  and  honored  citizens,  and  men  of  wealth,  and 
landholders,  formed  the  plan  of  the  formation  of  two  or  more  counties  from 
Ontario  and  Genesee,  in  1806,  while  Joseph  Ellicott,  the  agent  of  the  Hol- 
land Company,  strongly  opposed  the  project.  Allegany  was  set  off  from 
Genesee  in  1806.  But  the  original  question  was  still  unsettled.  To  many 
of  the  inhabitants  of  Allegany,  its  boundaries  were  not  satisfactory ;  and 
several  petitions  were  presented  to  the  legislature  in  1807,  in  favor  of  differ- 
ent localities  for  the  public  buildings  in  that  county;  but  nothing  definite  was 
done  by  the  legislature  until  the  presentation  of  petitions  in  February  and 
March,  1808,  which  resulted  in  laws  annexing  the  west  part  of  Steuben  to 
Allegany,  and  the  west  part  of  Allegany  to  Genesee,  [to  form  the  east  part  of 
Cattaraugus,]  and  fixing  the  county  site  of  Allegany  to  Angelica.  Genesee 
county  was  divided  into  four  counties,  Genesee,  Cattaraugus,  Chautauqua, 
and  Niagara,  the  last  named  then  including  the  present  county  of  Erie. 

"  One  fact  appears  singular ;  in  none  of  the  petitions  signed  by  residents 
of  the  present  county  of  Chautauqua,  was  that  name  for  the  county  solicited-; 
but  it  was  proposed  only  by  the  five  landholders,  none  of  them  residing  in  or 
having  any  interest  in  the  county.  The  name  was  most  appropriate,  and  I 
apprehend  the  people  were  well  satisfied  with  it.  Chautauqua  and  Cattarau- 
gus remain  as  established  over  half  a  century  ago  ;  Allegany  nearly  as  then  ; 
Niagara,  until  1821,  when  it  was  divided  and  Erie  county  erected;  Genesee, 
until  1821,  when  Monroe  and  Livingston  were  erected  from  Genesee  and 

In  1806,  a  petition  was  presented  to  the  legislature  for  the  division  of 
Genesee  into  four  counties,  by  the  names  of  Allegany,  Cattaraugus,  Niagara, 
and  Genesee ;  Niagara  and  Cattaraugus  to  be  organized  by  the  name  of 
Niagara  in  one  year  from  the  passing  of  the  act ;  and  Joseph  Ellicott,  Eras- 
tus  Granger,  and  Jonas  Williams,  to  be  appointed  commissioners  to  erect  a 
court-house  and  jail  in  said  county.  -  The  petition  also  asked  that  the  organi- 
zation of  Allegany  and  Cattaraugus  might  be  suspended  until  they  should 
contain  a  suitable  number  of  inhabitants.  The  petitioners  further  prayed 
that  the  court-house  and  jail  for  Niagara  should  be  erected  on  the  eastern- 
most public  square  in  the  village  of  New  Amsterdam,  or  Buffalo ;  and  that 
James  W.  Stevens,  Philip  Church,  and  William  Rumsey  be  appointed  com- 
missioners to  fix  upon  a  site  for  a  county  town  in  Allegany;  and  that  Joseph 
Ellicott,  Erastus  Granger,  and  Alexander  Reed  fix  upon  a  county  site  for 
Cattaraugus.  The  petitioners  also  remonstrated  against  the  granting  of  a 
petition,  then  in  contemplation,  for  erecting  a  new  county  out  of  the  western 
part  of  Ontario  and  the  eastern  part  of  Genesee. 


The  question  naturally  arises,  why  should  the  formation  of  so  many  new 
counties  be  asked  for  while  their  population  was  insufificient  for  an  immediate 
organization  ?  The  reasons  assigned  in  the  petition  are,  that  there  is  much 
contention  among  the  inhabitants  on  the  subject  of  dividing  counties,  and 
that  future  divisions,  when  the  population  becomes  considerable,  may  prove 
a  source  of  difficulty  to  the  legislature,  and  "  promote  dissensions  among 
those  who  may  be  interested  in  the  establishment  of  the  limits  of  counties;'' 
and  "  that  in  the  present  state  of  population  of  the  county  of  Genesee,  the 
bounds  of  future  counties  may  be  so  judiciously  established  and  limited  in 
extent  as  to  obviate  the  propriety  of  any  future  divisions;"  and  "that  the 
longer  the  divisions  are  delayed,  the  more  these  difficulties  will  increase,  and 
by  a  variety  of  contending  interests  the  more  injudiciously  will  the  new 
counties  be  divided." 

There  are  said  to  have  been  about  750  signers  to  this  petition,  among 
whom  were  the  following  : 

Benj.  EUicott,  Andrew  A.  EUicott,  James  W.  Stevens,  Joseph  Ellicott, 
Daniel  B.  Brown,  Reuben  Town,  Asa  McCracken,  Trumbull  Gary,  David  E. 
Evans,  Abraktfm  Dull,  William  Peacock,  Josiah  Babcock,  Richard  Smith, 
David  McGracken,  Seth  Cole,  John  D.  Weed,  Elias  Scojuld,  Filer  Socket, 
David  Eaton,  Louis  Lacouteulx,  Richard  Stiles,  Nathan  Gary,  Benj.  Hutchins, 
Alanson  Weed,  William  Bennett,  Harry  Ligerson,  Joseph  E.  Dart,  James 

There  was  no  date  to  this  petition,  but  it  was  probably  presented  to  the 
legislature  of  1806,  that  being  the  year  in  which  the  county  of  Allegany  was 
set  off.  Those  whose  names  are  in  italics,  were  then  residents  of  the  present 
county  of  Ghautauqua. 

March  2,  1808,  was  presented  to  the  legislature  "the  petition  of  the  sub- 
scribers and  landholders  of  the  counties  of  Genesee  and  Allegany."  They 
ask  for  a  division  of  the  part  of  Genesee  county  lying  between  Allegany 
county  and  the  western  boundary  of  the  state  of  New  York,  into  two  coun- 
ties, by  the  names  of  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus  ;  and  for  authorizing  the 
governor  to  appoint  commissioners  to  fix  sites  for  the  public  buildings  of 
these  two  counties ;  and  for  organizing  the  counties  of  Niagara,  Chautauqua, 
and  Cattaraugus,  together  by  the  name  of  Niagara,  and  suspending  the 
organization  of  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus  until  they  should  contain  such 
number  of  inhabitants  as  should  be  deemed  expedient.  This,  too,  was 
without  date;  but  was  presented,  as  stated  above,  March  2,  1808,  signed 
by  the  five  following  named  persons  :  Mather  Warner,  George  Hosmer, 
Jabez  Wilbur,  James  Wadsworth,  Philip  Church. 

Of  these  gentlemen,  Messrs.  Warner,  Wadsworth  and  Hosmer,  resided  in 
Ontario  county,  and  Mr.  Church  in  Allegany. 

The  reasons  assigned  for  this  division  are  in  part  the  same  as  tho^e  offered 
in  the  former  petition — to  prevent  contention  and  strife  among  future  inhab- 
itants as  to  the  proper  division  of  the  territory.  They  also  prayed  for  the 
annexation  of  the  three  western  ranges  of  townships  of  Allegany  to  the 


territory  designed  to  form  the  counties  of  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus ;  giv- 
ing as  a  reason  for  this  annexation,  that,  without  this  additional  territory, 
there  would  not  be  sufficient  for  two  counties.  [It  has  been  suspected  that 
the  chief  object  of  changing  the  boundaries  of  Allegany  was  to  secure  the 
establishment  of  the  county  seat  at  Angelica.] 

Another  petition,  presumed  also  to  have  been  presented  in  1808,  from 
inhabitants  of  the  counties  of  Steuben,  Genesee  and  Allegany,  prayed  for  the 
annexation  of  the  western  range  of  Steuben  county  to  Allegany,  and  the  3d, 
4th  and  5th  ranges  of  the  Holland  Purchase  to  Genesee,  and  for  dividing 
Genesee  into  four  counties  :  Cattaraugus,  extending  from  Allegany  county  to 
the  meridian  line  between  the  9th  and  loth  ranges  of  townships  of  the  Hol- 
land Land  Company's  survey ;  Chautauqua,  with  its  present  bounds ;  Niag- 
ara, including  the  present  counties  of  Niagara  and  Erie ;  and  all  the  remain- 
ing part  of  Genesee  to  constitute  the  fourth  county,  retaining  the  original 
name  of  Genesee.  The  petition  also  prays  for  the  establishment  of  the 
county  seat  of  Allegany  at  Angelica ;  that  of  Chautauqua  at  Mayville  ;  and 
that  of  Niagara  at  New  Amsterdam,  commonly  called  Buffalo ;  and  further, 
that  the  contemplated  county  of  Cattaraugus  be  continued  organized  with " 
Allegany  "  as  far  as  it  respects  taxation,  courts  of  justice,  voting  for  governor, 
members  of  the  legislature  and  of  congress,''  until  the  three  counties  of 
Niagara,  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus,  should  be  organized  together  as  one 
county  by  the  name  of  Niagara.  Signed  by  Asa  Ransom,  Trumbull  Cary, 
Peter  Powers,  Thomas  Prendergast,  Jonas  Williams,  William  Peacock, 
Richard  Smith,  Asa  Spear,  Henry  Wilson,  E.  Cary,  Emory  Blodgett,  Andrew 
A.  EUicott,  Benj,  EUicott,  Joseph  EUicott,  John  Mack,  David  E.  Evans, 
James  W.  Stevens,  and  others — in  all,  56  names. 

The  act  of  1 808  provided  that  Cattaraugus  and  Chautauqua  should  act  in 
conjunction  with  Niagara  until  they  should  respectively  contain  500  taxable 
inhabitants.  It  having  been  ascertained  from  the  assessment  rolls  of  t8io, 
at  the  meeting  of  the  board  of  supervisors,  that  Chautauqua  county  contained 
500  voters  for  members  of  assembly,  the  county  was  fully  organized  in  181 1, 
by  the  appointment  of  county  officers  on  the  9th  day  of  February,  181 1,  by 
the  council  of  appointment,  consisting  of  the  governor  and  four  senators, 
one  from  each  "of  the  four  senate  districts  into  which  the  state  was  then 
divided.  This  council  had  the  power  of  appointing  all  county  officers, 
including  justices  of  the  peace.  The  governor  was  then  Daniel  D.  Tomp- 
kins, and  the  four  senators  were  Benjamin  Coe,  James  W.  Wilkin,  John 
McLean,  Philetus  Swift. 

First  Judge — Zattu  Gushing.  Associate  Jtidges — Matthew  Prendergast, 
Philo  Orton,  Jonathan  Thompson,  William  Alexander. 

Assistant  Justices — Henry  Abell,  William  Gould,  John  Dexter,  Abiram 

Justices  of  the  Peace — ^Jeremiah  Potter,  John  Silsbee,  Abijah  Bennett,  Asa 
Spear,  Justus  Hinman,  Benjamin  Barrett,  Daniel  Pratt,  Selah  Pickett. 

Clerk — John    E.   Marshall.      Sheriff— \ya.\\dL.    Eason.     Surrogate — Squire 
White.     Coroners — Daniel  G.  Gould,  Philo  Hopson. 


The  act  of  1808  erecting  the  counties  of  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus, 
required  the  governor  to  appoint  three  commissioners  to  fix  on  county  sites 
in  these  counties,  and  file  their  decision  in  the  clerk's  office  of  Niagara 
county,  then  at  Buffalo.  Deeds  of  land  also  were  to  be  recorded  there  until 
after  the  complete  organization  of  this  county,  which  took  place  in  1811. 
The  commissioners  appointed  to  locate  the  county  sites,  were  Isaac  Suther- 
land, Jonas  Williams,  and  Asa  Ransom.  The  act  also  required  the  super- 
visors of  each  county  to  raise  the  sum  of  one  thousand  five  hundred  dollars 
for  erecting  and  completing  a  court-house  and  jail.  A  contract  was  accord- 
ingly made  with  Winsor  Brigham  to  build  a  court-house  and  jail  of  wood. 
And  the  house  of  John  Scott,  in  the  village  of  Mayville,  was  designated  as 
the  place  for  holding  courts  until  the  court-house  should  be  completed. 

The  first  court-house  in  the  county  was  a  two-story  frame  building,  built 
between  i8ii  and  1815,  the  war  having  retarded  its  completion.  The  June 
term  of  the  court  in  1814  was  held  in  the  unfinished  building,  but  not  the 
fall  and  winter  terms.  In  181 5  the  building  was  finished  and  occupied.  The 
lower  story  contained  three  prison  cells — two  for  criminals  and  one  for 
-debtors.  In  firont  of  these,  and  divided  from  them  by  a  narrow  hall,  was  the 
dwelling  part  for  the  jailor  and  his  family.  The  upper  story  was  for  court 
and  jury  rooms,  etc. 

In  1832,  the  prison  rooms  being  deemed  too  contracted,  and  having 
become  dilapidated  and  unsafe  for  the  detention  of  prisoners,  the  legislature 
required  the  supervisors  to  provide  for  the  erection  of  a  new  jail.  They  had 
been  authorized  the  preceding  year  to  do  so ;  but,  notwithstanding  it  had 
been  presented  by  the  grand  jury  as  a  nuisance,  they  refiised  to  provide  for 
building  another.  Hence  the  necessity,  next  year,  of  a  law  requiring  them 
to  do  so  ;  and  even  then  the  appropriation  was  made  by  a  majority  pi  two 
only.  The  sum  first  appropriated  by  the  law  of  1832,  was  $3,500,  in  three 
annual  installments,  the  last  of  which  would  become  due  in  1834,  when  the 
supervisors  were  required  to  raise  $1,500  more  for  its  completion. 

In  1834,  on  the  petition  of  many  citizens,  an  act  wasipassed  directing  the 
building  of  a  new  court-house.  It  is  not  strange  that  county  buildings 
costing  but  $1,500,  were,  after  a  lapse  of  more  than  twenty,  years,  insufficient 
for  the  various  county  purposes.  The  commissioners  appointoi  by  the  act 
to  contract  for  and  superintend  the  erection  of  the  court-hoiise;^i|tee  Thomas 
B.  Campbell,  Wm.  Peacock,  and  Martin  Prendergast  Tlie  supervisors 
were  required  to  assess  and  collect  therefor  $5,000  in  five  annual  installments 
commencing  in  1837.  This  time  was  fixed  in  order  to  allow  the  jail  install- 
ments to  be  fully  paid  before  additional  taxes  were  imposed.  The  money 
for  building  was  loaned  toAe  county  by  the  state,  at  6  per  cent,  interest,  the 
first  installment  to  be  paid  the  ist  of  March,  1838. 

The  commissioners  contracted  with  Benj.  Rathbun,  of  Buffalo,  for  erecting 
the  exterior  of  the  building.  The  work  was  done  the  same  summer,  and  was 
accepted  by  the  commissioners.  The  plan  was  submitted  to  the  board  of 
supervisors  in  1834,  and  a  committee  was  appointed,  with  instructions  to 













report  to  the  board  at  the  next  meeting.  At  an  adjourned  session  held  the 
next  month,  [Dec,  1834,]  the  committee  reported  resolutions,  declaring  that 
all  the  money  borrowed  had  been  expended  on  the  exterior  of  the  building ; 
disapproving  the  acts  of  the  commissioners  as  tending  to  burden  the  county 
with  a  heavy  expense  for  a  larger  and  more  costly  building  than  was  needed, 
with  the  purpose  of  advancing  the  interests  of  Mayville  at  the  expense  of 
the  county ;  and  asking  the  legislature  to  remove  Wm.  Peacock  and  Martin 
Prendergast,  and  appoint  Elial  T.  Foote  and  Leverett  Barker  as  commis- 
sioners in  their  stead.     The  report  was  accepted. 

The  action  of  the  next  legislature  upon  the  subject  was  the  passage  of  a 
law  requiring  the  raising  of  an  additional  sum  of  $4,000  to  complete  the 
building,  in  four  annual  installments,  beginning  with  the  year  1837  ;  and 
authorizing  the  comptroller  to  loan  it  as  before.  And  instead  of  removing 
the  two  commissioners,  Elial  T.  Foote,  of  Ellicott,  and  Leverett  Barker,  of 
Pomfret,  were  appointed  additional  commissioners.  With  this  appropriation 
the  building  was  completed,  and  the  five  commissioners  were  discharged. 

Divisions  of  Chautauqua  County. 

This  county,  at  the  time  of  its  formation  in  1808,  embraced  but  the  single 
town  of  Chautuaqua.  The  town  of  Pomfret  was  at  the  same  time  formed 
from  the  town  of  Chautauqua,  and  embraced  the  two  eastern  ranges  of  town- 
ships, [10  and  II,]  and  the  present  towns  of  Pomfret  and  Dunkirk.  There 
was  no  further  subdivision  until  after  the  complete  organization  of  the  county 
in  i8n. 

In  18 1 2,  Ellicott  was  formed  from  Pomfret,  and  embraced  townships  i  and  2 
in  ranges  10  and  11.  Gerry  was  formed  from  Pomfret,  and  embraced  the 
present  towns  of  Gerry,  Ellington,  Cherry  Creek,  and  Charlotte ;  and  Han- 
over, embracing  the  present  towns  of  Hanover,  Villenova,  and  a  part  of 

In  18 13,  Portland  was  formed  from  Chautauqua,  and  comprised  the  pres- 
ent towns  of  Portland,  Westfield,  and  Ripley. 

In  18 16,  Harmony  was  formed  from  Chautauqua,  and  comprised  town- 
ships I,  in  ranges  12  and  13,  and  all  of  townships  2,  in  the  same  ranges, 
lying  south  and  west  of  Chautauqua  lake. 

In  18 1 7,  Ripley  was  formed  from  Portland,  extending  from  Chautauqua 
creek  to  the  state  line. 

In  182 1,  Clymer  was  formed,  comprising  ihe  present  towns  of  Clymer, 
Sherman,  Mina,  and  French  Creek.  Stockton  was  formed  from  Chautauqua, 
and  comprised  township  4,  range  12,  and  a  tier  of  lots  from  township  4, 
range  13.  EUery  was  formed  from  Chautauqui,  comprising  township  3, 
range  1 2,  all  of  township  2  lying  north  of  the  lake,  and  a  few  lots  on  the 
west  from  township  3,  range  13.  In  1850,  12  lots  from  EUery  were  annexed 
to  Stockton. 

In  1823,  Busti  was  formed  from  Ellicott  and  Harmony,  comprising  parts 
of  townships  i,  in  ranges  11  and  12.     Villenova  was  taken  from  Hanover, 


comprising  township  5,  range  10,  and  a  part  of  the  present  town  of 

In  1824,  Ellington  was  formed  from  Gerry,  and  comprised  townships  3 
and  4,  in  range  10 ;  and  Mina  from  Clymer,  comprising  the  present  towns  of 
Mina  and  Sherman. 

In  1825,  Carroll  was  formed  from  EUicott,  and  comprised  township  i, 
range  10,  and  part  of  township  i,  range  iij  now  Kiantone. 

In  1827,  Sheridan  was  formed  from  Pomfret  and  Hanover,  and  comprises 
township  6  of  range  11,  except  4  lots  in  the  south-east  corner,  which  remain 
attached  to  Hanover. 

In  1829,  Arkwright  was  formed  from  Pomfret  and  Villenova.  A  part  of 
Pomfret  was  annexed  in  1830.  Charlotte  was  taken  from  Gerry,  comprising 
towiiship  4,  range  1 2 ;  Cherry  Creek  from  Ellington ;  French  Creek  from 
Cl3Tiier  ;  and  Westfield  from  Portland  and  Ripley. 

In  1832,  Poland  was  formed  from  EUicott,  and  lies  on  the  east  border  of 
the  county,  and  comprises  township  2,  range  10.  Sherman  was  formed  the 
same  year  from  Mina,  township  2,  range  14. 

In  1853,  Kiantone  was  formed  from  Carroll. 

In  1859,  Dunkirk  was  formed  from  Pomfret. 


Old  Portage  Road. 

That  a  portage  road  was  constructed  between  Lake  Erie  and  the  head 
of  Chautauqua  lake,  prior  to  the  settlement  of  this  county,  has  been  generally 
conceded ;  but  when  or  by  whom  it  was  opened  has,  until  a  comparatively 
late  period,  been  an  unsettled  question.  The  route  of  this  road  is  described 
in  the  following  letter  from  Col.  Wm.  Bell,  of  the  town  of  Westfield,  to  Judge 
Foote : 

"Westfield,  March  29,  187 1. 

"  Hon.  Elial  T.  Foote  :  In  answer  to  your  letter  inquiring  about  the 
route  of  the  old  French  road  from  Lake  Erie  to  Chautauqua  lake,  I  will  say, 
that  I  came  to  what  is  now  Westfield,  in  August,  1802.  My  father,  Arthur 
Bell,  came  from  Pennsylvania,  with  a  part  of  the  family  in  '  dug-out  canoes,' 
up  the  Allegany  and  Connewango  rivers,  and  the  Chautauqua  outlet  and  lake, 
to  the  present  steamboat  landing  at  Mayville,  while  I  came  through  the  woods 
from  the  Allegany  river  to  Erie,  and  thence  to  Westfield,  with  some  cattle 
and  horses.  And  when  the  family  arrived  at  the  head  of  the  lake,  I  went 
there  to  meet  them  ;  and  t^e  goods  were  '  packed '  over  to  the  farm  that  my 
father  had  taken  up  when  he  was  here  in  the  spring,  on  the  '  main  road,' 
about  three  miles  west  of  Westfield  village. 

"  In  1802,  there  were  the  remains  of  a  stone  chimney  standing  near  the 
shore  of  Lake  Erie,  a  little  west  of  the  mouth  of  Chautauqua  creek,  that  was 
said  to  have  been  built  by  the  French.  A  road  was  cut  out  from  that  point 
on  Lake  Erie,  crossing  the  present  Erie  road  near  the  old  '  McHeiuy  tavern,' 


where  the  historical  monument  now  stands,  and  crossing  the  west  branch  of 
Chautauqua  creek  about  100  rods  above  where  the  woolen  factory  of  Lester 
Stone  now  stands,  and  from  there  to  a  point  near  the  former  residence  of 
Gervis  Foot,  or  late  residence  of  Mrs.  Rumsey,  and  from  there  to  Chautauqua 
lake,  on  or  near  the  line  of  the  present  traveled  road. 

"  I  remember  very  well,  when  I  was  quite  a  young  lad,  of  driving  a  team 
to  draw  salt  over  this  old  French  road  from  Lake  Erie  to  Chautauqua  lake ; 
and  from  the  appearance  of  the  road,  it  must  have  been  cut  out  a  good  many 
years  before  I  passed  over  it. 

"  My  father  settled  on  part  of  lot  3,  township  4,  range  14,  of  the  Holland 
Land  Company's  survey;  and  after  the  death  of  my  father,  I  resided  on  the 
same  farm  till  within  the  last  few  years. 

"  Respectfully  yours,  William  Bell." 

The  question  as  to  the  time  when  and  by  whom  the  road  was  constructed, 
appears  to  have  been  satisfactorily  answered  by  Judge  Foote,  through  the 
Fredonia  Censor.  His  letter  is  dated  February  10,  187 r.  He  first  notices 
the  traditionary  statement  that  in  1782  an  army  of  300  British  and  500 
Indians,  with  12  pieces  of  artillery,  spent  the  months  of  June  and  July 
around  Chautauqua  lake,  preparatory  to  floating  down  the  Connewango  and 
Allegany  rivers  to  attack  Fort  Pitt.  And  it  was  stated  that  "  the  British  left 
a  four-pounder  on  the  shores  of  Chautauqua  lake,  from  1782  to  1784." 
These  statements  were  founded  on  tradition,  said  to  be  from  a  copy  of  a  letter 
from  Gen.  Irvine  to  Gen.  Washington.     In  reference  to  this  the  Judge  says : 

"  I  have  searched  the  libraries  of  historical  societies  in  vain  for  proof  of 
a  British  army  having  'been  encamped  about  Chautauqua  lake.  It  was  only 
eighteen  years  from  the  time  the  British  army  is  said  to  have  encamped  on 
the  lake  to  the  commencement  of  the  settlement  of  the  county,  and  less 
than  that  when  the  lake  shores  were  traversed  by  the  surveyors ;  but  I  have 
never  been  able  to  find  any  one  who  had  seen  any  evidence  of  such  an 
encampment  on  that  lake." 

On  the  subject  of  the  portage  road,  he  says : 

"  We  have,  however,  I  think,  reliable  information  relative  to  the  opening 
of  a  portage  road  from  the  mouth  of  Chautauqua  creek,  on  Lake  Erie,  to 
the  head  of  Chautauqua  lake,  about  118  years  ago,  by  the  French.  The 
evidence  is  derived  from  an  affidavit  made  by  Stephen  Coffin,  an  American 
who  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  French  and  Indians,  and  finally  enlisted  in 
the  French  army,  and  was  with  the  army  when  the  portage  road  was  opened. 
I  will  give  a  brief  of  the  affidavit  taken  before  Sir  William  Johnson,  in 
January,  1754.  There  is  corroborative  testimony  of  the  material  facts  de- 
veloped in  the  affidavit."  [The  substance  of  this  affidavit  has  "been  given 
in  Mr.  Exison's  Historical  Sketch,  p.  38.] 

Road  from  Pennsylvania  to  Chautauqua  Lake. 

The  first  road  from  Pennsylvania  to  Chautauqua  lake,  at  what  was  after- 
wards called  "  Miles'  Landing,"  was  opened  at  a  very  early  date.  One  of  the 
party  who  performed  the  labor  was  Robert  Miles,  who  certified  to  the  follow- 
ing description : 

"  The  road  commenced  at  my  father's  in  the  present  town  of  Sugar  Grove, 


Qcar  where  Frederick  Miles  now  lives,  and  passed  a  little  east  of  where  the 
senior  Devereaux  first  settled  in  Busti,  and  over  the  hills,  and  near  where 
Josiah  Palmeter  lives,  and  also  near  where  Samuel  Griffith  settled ;  and 
crossed  the  present  Jamestown  and  Mayville  road,  on  the  west  side  of  the 
lake,  a  little  west  of  where  sheriflf  Judson  Southland  now  resides,  and  came 
to  the  lake  at  the  mouth  of  the  little  creek  on  the  lake  shore  at  Uriah  Bent- 
ley's.  The  road  was  used  for  many  years  for  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  to 
go  to  Chautauqua  lake,  and  for  the  first  settlers  on  the  lake  to  go  to  Penn- 
sylvania for  provisions,  etc.  The  Mileses  made  a  large  canoe  on  the  hill 
westerly  of  where  Devereaux  settled,  out  of  a  pine  tree,  and  drew  it  over  the 
road  to  Chautauqua  lake  ;  and  the  hill  where  the  canoe  was  made  was  called 
by  the  early  settlers  "canoe  tree  hill."  The  road  was  opened  about  1805. 
There  were  a  few  settlers  in  Warren  county.  Pa.,  before  there  were  any  in 
Chautauqua  county ;  and  the  early  settlers  about  Chautauqua  lake  not  unfre- 
quently  went  to  Pennsylvania  for  seed  potatoes,  oats,  wheat,  etc.,  and  for 
cows,  hogs,  etc.,  when  commencing  in  the  woods.  My  father  helped  build 
the  first  log  house  at  Mayville,  near  the  present  steamboat  landing,  (before 
Mclntyre  came  there,)  for  a  man  by  the  name  of  Sherman.  Robt.  Miles,  Sr., 
died  in  1810,  aged  S7)  near  the  present  village  of  Sugar  Grove,  on  the  farm 
now  owned  by  my  brother  Frederick.  Robert  Miles." 

Mayville  and  Cattaraugus  Road. 

In  1813,  the  Holland  Land  Company  made  a  survey  of  a  road  from  May- 
ville easterly  to  Ischua,  Cattaraugus  county,  a  distance  of  60  miles,  and  cut 
out,  bridged,  and  made  it  passable  to  Love's,  one  mile  south  of  Sinclairville. 
From  that  place  to  its  eastern  terminus,  the  country  was  an  entire  forest,  with 
the  exception  of  the  opening  at  Bentley's  on  the  Connewango. 

In  May,  1814,  Capt.  Anson  Leet,  Henry  Walker,  Bela  Todd,  Dexter 
Barnes,  Henry  Barnhart,  Oliver  Cleland,  Nathan  Cleland,  and  a  few  others, 
most  or  all  from  what  is  now  Stockton,  were  employed  by  the  Company  to 
construct  the  remaining  part  of  the  road.  Capt.  Leet,  eminently  qualified 
for  the  task,  was  chief  command,  and  John  West  was  chief  cook.  A  good 
movable  tent  and  utensils,  and  all  necessary  fixtures  for  encamping,  were 
provided.  Several  yoke  of  oxen  were  used  by  them  in  removing  heavy  fallen 
timber  and  building  bridges,  etc. ;  and  three  cows  with  their  calves  were 
taken  to  aid  the  boarding  department.  The  calves  were  tied  by  straps  to 
small  trees ;  and  herdmen  know  that,  unless  compelled,  cows  wUl  not  go  far 
from  their  youtig ;  hence  they  were  useful  in  keeping  all  their  cattle  within 
hearing  of  the  bells  strapped  on  the  necks  of  some  of  the  oxen. .  The  cows 
would  not  generally  go  within  reach  of  their  calves  when  fastened  closely  to 
the  trees ;  and  the  calves  seldom  received  more  than  their  prop)er  share  of 
food ;  but  if  opportunity  presented,  they  would,  Jike  some  of  our  late  con- 
gressmen, appropriate  to  themselves  a  luscious  supply  of  "  back  pay." 

Pasturage  at  that  season  of  the  year  was  abundant :  nature  covered  the 
ground  with  beautiful  foliage,  of  which  only  the  early  settlers  have  proper 
conceptions.  From  the  length  of  the  road  and  the  time  taken  to  do  it,  they 
could  only  remove  the  fallen  trees,  cut  away  the  bushes  and  small  timber, 
and  grade  the  knolls.     There  were  many  streams  to  be  bridged,  marshes 


requiring  corduroy  road ;  and  as  black  ash  timber  was  plenty  and  easily 
worked,  the  Land  Company  allowed  it  to  be  split  into  rails  and  covered  with 
dirt,  the  bridges  being  built  with  logs  and  poles. 

This  party  consisted  of  men  in  the  strength  and  vigor  of  early  manhood, 
and  had,  on  the  4th  of  July,  reached  what  was  then  by  survey  the  village  of 
EUicottville  in  embryo.  Though  distant  from  home  and  society  and  the 
church-going  bell,  they  had  observed  their  sabbaths  as  days  of  rest,  if  not  of 
worship.  War  was  raging  between  our  country  and  England ;  and  the  dis- 
tant rumble  of  cannon  from  Buffalo  and  the  lake  aroused  their  patriotism ; 
and  they  resolved  to  celebrate  the  Fourth.  Dexter  Barnes  was  orator; 
Deacon  Walker,  chaplain ;  and  Henry  Bamhart,  with  associates,  were  to  makfe 
all  the  military  demonstrations  at  their  cominand.  Of  course  the  speech  of 
the  orator  was  brief,  but  it  was  characteristic  of  one  who  was  full  of  life  and 
hope.  The  prayer  was  from  one  whose  piety  was  undoubted,  but  not  offen- 
sive. Like  a  Christian  patriot  he  remembered  his  country  then  in  a  san- 
guinary struggle  with  a  formidable  foe  for  the  rights  of  her  citizens.  He 
remembered  home  and  friends,  and  prayed  that  a  religious  influence  might 
ever  characterize  the  place  they  then  consecrated. 

The  party  thence  worked  onward  to  Ischua,  which  place  they  reached  late 
in  September,  and  then  in  company  returned  home.  Having  faithfully  dis- 
charged their  trust,  they  went  to  the  office,  where  they  received  the  congrat- 
ulations of  their  faithful  friend,  Mr.  Peacock,  as  also  their  full  pay.  The 
honored  agent  is  still  living,  [October,  1875,]  as  are  Mr.  West,  Mr.  Bamhart, 
Mr.  O.  Cleland,  and  Mr.  N.  Cleland. 


In  consequence  of  the  burning  of  a  portion  of  the  records  of  the  General 
Post-Office  at  Washington,  in  the  war  of  18 12,  the  history  of  the  early  mail 
routes  and  post-offices  in  this  part  of  the  country  is  not  easily  obtained.  It 
has  been  ascertained,  however,  that  a  post-office  was  established  at  Buffalo, 
by  the  name  of  Buffalo  Creek,  as  a  private  office,  (not  then  on  any  mail 
route,)  in  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1804,  and  that  Erastus  Granger  was 
appointed  postmaster.  He  received  the  income  of  the  office  as  a  compen- 
sarion  for  carrying  the  mail  to  and  from  the  Niagara  post-office.  The  nearest 
offices  were  at  Batavia,  Niagara,  and  Erie,  Penn.  Mr.  Granger  held  the 
office  until  18 18,  when  he  was  superseded  by  Julius  Guiteau. 

Stephen  Bates,  of  Canandaigua,  was  contractor  in  1801-2-3,  f°r  carrying 
the  mail  west  once  in  two  weeks.  At  or  before  this  contract  closed,  the 
mail  route  had  been  extended  to  Niagara.  In  1804,  Baker  and  Seeley 
became  contractors,  and  continued  such  until  Oct.  i,  1805,  the  mail  being 
carried  once  in  two  weeks  by  John  Metcalf,  of  Canandaigua,  sub-contractor. 
In  1805,  Gideon  Granger  being  postmaster-general,  the  route  was  extended 


to  Buffalo  Creek,  and  an  additional  $ioo  a  year  was  allowed  Metcalf,  who 
himself,  in  July  of  this  year,  took  the  contract  at  the  rate  of  $550  a  year,  to 
commence  the  ist  of  October.  By  the  terms  of  this  contract,  he  was 
required,  in  going  to  Niagara,  to  transport  the  mail,  once  in  two  weeks,  by 
the  way  of  New  Amsterdam,  [the  Holland  Company's  name  for  Buffalo ;] 
but  in  returning  omitted  Buflfalo,  pursuing  his  old  route  from  Niagara  to 
Canandaigua,  by  the  way  of  Cold  Spring  and  Batavia.  The  first  returns 
from  the  Buflfalo  Creek  post-office,  made  July  i,  1805,  about  7  months  from 
its  establishment,  showed  a  balance  due  the  general  government  of  $11.84. 

The  first  stage  from  Canandaigua  to  Buflfalo  was  run  by  Metcalf  in  1807. 
He  applied  to  the  legislature  for  the  exclusive  privilege.  A  committee  re- 
ported favorably.  The  line  from  Albany  running  only  to  Canandaigua, 
travelers  were  there  left,  liable  to  long  detention  or  to  imposition  in  hiring 
carriages  to  take  them  on.  Hence  the  committee  concluded  "  that  the 
prayer  of  the  petitioner  be  granted,"  and  reported  a  bill  which  was  passed 
without  opposition,  in  April,  1807.  All  other  persons  were  prohibited  from 
running  carriages  for  hire,  under  a  penalty  of  $500.  Metcalf  was  to  keep 
three  wagons  and  three  stage  sleighs,  and  the  requisite  number  of  horses. 
The  fare  was  not  to  exceed  6  cents  a  mile  for  a  passage  and  14  pounds  of 
baggage;  and  every  additional  150  pounds  weight  of  baggage  was  to  be 
charged  6  cents  a  mile,  or  in  that  proportion. 

The  stages  were  to  run  regularly  on  stated  days ;  and  from  the  1st  day  of 
July  to  the  ist  day  of  October,  the  rpute  was  to  be  performed  at  least  once 
a  week,  except  in  cases  of  unavoidable  accidents.  Only  seven  passengers 
were  to  be  taken  in  a  stage  at  one  time,  unless  by  their  unanimous  consent. 
If  a  greater  number  applied,  an  extra  carriage  for  four  passengers  was  to  be 
sent.  The  stages  then  run  from  Albany  to  Canandaigua  twice  a  week ;  and 
the  distance  was  made  from  place  to  place  in  four  days. 

The  post-oflSce  at  Erie  was  established  about  the  year  1798,  at  the  termi- 
nation of  a  two  weeks'  mail  route  from  Pittsburgh  to  Erie.  The  quarterly 
returns  for  April,  1805,  showed  a  balance  due  the  general  government  of 

Previous  to  1806,  the  few  settlers  in  Chautauqua  county  were  dependent 
for  mail  facilities  on  the  post-offices  at  Erie  and  Buflfalo.  In  1805,  a  post 
route  was  established  between  the  Buflfalo  Creek  and  Erie,  then  called 
Presque  Isle,  [pronounced  in  French,  Presk  Ele,'\  John  Metcalf  being  con- 
tractor ;  the  mail  to  be  carried  once  in  two  weeks,  and  to  commence  in  the 
forepart  of  1806.  The  mail,  it  is  said,  was  carried  by  a  footman,  at  first,  in 
a  pocket  handkerchief,  afterwards  in  a  hand  mail-bag.  The  first  post-office 
in  Chautauqua  county  was  established  May  6,  1806,  in  the  present  town  of 
Westfield ;  James  McMahan,  postmaster;  the  name  of  the  office,  Chautauqua. 
It  was  kept  on  the  west  side  of  the  creek,  at  the  old  Cross  Roads.  Col. 
McMahan  held  the  office  until  1818,  when  it  was  removed  to  the  east  side 
of  the  creek,  and  Fenn  Demming  was  appointed  postmaster. 

The   second   post-office   in  the   county  was   the  Canadaway  post-office. 


established  June  18,  1706,  near  the  center  of  the  present  town  of  Sheridan, 
about  4  miles  east  of  Fredonia;  postmaster,  Orsamus  Holmes,  a  soldier  of 
the  Revolution,  and  a  pioneer  settler  of  the  county.  The  town  of  Chau- 
tauqua, in  the  county  of  Genesee,  then  composed  all  the  territory  subse- 
quently constituting  the  present  county  of  Chautauqua,  except  the  towns  in 
range  10,  which  were  annexed  in  the  formation  of  the  county  in  1804.  For 
some  years,  these  two  were  the  only  post-offices  in  the  county ;  and  this  mail 
route  was  the  only  one  in  the  county  for  about  ten  years.  From  Oct.  r,  1807, 
to  Oct.  I,  1809,  on  contract  with  Edward  Fetherly,  postmaster  at  Jefferson, 
Ohio,  the  mail  was  carried  on  horseback  from  Erie  to  New  Amsterdam, 
[Buffalo,]  once  in  two  weeks,  for  $140  per  annum. 

The  third  post-office  in  the  county  was  the  Pomfret  office,  established  May 
6,  1809,  where  Fredonia  now  is,  then  called  Canadaway;  Samuel  Berry, 
postmaster.  Previously  to  the  organization  of  Pomfret,  in  1808,  embracing 
ranges  10  and  11,  and  two  townships  of  range  12,  an  indefinite  portion  of 
the  county  about  the  Canadaway  village  and  post-office  was,  in  181 7, 
changed  to  Fredonia. 

Jacob  Houghton,  an  early  lawyer  from  Rensselaer  county,  was  appointed 
postmaster  of  Pomfret,  August  19,  18 13.  Having  removed  to  Mayville,  he 
was  succeeded,  in  18 16,  by  Mosely  W.  Abell,  from  Buffalo  in  18 14.  The 
office  was  kept  in  the  inn  of  Mosely  W.  and  Thomas  G.  Abell,  on  the  pres- 
ent site  of  the  Taylor  House.  This  became  one  of  the  principal  stage-houses 
between  Buffalo  and  Erie.  The  balance  due  the  general  post-office  for  the 
first  quarter  of  this  year,  [April  i,  1817,]  was  $68.37,  at  that  time  the  largest 
amount  returned  from  any  office  in  the  county.  The  names  of  those  who 
have  since  held  the  office  are  Orrin  McCluer,  (six  years,)  Charles  J.  Orton, 
son  of  Judge  Philo  Orton,  John  Z.  Saxton,  Ebenezer  A.  Lester,  Daniel 
Douglas,  Levi  L.  Pratt,  editor  and  printer,  June  i,  1849;  O.  W.  Johnson, 
July  20,  1853;  Lorenzo  Morris,  May  15,  1855;  Charles  J.  Orton,  April  17, 
1861 ;  Willard   McKinstry,  printer,  July  i,  1862  ;    Melvin  H.  Taylor,  1871. 

John  Gray,  postmaster,  of  Erie,  contracted  to  carry  the  mail  on  horse- 
back, once  in  two  weeks,  from  Buffalo  to  Cleveland,  from  October,  181 1,  to 
December,  1814,  for  $950  a  year.  [Postmasters  were  not  then,  as  now, 
prohibited  from  being  contractors.] 

By  an  act  of  Congress,  the  postmaster-general  was  required  to  furnish  mail 
facilities  to  the  seat  of  justice  in  every  county.  Chautauqua  county  having 
become  fully  organized  in  18 11,  Mayville  became  entitled  to  a  post-office, which 
was  established  July  1,1812,  and  Casper  Rouse,  who  transported  the  mail  to  and 
from  Chautauqua,  [old  Cross  Roads,]  for  a  number  of  years,  for  the  emoluments 
of  the  office,  was  appointed  postmaster.  Mr.  Rouse  died  December  25, 
1 81 2,  less  than  six  months  from  the  date  of  his  appointment.  Anselm  Pot- 
ter was  appointed  to  succeed  Mr.  Rouse,  but  declining  the  office,  Charles  B. 
Rouse  was  appointed,  February  12,  1813.  The  office  has  since  been  held 
by  George  McGonagle,  appointed  November  i,  1816;  Jedediah  Tracy,  May 
29,  1819;  Jesse  Brooks,  July  i,  1834;   Russell  Sackett,  1841 ;  Col.  E.  W. 


Taylor,    in   1845;    Stephen  A.  Beavis,  in    1849;    Jesse  Brooks,  in    1853; 
Waite  J.  Stevens,  1866;  Egbert  Denton,  1867. 

For  six  years  prior  to  the  ist  of  January,  1817,  nearly  the  entire  popula- 
tion of  the  county  south  of  "  the  ridge,"  received  and  sent  their  mail  matter 
at  the  Mayville  post-office,  some  of  the  inhabitants  residing  at  a  distance  of 
thirty  miles.  People  from  every  neighborhood  frequently  visiting  the  land- 
office,  attending  courts,  and  transacting  business,  the  settlers  had  frequent 
opportunities  of  sending  for  their  letters  and  papers.  Many  letters  from 
their  friends  at  the  East,  were  brought  by  immigrants. 

Cattaraugus  post-office,  at  the  ferry  across  Cattaraugus  creek,  on  the 
Buffalo  and  Erie  road,  was  established,  June  i,  181 2,  Foster  Young,  post- 
master. He  was  succeeded  by  John  Mack,  innkeeper,  July  28,  1814. 
[Office  discontinued  December  4,  rSiy.] 

Burgettstown  post-office  was  established  at  the  site  of  the  present  village 
of  North-east,  Pa.,  in  May,  181 2,  Andrew  Stevenson,  postmaster.  Balance 
due  the  general  post-office  the  first  quarter,  $3.20. 

When,  after  war  was  declared  against  England,  it  became  necessary  to 
send  dispatches  through  the  country  with  greater  rapidity,  the  mail  between 
Albany  and  Buffalo  was  required  to  be  carried  at  the  rate  of  too  miles  in 
twenty-four  hours ;  and  the  postmaster  at  Buffalo  was  directed  to  dispatch 
an  express  mail,  twice  a  week,  from  Buffalo  to  Cleveland,  "  to  go  and  return 
as  soon  as  the  roads  would  permit."  Iil  1813,  the  government  established  an 
express  by  riders  on  horseback,  by  way  of  Carlisle  and  Williamsport,  Pa., 
and  Bath  and  Dansville,  N.  Y.,  to  Buffalo,  "  to  pass  over  the  route  in  four 
days  and  eighteen  hours."  The  term  "  express,"  applied  to  anything  moving 
at  this  rate  at  the  present  day,  would  sound  very  strange. 

Richard  Williams,  a  pioneer  settler  and  innkeeper  of  Portland,  was  a  sub- 
contractor, under  Gray,  to  carry  the  mail  from  Buffalo  to  Erie  on  horseback. 
This  service  was  mostly  performed  by  his  son,  Abner  Williams,  until  Com. 
Perry's  fleet  sailed  from  Erie  to  attack  the  British  fleet  on  the  lake,  when 
young  Williams  volunteered  on  board  the  Lawrence,  and  was  killed  in  the 
action  on  the  loth  of  September,  1813.  Richard  Williams,  while  carrying 
the  mail,  once  arrived  with  it  from  Erie,  sick.  His  wife,  Sophia  Williams, 
took  the  mail,  and  set  out  on  horseback  for  Buffalo.  It  was  in  the 
time  of  the  spring  freshet  when  the  streams  were  swollen  far  beyond  their 
usual  limits.  She  swam  her  horse  across  the  Cattaraugus,  the  Eighteen 
Mile,  and  the  Buffalo  creeks,  holding  the  mail  above  the  water,  and  delivered 
it  at  Buffalo  in  time.  She  also  occasionally  rode  the  mail  horse  between 
Buffalo  and  Erie  when  her  husband  and  the  sons  were  hurried  on  the  farm. 
In  18 14,  Richard  Williams  contracted  to  carry  the  mail  from  Buffalo  to  Erie, 
by  the  way  of  Mayville,  on  horseback,  once  a  week,  for  $650  a  year,  from 
January  i,  181 5,  to  January  i,  181 8.  In  1816  was  established  a  mail  route 
from  Meadville,  Pa.,  by  way  of  the  forks  of  Oil  creek,  Warren,  and  the  out- 
let of  Chautauqua  lake,  to  Mayville,  once  a  week,  on  horseback,  for  three 
years,  at  $420  a  year. 


Jamestown  post-office  was  established  December  13,  18 16,  and  Judge 
James  Prendergast,  a  pioneer  settler,  appointed  postmaster.  The  office  was 
kept  in  the  store  of  J.  &  M.  Prendergast,  the  first  store  erected  in  the 
village,  at  the  north-west  comer  of  Main  and  First  streets,  since  occupied  by 
the  building  of  Dascum  Allen.  The  balance  due  the  general  post-office  at 
the  end  of  the  first  quarter,  April  1,  1817,  $5.54.  Judge  Prendergast  was 
succeeded  by  Dr.  Laban  Hazeltine,  October  24,  1824,  who  was  succeeded, 
June  13,  1829,  by  Elial  T.  Foote,  the  first  settled  physician  in  Jamestown, 
who  held  the  office  twelve  years,  and  who  was  the  first  postmaster  in  the 
county  that  introduced  letter-boxes  for  individuals,  commencing  with  eighty 
boxes  in  1829.  No  rent  was  charged  for  the  boxes  during  his  official  term, 
and  for  several  years  after.  He  also  used  the  first  engraved  letter  stamps  in 
the  county.  Alvin  Plumb,  an  early  merchant  of  Jamestown,  was  appointed, 
June  8,  1 84 1.  Having  been  elected  county  clerk,  he  resigned,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Joseph  Kenyon,  December  5,  1843.  He  was  a  druggist  at  James- 
town, and  an  early  pioneer  in  Sheridan.  He  was  succeeded  by  Franklin  H. 
Wait,  October  4,  1844;  Eliphalet  L.  Tinker,  an  early  settler  and  merchant 
in  Westfield,  was  appointed  October  i,  1848 ;  Smith  Seymour,  July  i,  1849; 
Rufus  Pier,  a  hatter  and  an  early  resident,  July  i,  1853  ;  Charles  L.  Harris, 
July  I,  1858;  Robert  V.  Cunningham,  July  10,  1861 ;  Abner  Hazeltine,  Jr., 
1866;  John  T.  Wilson,  1867;  A.  Hazeltine,  Jr.,  1868;  Henry  J.  Yates, 
1871,  (perhaps  earher ;)  Alex.  M.  Clark,  1874. 

Hanover  post-office  was  established  in  the  town  of  Hanover,  at  a  place 
afterwards  called  Kensington,  in  the  present  town  of  Sheridan,  on  the  Buf- 
falo and  Erie  mail  route,  about  5  miles  from  Silver  Creek,  and  3  miles  firom 
Forestville,  Dec.  7,  1816,  and  Wm.  Holbrook,  an  early  merchant,  appointed 
postmaster.  Having  resigned  and  removed  to  Walnut  Creek,  now  Forest- 
ville, Asa  Pierce,  an  early  settler,  was  appointed  in  1822.  He,  with  the  aid 
of  his  neighbors,  procured  a  change  of  the  name  of  the  office  to  Kensington, 
the  name  of  the  intended  village  at  that  place.  Mr.  P.  was  for  many  years 
an  innkeeper  in  different  parts  of  the  county,  and  died  at  Fredonia  in  1844, 
aged  63  years. 

In  1823,  a  post  route  was  established  from  Perry,  Genesee  county,  through 
Perrysburg,  Nashville,  and  Forestville  to  Fredonia,  the  mail  to  be  carried  on 
horseback,  once  in  two  weeks.  A  post-office  named  Hanover,  was  estab- 
lished at  Forestville,  May  15,  1823,  Albert  H.  Camp,  postmaster.  Unfor- 
tunately for  the  inhabitants  around  Kensington,  the  name  of  Hanover  drew 
to  Forestville  nearly  all  the  mail  designed  for  them ;  and  the  name  of  Han- 
over post-office  was  changed  to  Forestville,  Oct.  15,  1823.  On  the  2 2d  of 
March,  1824,  it  was  again  changed  to  Hanover;  and  in  1853  it  again  took 
the  present  name  of  Forestville.  Amount  due  the  general  post-office  for  the 
quarter  ending  July  i,  1823,  $5.73  ;  for  the  quarter  ending  July  i,  1825, 
$17.97.  For  several  years  a  mail  was  carried,  by  consent  of  the  postmaster- 
general,  between  Forestville  and  Kensington,  as  often  as  the  mail  passed  on 
the  Erie  road.     Mr.  Camp  having  resigned  the  office,  Wm.  S.  Snow,  a  printer. 


and  son  of  Seth  Snow,  a  pioneer  from  Massachusetts,  was  appointed.  The 
names  of  those  who  have  since  held  the  office,  are  Ernest  Mullett,  John 
Morrison,  Ira  A.  Torrey,  Nedebiah  Angell,  Benajah  Tubbs,  James  H.  Phelps, 
B.  Tubbs,  (2d  appointment,)  Orrin  Morrison,  Cyrus  D.  Angell,  Horace 
Burgess,  Walter  G.  Griswold.     Present  postmaster,  Horace  Burgess. 

The  mail  contract  from  Meadville  was  renewed  in  181 9,  the  mail  to  be 
carried  weekly  on  horseback,  by  way  of  Forks  of  Oil  Creek,  Brokenstraw, 
Youngsville,  Warren,  Fairbank,  and  Jamestown  ;  and  to  this  route  was  added 
the  route  between  Mayville  and  Westfield,  which  had  been  included  in  the 
Buffalo  and  Erie  contract 

In  1823,  Capt.  Gilbert  Ballard  started  a  stage- wagon '  running  once  a  week 
on  the  east  side  of  the  lake  from  Jamestown  to  Mayville,  going  and  return- 
ing the  same  day.  In  1824,  the  weekly  was  changed  to  a  tri- weekly  route; 
and  the  mail  was  carried  three  times  a  week,  the  postmaster-general  allowing 
$200  for  the  service.  Subsequently  the  line  became  a  daily  mail  stage  line 
of  post-coaches,  rurming  alternately  on  the  east  and  west  side  of  the  lake. 
And  later,  the  mail  was  carried  on  the  lake  by  steamboats  in  the  summer. 

Dunkirk  post-office  was  established  as  a  private  office,  in  February,  18 18, 
Elisha  Doty,  postmaster,  who  received  the  avails  of  the  office  for  the  trans- 
mission of  the  mail  to  and  from  Fredonia.  There  have  been  since  appointed. 
Dr.  Ezra  Williams,  a  pioneer  physician  from  Oneida  county,  June  3,  1822  ; 
Adam  Fink,  Dec.  16,  1833  ;  Wm.  L.  Carpenter,  a  publisher  of  the  Dunkirk 
Beacon,  in  1841 ;  Lysander  B.  Brown,  a  lawyer,  in  1844;  George  B.  Stock- 
ton, in  1852;  Patrick  Barrett,  in  1856,  who  died  in  the  war  in  1862; 
Richard  L.  Cary,  in  April,  1861 ;  Sidney  L.  Wilson,  1867  ;  Lee  L.  Hyde,  1871. 

Westfield  post-office  was  established  June  15,  1818,  Fenn  Demming,  post- 
master, virtually  superseding  the  old  Chautauqua  office,  the  first  in  the  county. 
Demming  had  been  a  surgeon  in  the  war  of  181 2,  and  opened  the  first  drug 
store  in  Westfield.  Orvis  Nichols  was  appointed  in  February,  1833  ;  Calvin 
Rumsey  in  1840;  Wm.  Sexton  a  few  months  later,  and  in' 1843  superseded 
by  Orvis  Nichols,  who  was  in  turn  superseded  by  Mr.  Sexton.  In  1853, 
Hiram  W.  Beers,  a  Methodist  minister,  was  appointed,  and  in  about  a  year  was 
succeeded  by  Dr.  Marcellus  Kenyon.  David  Mann,  a  former  district-attor- 
ney, was  appointed  in  1855  ;  Byron  Hall  in  1861 ;  Fred.  C.  Barger,  1865  ; 
Wm.  K  Wheeler,  1867 ;  Clara  U.  Drake,  187 1. 

Portland  post-office  was  established  December  7,  1818,  Calvin  Bams,  post- 
master. He  was  a  pioneer  settler,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution  and  in  the  war 
of  1812,  and  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Buffalo,  December,  1813.  The 
office  was  then  at  his  farm,  afterwards  owned  by  Hiram  and  Joshua  West, 
about  six  miles  east  of  Westfield.  The  town  then  extended  west  to  Chau- 
tauqua creek.  The  present  Portland  post-office  is  on  the  Erie  road,  i  J^ 
miles  west  from  Brocton. 

Elijah  Blaisdell  carried  the  mail  on  contract  from  Buffalo  to  Erie,  by  way 
of  Mayville,  at  the  rate  of  $736  a  year,  for  three  years  from  January  i,  1818. 
The  route  was  finally  extended  from  Buffalo  to  Lewiston,  for  the  additional 


sum  of  $150.  Blaisdell  having  made  a  default  in  the  fulfillment  of  his  con- 
tract, Richard  Williams,  innkeeper,  of  Portland,  was  employed  to  cany  the 
mail  from  Buffalo,  by  way  of  Mayville,  to  Erie. 

In  1820,  Col.  Nathaniel  Bird,  a  soldier  of  the  Revolution,  who  settled  in 
Westfield  in  1815,  contracted  to  carry  the  mail  once  a  week,  on  horseback, 
from  Buffalo  to  Erie,  not  by  way  of  Ma)^le,  from  January  i,  1821.  The 
people  of  Mayville  bfeing  dissatisfied,  Mayville  was  restored  to  its  place  in 
the  route;  and  the  carrier  was  allowed  $50  additional  compensation.  Col. 
Bird  commenced  the  running  of  mail  stages  on  this  route.  The  weekly 
stages  were  a  great  accommodation  to  the  public;  but  the  road,  for  miles 
east  of  Cattaraugus  creek,  was  for  many  years'  extremely  bad — sometimes 
almost  impassable,  except  when  frozen — and  passengers  were  often  compelled 
to  go  on  foot.  The  stages  were  ordinary  two-horse  wagons,  with  canvas 
covering,  and  seats  on  wooden  springs  along  the  inside  of  the  box,  with 
cushions  and  low  backs.  To  carry  the  mail  through  in  the  stipulated  time, 
it  became  necessary  at  times  to  forward  it  on  horseback.  There  was  no 
bridge  on  the  stage  route  over  the  Buffalo,  Eighteen  Mile,  or  Cattaraugus 
creek.  The  "  four-mile  woods,"  Cattaraugus  creek,  and  Cash's  tavern  in  the 
present  town  of  Brant,  were  the  dread  of  all  travelers  in  carriages.  Many  a 
traveler  with  a  team  has  been  compelled  to  employ  a  man  with  a  yoke  of 
oxen  to  assist  in  dragging  the  wagon  through  the  mud,  the  women  and 
children  walking  over  the  road. 

At  the  commencement  of  1823,  Col.  Bird,  associated  with  a  Mr.  Marvin, 
of  Buffalo,  commenced  running  his  stage-wagons  twice  a  week ;  the  postmas- 
ter-general having  added  $200  to  his  compensation,  making  it  $750  for  trans- 
portation of  the  semi-weekly  mail.  By  the  exertions  of  Col.  Bird,  the  erection 
of  toll  bridges  over  the  Buffalo,  Eighteen  Mile,  and  Cattaraugus  creeks  was 

In  1824,  Col.  Bird  associated  with  him  his  son,  Ira  R.  Biid,  of  Westfield, 
and  others,  and  in  1826  commenced  running  a  daily  stage,  post-coaches  being 
run  on  portions  of  the  route.  An  opposition  line,  called  the  Buffalo  and 
Erie  Union  Line,  was  put  on  this  road  by  Walter  Smith  and  others.  In 
February,  1825,  the  toll  bridge  over  Eighteen  Mile  creek  fell  a  few  minutes 
after  the  mail  stage  had  crossed  it. 

In  May,  1826,  the  Union  Stage  Company,  of  which  Alanson  Holmes  was 
agent,  established  a  tri-weekly  line  of  stages  between  Buffalo  and  Erie,  by 
way  of  Hamburgh,  Eden,  Collins,  Lodi,  (now  Gowanda,)  Perry sburgh,  For- 
estville  and  Fredonia,  to  Erie.  Fare  $3,  and  four  cents  a  mile  for  way 

In  February,  1826,  Obed  Edson  and  Harry  Eaton  established  a  semi- 
weekly  line  of  stages  between  Fredonia  and  Jamestown,  which  they  soon 
extended  to  Dunkirk  and  Warren,  Pa.  Capt  Ballard  soon  after  commenced 
running  his  stages  between  Jamestown  and  Ma)rville,  except  Sundays,  making 
a  daily  line  between  Jamestown  and  Westfield. 

Post-coaches  were  first  run  regularly  on  the  entire  route  between  Buffalo 



Jaod  Erie,  with  tlife  d^r  mail;.f«afly  ip  1829,  by  llufus  S.  Reed,  of  Erie, 
Thomas  G.  Abell,  of  Fi^donu^  a»i4j5ela  t).  Coe,  of  Buffalo.  Col.  Bird  sold 
out  his  interest  in  the  stages  9%^  thfi  tinpiej  having  peached  the  age  of  16. 
He  died  in  Hi|mi»uirgh,  N.  Y.,  in  1847,  dged  84. 

lo  the  spria^of  tSifi  an  agrahgenSSi^  was  ^aide  between  the  proprietors 
oC  the  '^Pioneer''  st^mb^  hmniiog  feom;^u&lip  to  &ie  and  those  of  tk^ 
4^y  stages,  1>y  whu^,&^^^o;^e^'jf^'  ^^!(^fi^^fa^!i^gep  to  and  from  Buffalo 
and  Dimlarky.,ni^i^{|;t^^Pf:KeBG^^^I^}(W^^%^  Passengers  would 

tj^en  leave  by  ^e,  ^jeinw^l^^^0ip^afftHit^  b{^<l  K^^  between  Buffalo  and 
GattaAiu^  and.gji/i^^sl^^^^ll^ 

:  .'hK'  ■■■'  i-r     '  %:■      '■■■'■  '■ 


^oli<;y  of,  the  ,^oH-and  land,  company. 

V;.        VifLick  OF  Land,  and  Terms  of  Sale. 

The  pqlicy.ot  tlMt  I^pUaxidr  Cpiupany  in  the  disposal  of  their  lands,  and 
the  effects  pf  tbftt  pplicy  upoii  the  interests  of  the  Company  and  of  the  set- 
tlers respeeti3((dy<  b?kve  been  a  thenie  of  frequent  discussion.  Although 
nearly  forty  yeai^  b^ve  elapsed  since  the  relation  between  the  Company  and 
the  settles.  cdSjfC^^ yet,  as  ap  important  item  of  past  histoiy^the  subjejCt  is 
entitled  t6  a  notfce  in  this  work.  ? ..;. 

The  prpe  pakJ"foK  this, Jands, by  the. Company,  we  are  infcJrpaedt  was«32 
cents ,pe^^e.>/J>^  P#^' at  wWpb  the  early  ssde?  were,m«de,waS  about 
$a^be»^<viU^  B#)«&,Qr  l^^b)^,  tjbe  locadon  and  the  quantity  sold.  The 
books  ^  li^j^qj^pswgr  i^f^Hfj^e  pjipa>,in  thisy  CQUOty  to.  haiise  been  about 
$2.5qan  acf(k,i;if3Bb||»,'R|i^^ajtet,de4wSiig  the  eoaS  q£  swrey%  |tod  the  ex- 
penses of  the  l$||^t<<^^60^i,$0ttld  seem  to  have  left  to  the  Company  a  large 
profit.  Yet  th^opi|^q^^^^^4)^^^f>'^«vai]e4»i,^t»t,!B^  s^9  at  what  is 
usually  .termed  the  >  g^^«i^8WS|ai^^ii|5*/4?^  better  for  the 

Company.  .  -'■'"v'ir^^^jpftA  •  ■'     "','*•    ■ "'' 

It  hfes  often  been  remarked,  th&t  By  nolding  the  lands  .at  the  high  credit 
prices,  eastern  emigrants  hav|(ig  money  were  attracted  to  the  Western  state% 
across  the  Hollan^  .P-aJs^jw^to  get'  c^eap'laftte^tlms  retarding  the  settle- 
meM^  the  Furc^m^^i^)|iavii>8tits  lan(i^  t^oe  ikcupied  by  the  poorer 
class^f  emigran^'!\6i}t,)m^^.  are  pqt  aware  that  the  price  of  the  public 
land^at  the  tfaag  ''^^gll' ^^^^^"^ <^l&^^^  c^^ppieoced  theic^ales,  was 

ab<ilit.,!|be%m*«8W  Pjf^l^^^fc;^?^''^  ^^'^I^P*?''^f  ^^^  common;  price 
of  gov|^mefi%Hlands  ii^ilP^^WPfts  ^*$a/ 'A^^t^^  enter  a 

quarter-secti|to,;^§o  a^(||r,JKjf."pajfeg  dowp  $80 ;  the  remainder  to  bfc  paid 
in  sums  of  $80  yearlji.  "  If  tl^eV^ole  were  not  paid  in  five  years,  the  claim 
was  forfeited.  The  lai^^  was  i*t  Uable  to  taxation  before  tWl&piration  of 
five  years.  As  Congress  sold  to  no  person  less  than  a  quarter-section,  poor 
men  joined  in  the  purchase,  and  divided  H^  land.  During  the  period  of 
general  depression  and  bank  suspensions  that  succeeded  the  war  of  1812, 

"C  y^t^^ 


many  were  unable  to  make  further  payments,  and  forfeited  their  lands.  But 
for  the  relief  of  such,  Congress  passed  an  act  making  the  certificate  of  en- 
trance receivable  on  the  land  it  covered.  By  a  later  act,  the  price  was 
reduced  to  $1.25  per  acre,  cash.  Another  act  allowed  the  division  of  quarter- 
sections  into  lots  of  80  acres ;  so  that,  with  a  certificate  of  the  payment  of 
$80,  and  $20  in  cash,  a  person  could  buy  80  acres.  Still  some,  unable  to 
raise  the  $20,  lost  their  lands.  It  appears,  therefore,  that,  not  until  several 
years  after  the  war  of  1812,  which  closed  in  1815,  did  emigrants  find  more 
favorable  terms  of  purchase  in  the  Western  states. 

The  books  of  the  Holland  Company  show  remarkably  slow  progress  of 
payment  by  purchasers  of  lands.  A  large  portion  of  them  must  have  for- 
feited their  claims.  It  appears  that,  at  the'  expiration  of  ten  years,  those 
who  had  paid  little  or  nothing,  were  charged  with  "  increase  of  purchase 
money,"  which  was  a  sum  added  to  the  sum  remaining  unpaid.  To  what 
extent  this  was  done  in  this  county  does  not  appear,  as  many  of  the  older 
books  were  destroyed  at  Mayville  by  the  memorable  conflagration  at  that 
place,  in  1836.  The  increase  charged  was,  in  many  instances,  nearly  equal 
to,  and  in  a  few  even  greater  than  the  sum  due  on  the  contract. 

For  example  :  In  Wyoming  county,  G.  T.  J.  was  charged  April  i,  1806, 
"  To  2tlots,  728  acres,  $1,456,"  being  $2  per  acre,  only  $10  having  been 
paid  down.  At  the  end  of  10  years,  he  was  charged  "To  Increase,  $1,648," 
making  the  sum  of  $3,104;  and  the  land  was  bought  in  parts  by  six  diflfer- 
ent  purchasers,  who  took  new  articles.  Another,  whose  unpaid  balance  was 
$615,  was  charged  "  To  Increase,  $642,"  and  articles  were  given  to  three  new 
purchasers,  charged  with  $1,257.  In  Chautauqua  county,  Eleazar  Crocker 
was  charged,  Sept  3,  1808,  for  land,  $225,  on  which  $12  were  soon  after 
paid,  and  on  the  4th  of  September,  1818,  $157.50  was  added  as  increase 
of  purchase  money.  Jonas  Seaman,  charged  Jan.  13,  r8io,  for  land,  $435, 
of  which  there  remained  unpaid,  $391.25,  was  charged  Jan.  14,  1820,  as 
increase,  $281.14,  and  renewed  his  article  for  $672.39.  In  nearly  every 
instance,  the  increase  is  charged  the  day  next  after  the  ten  years  had  expired. 
In  some  cases,  a  smaller  increase  is  charged  in  less  than  ten  years  from  the 
date  of  the  contract. 

Some  assistance '  was  rendered  the  settlers  in  making  pa)m[ients,  by  the 
offer  of  the  Company  to  receive  cattle  on  their  contracts.  Agents  were  sent 
once  a  year  to  certain  towns  for  that  purpose.  We  find  in  the  Batavia  books, 
the  first  credit  for  cattle  in  1822  or  1823.  Cattle  were  thus  received  for  a 
number  of  years.  We  have  seen,  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  Purchase,  a  few 
credits  for  grain  ;  but  the  receiving  of  grain,  it  is  presumed,  was  never  gen- 
eral, at  any  considerable  distance  from  a  good  market.  An  additional  stimu- 
lus was  given  by  a  notice  to  those  most  in  arrears,  that  in  case  of  speedy 
payment,  a  liberal  deduction  would  be  made  from  the  sums  due.  This  was 
the  cause  of  some  dissatisfaction  to  those  who  had  been  more  prompt  in 
their  payments,  who  regarded  it  as  a  premium  to  their  slack  neighbors  for 
their  want  of  punctuality. 


During  these  times  it  was  that  most  was  heard  of  the  impolicy  of  the 
plan  of  the  Company  for  the  disposal  and  settlement  of  their  lands.  .Prob- 
ably with  the  view  of  inviting  immigration,  articles  were  given  to  settlers  on 
the  most  easy  terms — to  some,  on  payment  of  a  sum  barely  sufficient  to  pay 
for  drawing  the  contract,  which  was  about  one  dollar ;  and  many,  doubtless, 
were  attracted  hither  by  this  easy  mode  of  obtaining  possession  of  land. 
The  early  settlers  were  generally  poor,  having  expended  nearly  the  last  dollar 
in  their  removal,  and  could  scarcely  have  purchased  on  less  accommodating 
terms.  Yet  some  of  these,  after  a  short  residence  and  sundry  discourage- 
ments, sold  out  their  "  improvements  "  and  sought  new  homes  in  more  favor- 
able localities.  Then,  too,  was  so  often  expressed  the  opinion  that  the 
Company  would  have  done  better,  and  the  country  would  have  been  more 
prosperous,  had  the  low  price  and  cash  plan  been  adopted,  as  it  would  have 
brought  in  a  better  as  well  as  a  more  industrious  and  enterprising  class  of 
inhabitants.  That  some  persons  of  the  lower  class  were  drawn  hither  by 
the  easy  terms  offered  by  the  Company  is  true.  But  the  old  inhabitants  of 
Chautauqua  county  still  living  will  agree  in  saying  that  its  early  settlers  were 
generally  honest,  frugal,  and  industrious,  and  in  point  of  moral  worth,  not 
inferior  to  the  population  of  any  other  county  in  the  state. 

Condition  of  the   Settlers. 

A  recurrence  to  facts  will  reveal  the  true  cause  of  the  slow  progress  of  the 
settlers  in  discharging  their  obligations  to  the  Company.  Most  of  them  were 
comparatively  young  men  from  the  East,  and  poor.  Wages  had  been  low ; 
and  they  had  laid  up  little  more  than  enough  to  buy  a  team  and  to  defray 
the  expense  of  their  removal.  They  had  heavily  timbered  lands  to  clear, 
and  for  a  time  had  no  sons  able  to  help,  nor  the  means  of  hiring  help.  And 
for  the  little  surplus  of  the  products  of  their  farms,  there  was  for  years  no 
market  beyond  the  demands  of  new-comers.  War  came ;  and  many  were 
obliged  to  leave  their  farms  and  join  the  army.  Some  of  them  served  to 
the  end  of  the  war — between  two  and  three  years.  Peace  returned ;  labor 
was  again  thrown  upon  the  land ;  and  within  a  few  years  there  was  a  large 
surplus  which  scarcely  compensated  for  raising  it.  The  price  of  wheat  in 
Rochester,  then  the  nearest  and  best  cash  market  in  the  western  part  of  the 
state,  was  2S.  6d.  to  3s.  per  bushel,  which  would  hardly  pay  for  its  transpor- 
tation in  that  time  of  bad  roads.  Occasionally  a  load  was  taken  to  Albany 
by  teamsters  going  after  goods  for  the  merchants.  At  home,  a  bushel  was 
given  for  a  pound  of  tobacco,  or  a  yard  of  brown  cotton  cloth. 

In  providing  means  for  prosecuting  the  war,  double  duties  were  laid  upon 
imports,  which  duties  were  to  continue  during  the  war,  and  for  a  year  after 
its  close.  These  duties  checked  importations  and  encouraged  home  manu- 
factures. Many  manufactories  sprang  into  being.  The  period  of  high  duties 
expired  in  the  winter  of  1816.  Commercial  intercourse  with  Great  Britain 
was  resumed,  and  the  country  was  again  flooded  with  British  goods.  Our 
manufactures  were  prostrated.     The  country  was  drained  of  its  money  to 


pay  for  foreign  goods ;  specie  payments  were  suspended ;  and  bank  bills 
depreciated  to  70  or  80  per  cent,  below  par,  and  in  some  states  to  almost 
nothing.  No  wonder  that  the  books  of  the  Land  Company  showed  so  few 
and  so  small  credits  to  settlers,  nor  that  so  many  children  went  barefoot 
until  the  first  snows  had  fallen. 

We  have  elsewhere  spoken  of  the  partial  relief  found  within  doors  from 
the  help  of  the  spindle  and  the  shuttle,  and  from  the  products  of  the  forest — 
ashes.  Thus  the  struggle  continued  until  the  completion  of  the  Erie  canal, 
in  1825,  which,  by  opening  to  our  people  an  accessible  market,  brought  them 
permanent  relief.  They  entered  upon  a  course  of  prosperity,  and  many  of 
them  soon  attained  a  comfortable  independence. 

A  large  portion  of  the  settlers,  however,  still  felt  the  pressure  of  their  land 
debt.  They  thought  it  but  just  that  the  Land  Company,  who  had  grown 
rich  under  the  laws  of  the  state  removing  their  alien  disabilities,  and  exempt- 
ing them  from  taxation,  should  contribute  some  share  toward  the  expenditures 
of  the  state  government.  Application  to  the  legislature  was  made  in  1833, 
for  a  law  to  this  effect,  which  was  passed  in  that  year.  The  act  was  advocated 
by  its  friends  upon  the  principle,  that,  if  any  of  our  own  citizens  held  the 
same  security,  as  the  contracts  of  these  non-resident  landholders,  such 
securities  would  be  liable  to  taxation ;  that  the  present  value  and  ultimate 
payment  of  the  debt  due  the  Holland  Company  were  involved  in  the  stability 
of  our  laws ;  and  that  the  construction  of  the  Erie  canal,  effected  by  the 
settlers  on  their  lands  in  connection  with  other  citizens  of  the  state,  had 
increased  the  value  of  the  Company's  purchase  several  millions  of  dollars,  a 
considerable  portion  of  which  had  been  and  would  be  realized  by  the 

After  the  passage  of  this  law,  the  Company,  through  their  local  agent, 
served  notices  on  persons  having  contracts  on  which  payments  were  due, 
though  the  contracts  had  not  expired,  requiring  them  to  pay,  "  or  satisfac- 
torily arrange,''  the  balance  due,  or  quit  the  premises  within  two  months. 
A  citizen  commenting' on  this  notice  in  a  newspaper  remarked,  that,  "if 
every  species  of  personal  property  owned  by  the  settlers  could  be  sold,  the 
money  would  not  half  meet  the  requirements  of  this  summary  mandate."  The 
issuing  of  this  notice  so  soon  after  the  passage  ot  the  act,  is  of  itself  strong 
presumptive  evidence  that  this  sudden  change  of  policy  was  designed  as  a 
retaliation  to  those  who  had  been  instrumental  in  procuring  the  passage  of 
the  law.  This  evidence  finds  confirmation  in  the  innuendo  or  threat  uttered 
by  one  in  the  interest  of  the  Company,  while  the  bill  was  pending  in  the 
legislature,  that,  "  it  might  be  worse  for  the  settlers." 

The  Company  Sell  their  Lands — Land  Office  Destroyed. 

It  will  readily  be  imagined,  that   the  announcement  of  this  newjiolicy 

produced  a  stir  among  the  settlers  throughout  the  Purchase ;  and  their  feelings 

found  vent,  to  a  great  extent,  through  the  newspapers.     They  advised  the 

making  of  no  new  contracts  while  existing  contracts  were  in  life,  and  when 



they  did  renew,  to  agree  to  the  payment  of  no  tax  but  the  ordinary  land  tax 
which  they  now  paid.  It  was  suggested  that  meetings  be  held  in  the  several 
towns  to  consult  on  measures  to  be  adopted  ;  that  the  Company  be  petitioned 
to  rescind  the  decree,  and  if  this  were  not  done,  to  petition  the  legislature. 
They  also  questioned  the  power  of  the  Company  to  enforce  the  forfeiture 
of  a  contract  until  all  the  stipulated  payments  were  due. 

In  the  same  year  or  the  year  following,  the  Company  commenced  selling 
out  their  remaining  interest  in  portions  of  the  Purchase  to  small  companies 
or  to  individuals.  The  first  sale  in  this  county  by  the  Company,  was  the  sale  of 
their  interest  in  the  town  of  Charlotte,  to  Hinman  Holden,  of  Batavia.  In 
November,  1835,  the  Holland  Company  made  an  agreement  with  Trumbull 
Cary  and  George  W.  Lay,  of  Batavia,  to  sell  to  them  all  their  estate,  personal 
and  real,  in  this  county.  This  consisted  in  wild  lands,  reverted  lands,  lands 
held  under  valid  contracts,  and  a  few  bonds  and  mortgages  on  lands  sold  and 
Tiot  conveyed.  The  purchase  money  was  payable  as  follows  :  $50,000  in 
hand,  and  the  residue  in  four  equal  installments  in  six,  twelve,  eighteen,  and 
twenty-four  months  ;  the  Company  to  retain  the  legal  title  to  the  property  as 
security,  to  receive  all  the  moneys  collected,  and  to  take  in  their  own  name 
and  retain  all  securities  by  bonds,  mortgages,  and  contracts,  which  should 
be  taken  on  the  sale  of  the  lands  and  the  liquidation  of  debts.  But  the  local 
agent  of  the  Holland  Company  was,  as  far  as  should  be  consistent  with  its 
security,  to  be  governed  by  the  direction  of  the  new  [equitable]  proprietors. 

The  sale,  or  agreement  to  sell,  having  come  to  the  knowledge  of  the  settlers, 
Mr.  Peacock,  the  local  agent  of  the  Company,  was  applied  to  for  informa- 
tion as  to  the  terms  and  policy  adopted,  or  to  be  adopted,  by  the  new 
proprietors ;  but  the  applicants  received  no  definite  answer.  The  fact  was 
reported  to  a  meeting  of  settlers,  at  which  a  committee  was  appointed,  con- 
sisting of  Elial  T.  Foote,  Oliver  Lee,  Samuel  Barrett,  Leverett  Barker,  and 
George  T.  Camp,  who  were  to  visit  the  new  proprietors  at  Batavia,  for  the 
information  which  they  failed  to  obtain  at  Mayville. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  "  Genesee  Land  Tariff"  as  it  was  called. 
It  was  copied  by  Judge  Foote  from  the  one  exhibited  to  the  Chautauqua 
committee : 

"  In  all  cases  of  articles  which  have  expired  since  the  first  of  January,  1835, 
or  which  may  hereafter  expire,  a  new  sale  may  be  made,  and  new  contracts 
may  be  issued,  payable  in  ten  annual  installments,  with  interest  annually,  on 
the  following  terms,  one-eighth  of  the  purchase  money  being  paid  down  : 

"  I.  In  all  cases  where  the  amount  due  on  the  old  contract  is  less  than  $3 
on  the  acre,  an  advance  of  $1  on  the  acre  to  be  charged. 

"  2.  Where  the  amount  due  is  over  $3  per  acre,  and  less  than  $5,  an 
advance  of  $1.50  per  acre  to  be  charged. 

"  3.  Where  the  amount  is  over  $5  on  the  acre,  and  less  than  $8,  $2  per 
acre  to  be  added. 

"  4.  .Where  there  is  due  over  $8  per  acre,  an  advance  of  $3  per  acre  to 
be  charged. 

"  5.  Contracts  which  have  been  forfeited  in  consequence  of  non-compli- 
ance with  the  notices,  to  be  considered  as  expired. 


"  6.  Any  settler  holding  under  an  article  expired  since  January  last,  may 
be  permitted  to  pay  up  and  take  a  deed  on  the  payment  of per  acre. 

"  7.  In  all  cases  where  the  land  is  worth  twice  the  amount  of  the  purchase 
money,  a  deed  may  be  given  and  a  mortgage  taken  on  the  above  terms. 

"  8.  Any  settler  may  surrender  his  article  before  it  expires,  and  take  a  new 
contract  on  the  above  terms. 

"  9.  These  terms  are  for  the  benefit  of  actual  settlers,  and  not  to  be 
extended  to  those  who  hold  contracts  pledged  for  the  payment  of  debts,  or 
who  have  purchased  them  for  speculation ;  but  all  such  persons  will  be 
required  to  pay  the  full  value  of  the  land. 

"  10.  In  case  any  settler  whose  article  has  expired  since  the  first  of  Jan- 
uary last,  or  shall  hereafter  expire,  shall  neglect  to  take  a  new  article  on  the 
above  terms,  for  the  space  of  six  months,  the  said  land  to  be  resold  for  a  sum 
not  less  than  wild  land. 

"11.  No  advance  to  be  charged  upon  lands  held  by  widows  and  orphan 

"12.  No  wild  land,  or  other  land  not  heretofore  articled,  or  any  of  that 
class  of  expired  articles  purchased  as  wild  lands,  at  $2  per  acre,  or  the  lots 
in  BaUvia  or  Buffalo  to  be  sold  until  the  same  have  been  apprized,  and  a 
price  fixed  by  the  proprietors. 

"Dated  November,  1835." 

Incensed  by  what  the  settlers  deemed  an  unreasonable  advance  on  the 
prices  of  their  lands,  arrangements  were  soon  made  for  a  raid  upon  the  land- 
office  in  Mayville,  with  a  view  to  the  destruction  of  the  books  and  papers 
belonging  to  the  office.  This  design  was  carried  into  eflfect  on  the  6th  of 
February,  1836.  The  land-office  was  demolished ;  and  most  of  the  books, 
records,  maps,  mortgages  and  contracts,  were  carried  off  about  two  miles  and 
burned.  The  mob  consisted  of  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  men.  The 
excitement  was  not  confined  to  this  county.  In  the  spring  of  1836,  a  crowd 
of  seven  hundred  made  a  descent  upon  the  Holland  Company's  office  at 
Batavia,  which,  however,  was  successfully  defended  by  an  organized  military 
force  and  citizens,  armed  from  the  state  arsenal  in  that  village,  and  two  block- 
houses, erected  in  anticipation  of  an  attack. 

Policy  of  Mr.  Seward. 

William  H.  Seward  had,  just  before  the  day  fixed  for  the  attack  upon  the 
Batavia  office,  been  applied  to  by  the  new  proprietors  to  assume  the  agency 
of  the  estate.  He  was  also  to  take  an  interest  in  the  purchase.  And  sub- 
sequently, Abraham  M.  Schermerhom,  a  banker  in  Rochester,  also  became 
a  partner.  In  June,  1836,  before  Mr.  Seward  had  accepted  the  proposition 
of  the  proprietors,  a  convention,  held  at  Mayville,  resolved,  that  the  proprie- 
tors be  invited  to  open  an  office  in  the  county,  and  pledged  themselves  that 
the  settlers  would  cheerfully  pay  the  principal  and  interest  accrued  upon  their 
contracts,  but  would  submit  to  no  extortionate  demands,  by  way  of  what  was 
called  the  "  Genesee  Tariff,"  compound  interest,  or  otherwise.  Confiding  in 
the  intelligence  and  justice  of  the  people,  he  was  determined  by  this  expres- 
sion to  accept  the  trust  proposed.  With  a  view  to  greater  safety,  he  estab- 
lished his  office  at  Westfield,  the  citizens  of  that  place  having  pledged  them- 


selves  to  protect  it  from  mob  violence.  Rooms  were  fitted  up  in  the  West- 
field  House  building ;  and  the  business  was  conducted  to  the  general  satis- 
faction of  the  settlers.  A  commodious  building  for  a  land-office  was  soon 
erected  on  North  Portage  street,  and  was  occupied  for  this  purpose  until  the 
business  of  the  new  Company  was  closed. 

In  1838,  Mr.  Seward  was  nominated  for  the  office  of  governor.  A  few 
weeks  after,  it  was  insinuated  by  an  anonymous  correspondent  of  a  county 
paper,  that — 

"  The  bonds  and  mortgages  of  the  settlers  of  Chautauqua  county  are  now 
in  Wall  street.  New  York  : 

"  That  some  Trust  Company  has  a  deed  of  all  the  lands  of  the  settlers : 

"That  through  the  agency  of  Nicholas  Biddle  and  others,  William  H. 
Seward  has  raised  money  in  Europe  at  an  interest  oi  Jive  per  cent ,  while  he 
demands  seven  per  cent,  from  you,  [the  settlers] : 

"  And  that  he  and  his  associates  pay  interest  annually,  and  extort  interest 
from  you  semi-annually."  • 

These  accusations,  as  might  be  expected  during  an  election  campaign, 
were  copied  into  leading  papers  of  the  party  opposed  to  Mr.  Seward*  elec- 
tion, with  numerous  additional  accusations  :  "  having  violated  his  agreement 
with  the  settlers ;  sold  their  mortgages  to  soulless  corporations,  which  would 
demand  payment  the  moment  they  expired;"  that  their  farms  "would  be 
sold  on  mortgage  for  half  their  value,  and  Seward,  a  wealthy  and  heartless 
speculator  by  trade,  would  be  the  purchaser,  and  thus  rob  the  poor  settlers  of 
millions  of  their  hard  earnings." 

A  few  weeks  after  the  publication  of  these  accusations,  Mr.  Seward 
addressed  the  citizens  of  Chautauqua  county,  through  the  press  of  the  county, 
defending  himself  against  what  he  called  "  misrepresentations  of  fact  and 
injurious  inferences."  Regarding  it  as  having  a  legitimate  connection  with 
the  history  of  the  Holland  Purchase,  and  especially  that  portion  which  is 
embraced  within  the  bounds  of  Chautauqua  county,  a  large  portion  of  it  is 
here  copied  as  a  part  of  our  county  history  : 

"  Compelled  by  ill  health  to  relinquish  my  profession,  it  seemed  to  me  that 
I  might,  without  wrong  or  injury  to  you,  contribute  to  restore  peace,  harmony 
and  prosperity  in  that  flourishing  region  of  the  state  where  so  much  unhappy 
agitation  prevailed.  .  .  .  Nor  did  it  appear  to  me  morally  wrong  to 
receive  from  the  purchasers  an  adequate  compensation  for  my  services.  The 
compensation  tendered,  as  an  equivalent  for  the  not  unprofitable  pursuits 
which  I  abandoned,  was  invested  in  the  purchase. 

"  The  Holland  Company  reposed  in  me  the  extreme  confidence  of  consti- 
tuting me  their  agent,  although  I  was  a  purchaser  under  them  ;  and  it  is  due 
to  them  and  to  the  proprietors  to  say,  that  without  even  the  previous  formal- 
ity of  an  agreement  in  writing,  or  other  instrument  than  a  letter  of  attorney, 
I  went  among  you  to  undertake  the  agency  you  desired  should  be  estab- 

"  It  was  known  to  me  that  the  Holland  Company  insisted  upon  its  pay- 
ments ;  and  these  could  only  be  made  by  raising  a  loan  in  Europe  or  else- 
where, to  meet  their  demands  sooner  than  they  could  be  collected  from  you, 
without  intolerable  oppression.     I  therefore  stipulated  with  the  American 


Trust  Company,  before  commencing  my  agency,  that  as  soon  as  the  liquida- 
tion of  the  debts  by  bonds  and  mortgages  could  be  effected,  and  the  mone- 
tary affairs  of  the  country  would  permit,  they  should  advance  me  their  bonds 
for  the  amount.  I  secured  also  an  understanding  with  the  Holland  Com- 
pany, that  they  would  favor  the  proprietors  and  settlers,  until  I  could  accom- 
plish this  preliminary  settlement  and  security. 

"  Thus  prepared,  I  opened  an  office,  and  invited  the  settlers  to  liquidate 
their  debts,  and  quiet  all  alarm,  as  well  about  the  title  of  their  lands,  as 
the  terms  and  conditions  of  their  credit,  by  taking  deeds  and  executing 
bonds  and  mortgages  for  the  purchase  money.  In  less  than  eighteen 
months,  four  thousand  persons  whom  I  found  occupying  lands,  chiefly  under 
expired  and  legally  forfeited  contracts  of  sale,  and  excited  and  embarrassed 
alike  by  the  oppression  and  uncertainty  of  ever  obtaining  titles,  and  antici- 
pated exactions  upon  their  contracts — ^became  freeholders — upon  the  terms 
at  their  own  option  either  of  payment  of  their  purchase  money,  or  payment 
of  a  convenient  portion  thereof,  and  a  credit  of  five  years  for  the  residue.. 

"When  the  occupant  could  not  pay  an  advance,  and  his  improvements 
were  insufficient  to  secure  his  debt,  his  contract,  no  matter  how  long 
expired,  was  renewed  without  any  payment.  It  was  always,  as  you  well 
know,  a  principle  of  my  agency,  that  no  man  could  lose  his  land  by  forfeit- 
ure, if  he  would  but  agree  to  pay  fox  it  in  five  years.  There  was  none  so 
poor  that  he  could  not  secure  his  "farm  and  his  fireside."  I  think,  too,  you 
will  recollect,  that  to  the  sick  and  infirm,  I  invariably  sent  their  papers  for 
securing  their  farms;  to  the  indigent,  the  money  to  bear  their  expenses  to 
the  land-office ;  and  since  I  am  arraigned  as  a  '  soulless  speculator,'  I  may 
add,  that  to  the  widow,  I  always  made  a  deduction  from  the  debt  of  her 
deceased  husband.  To  the  common  schools  I  gave  lands  gratuitously  for 
their  school-houses.  From  the  time  I  came  first  among  you  to  this  period,  I 
have  never  refused  any  indulgence  of  credit  and  postponement  that  was 
asked  at  my  hands. 

"  When  I  found  a  few  persons  (as  there  must  necessarily  be  some)  who  were 
obstinate  in  refusing  terms  generally  esteemed  so  liberal,  I  appealed  to  them 
first  through  the  public  newspapers,  then  by  letters  through  the  post-office,  and 
finally  by  a  message  sent  directly  to  their  houses.  When  these  efforts  failed 
to  arrest  their  attention,  and  in  a  few  cases  legal  proceedings  or  forfeitures 
were  necessary,  I  uniformly  conveyed  the  land  upon  the  same  terms  as  if  the 
occupants  had  earlier  complied  with  the  terms  which  their  fellow-citizens 
deemed  so  reasonable  and  liberal. 

"  Thus  contentment  was  universally  diffused  among  you,  when  the  pressure 
of  1837  fell  upon  you,  and  me,  and  the  whole  country.  Foreseeing  many 
cases  of  emljarrassment,  in  making  payment  on  your  bonds  and  mortgages 
in  that  season  of  scarceness  of  money,  I  immediately  issued  a  notice  that 
the  first  payment  of  principal  would  be  dispensed  with  if  the  interest  should 
be  paid.  Having  then  obtained  a  definite  proposition  from  the  American 
Trust  Company,  that  an  advance  to  the  proprietors  should  be  upon  a  credit 
of  ten  years,  with  semi-annual  interest,  I  immediately  announced  to  you  the 
welcome  and  unexpected  proposition  to  extend  your  bonds  and  mortgages 
for  the  same  period  and  upon  the  same  terms.  This  proposition  has  been 
generally  accepted,  and  is  yet  open  to  all. 

"On  the  nth  of  July,  1838,  after  two  years'  continued  notice  that  the 
title  of  the  Holland  Company  would  pass  from  them  to  the  proprietors 
or  their  trustees,  the  improved  condition  of  the  estate  and  the  returning 


prosperity  of  the  country,  enabled  me  to  conclude  my  arrangement  with  the 
American  Trust  Company.  That  institution  advanced  to  me  its  bonds  for 
the  amount  owed  by  you  to  the  proprietors,  and  by  the  proprietors  to  the 
Holland  Company;  and  I  paid  them  over  to  John  Jacob  Vanderkemp,  agent  of 
the  Holland  Company,  at  a  sacrifice  to  my  associates  and  myself,  in  discharge 
of  their  whole  demands.  Desirous  to  secure  you  against  all  possible  incon- 
venience from  this  arrangement,  it  was  agreed  that  the  estate  should  remain 
as  before,  under  my  agency ;  and  the  title  of  the  lands,  bonds,  mortgages 
and  contracts,  was  vested  by  a  deed  in  myself  and  two  others  as  trustees,  to 
continue  the  settlement  of  the  estate  for  the  benefit  of  the  proprietors  and 
the  security  of  the  American  Trust  Company.  This  deed  was  immediately 
placed  on  record  in  Chautauqua  county.  The  agreement  between  the  parties 
stipulates  that  my  agency,  in  person  or  by  my  own  appointment,  shall  con- 
tinue three  years  ;  and  that  payments  made  by  you  in  Chautauqua  county  shall 
be  credited  as  soon  as  paid  there.  The  bonds,  mortgages  and  contracts  remain 
tinder  this  arrangement  in  the  Chautauqua  land-office,  whence  they  have  never 
been  removed. 

"  In  this  transaction  the  Bank  of  the  United  States  has  had  this  agency : 
the  general  agent  of  the  Holland  Company  has  always  kept  his  accounts  and 
deposits  with  that  institution,  and  his  remittances  were  made  through  it. 
The  payments  from  the  Chautauqua  office,  like  those  of  all  the  other  offices 
on  that  tract,  pass  through  the  same  institution.  It  received  the  bonds  of 
the  American  Trust  Company  at  a  discount  stipulated  by  me,  arid  paid  for 
them  by  a  certificate  of  deposit  to  Mr.  Vanderkemp,  payable  at  six  months. 

"  From  this  explanation  it  appears  that  your  bonds  and  mortgages  are  not 
in  Wall  street,  nor  in  the  Bank  of  the  United  States,  but  where  you  have 
always  found  them — in  the  Chautauqua  land-office. 

"  That  no  Trust  Company,  foreign  or  domestic,  has  a  deed  of  your  lands ; 
but  that  the  title  of  the  lands  of  the  state,  and  your  securities;  is  vested  in 
myself  and  my  associate  trustees,  citizens  of  this  state,  instead  of  Wilhem 
Willink,  Walrave  Van  Heukelom,  and  others  in  Europe  : 

"  That  neither  through  the  agency  of  Nicholas  Biddle,  nor  otherwise,  have 
I  borrowed  money  in  Europe  or  elsewhere,  at  5  per  cent.,  and  loaned  it  to 
you  at  7  per  cent. ;  but  that  instead  of  demanding  from  you  immediate  pay- 
ment of  your  indebtedness  to  the  Holland  Company,  I  have  borrowed  the 
money  upon  your  credit  and  that  of  the  proprietors,  and  for  your  benefit  and 
ours,  upon  a  term  of  ten  years,  at  7  per  cent.,  of  which  you  have  the  full 
benefit : 

"  That  the  proprietors  do  not  exact  semi-annual  interest  while  they  pay 
annually ;  but  that  while  they  pay  interest  semi-annually,  you  pay  annually 
or  semi-annually,  at  your  own  option  : 

"That  your  'farms  and  firesides'  have  not  been  put  in  jeopardy  by  me, 
but  in  just  so  much  as  a  deed  subject  to  a  bond  and  mortgage,  with  ten 
years'  credit,  is  a  more  safe  tenure,  than  an  expired  and  forfeited  contract  of 
sale,  they  have  been  secured  to  you  : 

"And  that  you  have  not  been  delivered  over  to  a  '  soulless  corporation,' 
but  that  your  afiairs  have  been  arranged  so  as  to  secure  you  against  any  pos- 
sible extortion  or  oppression  in  any  quarter ;  and  your  bonds  and  mortgages 
are  more  certainly  accessible  to  you  for  payment  than  before  the  arrangement 
was  made. 

"  I  have  only  to  add,  what  you  well  recollect,  that  in  all  the  settlement  of 
this  estate,  no  cent  of  advance  upon  your  farms,  or  compound  interest,  or  of 


costs  upon  your  debts,  has  gone  into  my  hands,  or  those  of  any  other  pro- 
prietor. That  no  man  has  ever  lost  an  acre  of  land  which  he  desired  or 
asked  to  retain,  with  or  without  money ;  no  bond,  mortgage,  or  contract,  has 
been  prosecuted  for  principal  or  less  than  two  years'  interest;  no  proceedings 
of  foreclosure  have  ever  been  instituted  when  the  occupant  would  pay  a  sum 
equal  to  one  year's  interest;  and  every  forfeiture  has  been  relinquished 
upon  an  agreement  to  pay  the  principal  and  interest  due. 

"  To  the  people  of  Chautauqua  county  of  all  political  parties,  this  state- 
ment is  due,  for  the  generous  confidence  they  have  reposed  in  me,  and  the 
hospitality  they  have  extended  to  me.  It  is  required,  moreover,  by  a  due 
regard  for  their  welfare,  since  their  prosperity  must  be  seriously  affected  by 
any  discontents  about  their  title  and  security.  It  is  due  to  the  harmony  and 
contentment  of  their  firesides.  And  if  it  needs  other  apology,  it  will  be 
found  in  the  duty  I  owe  to  others ;  for,  however  willing  I  may  be  to  leave 
my  own  conduct  to  the  test  of  time  and  candor,  I  can  not  suffer  their 
interests  to  be  put  in  jeopardy.  William  H.  Sew.\rd. 

"Auburn,  Oct.  15,  1838." 

Cherry  Valley  Company's  Purchase. 

In  1828,  a  sale  of  unsold  lands  in  the  east  and  south-east  towns  of  the 
county,  amounting  to  about  60,000  acres,  was  made  by  the  Holland  Land 
Company,  to  James  O.  Morse,  Levi  Beardsley,  and  Alvan  Stewart,  who  were 
known  as  the  "  Cherry  Valley  Company."  The  following  is  a  list  of  the 
towns  in  which  the  lands  were,  and  the  number  of  acres  in  each  : 

Township  i,  r.  10,  Carroll,  9,619  acres.  Tp.  2,  Poland,  5,398  acres.  Tp. 
3,  Ellington,  1,015  acres.  Tp.  4,  Cherry  Creek,  9,092  acres.  Tp.  5, 
Villenova,  5,246  acres.  Tp.  6,  Hanover,  3,273,  besides  Cattaraugus  Village, 
1,588 — in  all,  4,861  acres.  Range  11,  tp.  i,  Kiantone  and  Busti,  2.824  acres. 
Tp.  2,  EUicott,  4,169  acres.  Tp.  4,  Charlotte,  6,218  acres.  Tp.  5,  Ark- 
wright,  5,066  acres.  Tp.  6,  Sheridan,  747  acres.  Range  12,  Busti  and 
Harmony,  5,857  acres. — Total,  60,112  acres. 


Gilbert  Motier,  Marquis  de  La  Fayette,  was  bom  in  France,  Sept. 
6,  1757,  and  was  married  at  the  early  age  of  sixteen  years.  Though  posses- 
sed of  an  immense  estate,  he  adopted  the  profession  of  a  soldier,  and,  at 
the  age  of  nineteen,  was  stationed  as  captain  of  dragoons  at  one  of  the  gar- 
risoned towns  of  France.  Having  heard  of  the  revolt  of  the  American 
colonies,  and  of  the  subsequent  declaration  of  independence,  and  sympa- 
thizing with  the  colonists,  he  determined  to  take  part  in  the  struggle,  and 
offered  his  services  to  Ccftigress.  The  rank  of  major-general  was  promised 
him  by  the  American  commissioner  at  Paris. 

News  having  been  received  of  the  disastrous  campaign  of  1776,  he  was 
advised  to  abandon  his  intention.     His  wife  is  said  to  have  exhorted  him  to 


persevere.  He  resolved  to  purchase  a  vessel,  to  freight  it  with  supplies,  and 
to  set  sail  for  America.  His  purpose  having  been  discovered,  a  royal  order 
was  issued  to  detain  him ;  but  making  his  escape  to  Spain  with  De  Kalb  and 
others,  he  succeeded  in  embarking  in  his  vessel  from  that  kingdom.  After  a 
protracted  and  stormy  passage,  he  landed  at  Georgetown,  S.  C,  hastened  to 
Philadelphia,  and  presented  his  recommendations  to  Congress.  He  was 
answered,  that,  in  consequence  of  so  many  applications  having  been  received, 
there  was  doubt  of  his  obtaining  a  commission.  Determined  to  aid  the 
struggling  colonists,  he  offered  his  services  as  a  volunteer,  and  without  pay. 
His  letters  were  examined,  and  he  was  tendered  a  commission  as  major- 
general.  He  was  wounded  at  the  battle  of  Brandywine,  and  debarred  for  a 
time  from  active  service. 

In  1788,  France  declared  war  against  England,  and  formed  an  alliance 
with  the  United  States.  His  own  country  now  having  need  of  his  services, 
he  obtained  leave  of  absence.  *  Complimentary  resolutions,  and  a  beauti- 
fully ornamented  sword,  were  voted  by  Congress.  He  was  received  by  his 
countrymen  with  great  enthusiasm. 

After  an  absence  of  fifteen  months,  he  returned  with  the  assistance  of 
money  and  a  Frefich  fleet  bringing  Rochambeau  and  6,000  soldiers,  and 
rejoined  Washington.  He  again  took  an  active  part  in  the  war,  and  distin- 
guished himself  by  his  successful  conduct  of  the  campaign  against  Cornwallis 
at  Yorktown.  He  again  returned  to  France,  and  procured  additional  assist- 
ance^6o  vessels  and  24,000  men,  and  money.  Soon  after  arrival,  tidings  of 
peace  were  received. 

In  1784,  at  the  invitation  of  Washington,  he  again  revisited  the  United 
States.  He  arrived  in  August  and  departed  in  December,  Congress  taking 
a  formal  leave  of  him.  In  1824,  he  visited  this  country  for  the  last  time. 
He  landed  at  New  York  in  August,  and  took  a  tour  through  the  United 
States,  going  west  to  the  Mississippi,  and  returning  through  the  Northern 
states.  The  highest  honors  were  everywhere  paid  him  ;  and  he  was  received 
with  an  enthusiasm  seldom  if  ever  equaled.  So  liberally  did  he  share  in  the 
cordial  greetings  and  the  hospitalities  of  the  people  on  his  tour  of  several 
months,  that  he  was  everywhere  hailed  as  "  The  Nation's  Guest."  In  two 
towns  in  our  county,  thousands  of  our  citizens  were  favored  with  an  oppor- 
tunity of  testifying  their  gratitude  for  his  particular  services  in  the  nation's 
struggle  for  independence. 

Reception  at  Westfield. 

In  anticipation  of  the  arrival  of  the  illustrious  guest  of  the  nation  into  our 
state  from  Pennsylvania,  a  number  of  gentlemen  assembled  at  Westfield,  June 
2,  1825,  on  the  evening  previous  to  his  expected  arrival,  to  make  arrange- 
ments for  his  reception  into  the  state,  and  to  escort  and  welcome  him  to  that 
village.  A  committee  of  arrangements  was  appointed,  consisting  of  the  fol- 
lowing named  persons:  Jonathan  Cass,  Joseph  Farnsworth,  Henry  .^bell, 
Oliver  Lee,  Joshua  R.  Babcock,  Fenn  Demming,  Eliphalet  L.  Tinker,  Silas 


Spencer,  Thomas  B.  Campbell,  Lemon  Averill,  John  Dexter,  Ebenezer  P. 
Upham,  Wm.  Peacock,  Thomas  A.  Osborne. 

A  superb  carriage,  owned  by  the  Hon.  Wm.  Peacock,  was  furnished  for 
the  conveyance  of  the  General  from  the  state  line  to  Westfield.  Messrs.  T. 
B.  Campbell,  Silas  Spencer,  Ebenezer  P.  Upham  and  Fenn  Demming,  of  the 
committee,  proceeded  to  the  state  line.  On  his  arrival  and  introduction,  he 
was  presented  by  T.  B.  Campbell,  Esq.,  in  behalf  of  the  committee,  with  the 
following  address : 

"  General  La  Fayette  :  With  hearts  full  of  gratitude  for  services  ren- 
dered our  country,  we,  as  a  committee,  in  behalf  of  the  citizens  of  Westfield, 
have  come  to  meet  you  and  welcome  your  return  to  the  state  of  New  York. 

"  We  assure  you,  General,  that  the  same  grateful  feelings  which  have  been 
so  unanimously  expressed  to  you  by  the  people  of  this  republic,  influence 
and  animate  the  citizens  of  this  part  of  our  state ;  and  although  unable  to 
receive  you  i^ith  the  splendor  which  accompanied  your  reception  on  landing 
upon  our  shores,  yet  we  do  receive  you  with  no  less  affectionate  and  grateful 

To  which  the  General  replied  : 

"  I  am  fully  sensible  of  the  kindness  and  affection  thus  expressed  to  me 
by  the  people  of  this  part  of  your  state ;  and  I  assure  you,  sir,  it  affords  me 
much  pleasure  to  take  you  by  the  hand  and  return  you,  and,  through  you,  the 
citizens  of  Westfield,  my  hearty  thanks  for  the  respectful  manner  in  which 
they  have  been  pleased  to  communicate  their  feelings  towards  me.  I  am 
very  happy  to  find  myself  again  in  the  patriotic  state  of  New  York.  Accept, 
sir,  for  yourself  and  the  other  gentlemen  of  the  committee,  the  assurance  of 
my  best  wishes  for  your  health  and  happiness." 

From  the  state  line  the  General  was  escorted  by  a  large  number  of  gentle- 
men on  horseback,  collected  from  Ellery,  Chautauqua,  Portland  and  Ripley. 
At  Westfield,  the  military  had  been  under  arms  throughout  the  day  to  receive 
him.  An  immense  concourse  of  citizens  fi-om  the  neighboring  towns  was 
likewise  awaiting,  with  intense  anxiety,  the  signals  of  his  approach.  At  a 
little  after  sunset,  on  Friday  evening,  the  signal  guns  announced  the  joyful 
tidings  of  the  veteran's  arrival.  The  public  houses  were  illuminated  in  front, 
and  a  bonfire- was  kindled  upon  the  public  square,  which  added  much  to  the 
grandeur  of  the  scene.  The  General  was  then  received  amidst  the  discharge 
of  cannon.  The  appearance  of  the  military,  particularly  the  company  of 
Light  Infantry  commanded  by  Capt.  Towle,  did  honor  to  themselves  and  the 

The  General,  on  being  introduced  into  the  room  provided  for  the  occasion, 
was  presented  by  Mr.  Campbell  to  the  other  gentlemen  of  the  committee 
there  assembled,  when  Mr.  Osborne,  in  their  behalf,  delivered  the  following 
address : 

"  General  :  Permit  our  feeble  notes  of  congratulating  welcome  to  swell 
the  general  anthem  of  the  American  nation.  Taught  fi-om  infancy  to  lisp 
the  venerated  name  of  La  Fayette,  which  now  trembles  upon  our  tongue 
with  gratitude  and  joy,  we  greet  thee  as  the  champion  of  freedom,  the  friend 
of  Washington,  of  our  country  and  her  institutions,  and  the  benefactor  of 


mankind.  While  the  burst  of  grateful  acclamation  which  hailed  your  land- 
ing upon  our  shores  has  been  borne  on  the  tide  of  grateful  hearts,  until  the 
remotest  parts  of  the  Union  have  vibrated  with  its  influence,  we  of  Western 
New  York  have  cause  for  deep  and  peculiar  emotions.  , 

"  At  the  period  of  your  valuable  labors  for  the  establishment  of  our  repub- 
lic, the  spot  upon  which  you  stand  was  only  tenanted  by  the  howling  inhab- 
itants of  the  wilderness.  Until  a  long  subsequent  period,  our  country  was 
without  a  name  and  without  a  population.  Now,  within  its  borders  the  hearts 
of  more  than  twenty  thousand  freemen  beat  your  welcome.  It  is  to  you 
whom  we  now  address,  that,  more  than  to  any  other,  this  important  change 
is  to  be  attributed.  The  counsels  of  your  wisdom  were  felt  in  the  cabinet, 
and  your  youthful  arm  lent  vigor  to  their  execution  in  the  field.  Animated 
by  your  spirit  and  fired  by  your  example,  your  king  and  your  country  stepped 
forth  in  the  cause  of  liberty  and  man,  and  forever  sealed  the  fate  of  tyranny 
in  this  western  hemisphere.  The  life-giving  energies  of  the  triumph  of  liberty 
were  felt  in  the  rapid  increase  of  population  and  settlement.  Had  a  state  of 
colonial  servitude  and  dependence  continued,  your  eye  would  not  now  have 
witnessed  our  fields  covered  with  golden  grain,  waving  their  undulating  shad- 
ows with  sportive  playfulness  in  the  breeze.  Compare,  as  you  traverse  the 
mighty  Niagara,  the  colonial  and  the  independent  shores,  and  by  their  con- 
trast test  the  influence  of  liberty  on  the  improvement  and  settlement  of  the 
country,  and  the  promotion  of  the  social  happiness  of  man. 

"  Finally,  General,  in  behalf  of  the  citizens  of  the  vicinity,  we  tender  to 
you  our  most  cordial  congratulations  upon  your  arrival  among  them,  and  the 
anxious  aspirations  of  their  hearts,  that  the  evening  of  your  days  may  be  as 
tranquil  as  your  life  has  been  constant  in  the  pursuit  of  freedom.  That  they 
have  enjoyed  the  felicity  of  meeting  and  welcoming  you  among  them,  will 
ever  be  among  the  most  gratifying  of  their  recollections,  while  the  remem- 
brance of  the  aflfectionate  farewell  which  they  must  shortly  bid  you,  their 
father  and  their  friend,  can  not  fail  to  awaken  the  liveliest  sensibilities  of  their 
natures,  and  call  forth  the  most  poignant  grief." 

To  ^hich  the  General  replied  as  follows  : 

"  Gentlemen  :  I  can  not  express  to  you  my  happiness  at  the  kindness  of 
your  reception.  When,  about  ten  months  since,  .1  first  landed-  upon  your 
shores,  I  was  received  in  a  manner  which  can  never  be  forgotten.  The 
impression  then  received  has  been  heightened  by  every  subsequent  event. 
Wherever  I  have  been,  I  have  received  the  kindest  welcome.  "But  it  affords 
me  peculiar  pleasure  to  be  thus  received  here  in  Western  New  York,  and  to 
witness  the  astonishing  rapidity  of  its  progress  in  improvement  and  settle- 
ment. Accept,  sirs,  my  best  wishes  for  your  personal  happiness,  and, 
gentlemen,  for  the  happiness  of  you  all.  I  am  happy  to  enjoy  the  interview; 
to  see  you  all  assembled  ;  and  sincerely  regret  that  circumstances  render  it 
necessary  that  my  stay  with  you  should  be  so  short." 

The  General  was  then  introduced  individually  to  the  ladies  and  gentlemen 
assembled,  and  appeared  to  be,  highly  gratified  with  the  scene.  Among  the 
gentlemen  introduced  were  a  number  of  the  soldiers  of  the  Revolution.  The 
interviews  between  the  General  and  these  companions  in  arms  were  cordial 
and  affecting. 

He  was  then  presented  to  the  Fredonia  delegation,  in  waiting  to  escort 
him  to  that  village ;  and,  after  a  stay  of  about  two  hours,  at  about  ten  o'clock 


in  the  evening,  they  departed  during  the  discharge  of  twenty-four  rounds 
from  the  artillery,  with  every  demonstration  of  gratification  on  his  part,  and 
of  respect  and  veneration  on  the  part  of  the  citizens  assembled. 

Reception  at  Fredonia. 

The  account  of  the  reception  of  the  "  Nation's  Guest "  at  Fredonia  was 
published  in  the  Censor,  of  June  9,  1825,  as  follows  : 

Gen.  La  Fayette,  with  his  suite,  Col.  G.  W.  La  Fayette,  and  Messrs.  Le 
Vasseur  and  De  Syon,  arrived  in  this  village  on  Saturday  last,  [June  4th,]  at 
about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  on  his  way  to  the  eastward.  He  left 
Waterford,  Pa.,  about  7  o'clock  on  Friday  morning,  and  arrived  here — 2l 
distance  of  60  miles — ^without  making  any  long  stops,  traveling  in  the  night. 

His  approach  was  announced  by  a  salute  of  thirteen  guns  from  Capt. 
Brown's  company  of  artillery,  which,  with  Capt.  Whitcomb's  rifle  rangers 
and  detachments  of  the  169th  regiment,  were  posted  on  the  west  hill 
to  receive  him.  When  he  arrived,  the  military  marched  in  advance  down 
the  hill,  and  halted  in  front  of  Abell's  hotel,  [the  present  site  of  the  Taylor 
house].  Here  the  ladies  had  been  collected,  and  with  the  military.  Revolu- 
tionary soldiers  and  citizens,  formed  into  two  lines  extending  to  the  platform 
erected  in  front  of  the  hotel.  The  General  and  suite  then  alighted,  walked 
down  the  lines,  and  ascended  the  platform,  followed  by  the  committee  of 
arrangements  and  military  officers.  The  committee,  clergy,  etc.,  having  been 
introduced,  the  Rev.  David  Brown,  of  the  Episcopal  church,  at  the  request 
of  the  committee,  thus  addressed  our  distinguished  guest : 

"  Gen.  La  Fayette  :  We  rejoice  to  see  you.  We  greet  you  welcome  to 
our  rural  hospitalities,  and  thank  you  for  the  great  pleasure  thus  to  salute  a 
man  most  high  and  most  dear  in  the  estimation  of  every  American.  It  pains 
me,  sir,  to  add  the  least  possible  degree  to  your  fatigue  at  this  late  hour  of 
the  night,  but  my  fellow-citizens,  having  appointed  me  to  the  honor  of 
addressing  you,  expect  from  me  a  passing  remark  on  the  motives  which 
have  prompted  the  little  attentions  within  our  limited  powers,  dwelling,  as 
we  do,  where  shortly  since  dwelt  beasts  of  the  forest. 

"  It  will  suffice  to  tell  how  much  and  for  what  we  admire  you ;  but,  sir, 
our  admiration  is  qualified  by  a  dearer  sentiment.  We  greatly  admire  your 
character  as  standing  in  the  front  rank  of  the  true  and  disinterested  cham- 
pions of  the  universal  republic,  whose  citizens  comprise  all  the  friends  of 
liberty  on  earth..  We  admire  the  brilliant  luster  of  your  early  heroism,  by 
which  you  were  inspired  to  rend  the  strongest  ties  of  nature,  and  as  a  disin- 
terested volunteer  in  the  righteous  cause  of  liberty,  to  burst  from  the  attrac- 
tions of  all  that  was  splendid  and  all  that  was  lovely.  In  this  act  of  your 
youth,  sir,  as  in  many  that  followed,  we  behold  an  eminent  illustration  of  the 
much  admired  virtue,  which  enabled  a  great  chief  of  sacred  antiquity  to  look 
down  with  indifference  on  all  the  splendors  and  glories  of  the  royal  court  of 
Egypt,  when  the  cause  of  freedom  and  of  God  called  him  to  the  privations 
and  dangers  of  a  hostile  wilderness. 

"  That,  at  every  earthly  hazard,  through  a  life  devoted  to  the  vindication 
of  liberty,  you  have  uniformly  asserted  the  rights  of  man,  we  admire  you ; 
and  we  rejoice  in  an  opportunity  to  acknowledge  your  undisputed  claims  to 


the  gratitude  and  admiration  of  the  world.  We  are  almost  lost  in  admira- 
tion, sir,  as  we  look  forward  to  the  transcendent  eminence  that  you  will  here- 
after occupy  in  the  history  of  all  princes  and  potentates  of  the  earth,  how- 
ever shining  may  have  been  their  career,  nay,  how  great  soever  their  virtues  ; 
for,  with  our  own  Washington,  you  have  shown  that  '  a  man  is  greater  than 
a  monarch.' 

"  But  it  is  not  so  much  by  our  admiration  of  what  is  illustrious  in  the 
character  of  Gen.  La  Fayette  that  we  are  moved  and  animated  on  this  occa- 
sion, as  by  our  veneration  and  love  for  what  is  excellent  and  amiable.  Most 
sincerely  and  deeply  do  we  appreciate  the  respect  and  admiration  of  your 
exalted  character ;  yet,  the  sentiment  that  predominates  over  even  these,  if 
not  in  general  estimation  more  highly  honorable,  we  feel  as  not  less  your 
due  as  our  benefactor  and  friend,  nor  less  worthy  ourselves  as  Americans. 
We  love  you,  sir,  as  our  friend,  and  our  fathers'  friend ;  we  love  you  and  can 
never  forsake  you.  Never  can  our  hearts  beat  with  sentiments  becoming 
men  and  Americans,  when  .they  shall  have  ceased  to  glow  with  filial  affec- 
tion for  Gen.  La  Fayette. 

"  It  would  be  needless  to  speak  of  the  origin  and  strength  and  warmth 
of  affection  entertained  for  you  by  those  who  took  part  with  you  in  the 
liberation  of  our  country  from  a  foreign  yoke.  It  may  not,  however,  be 
unpleasing,  we  hope,  to  be  reminded  of  the  means  by  which,  in  the  bosoms 
of  the  generations  that  have  since  come  on  the  stage  of  life,  this  sentiment 
has  been  implanted  and  made  to  grow  with  our  growth  and  to  strengthen 
with  our  strength.  For  almost  half  a  century,  sir,  your  name,  associated 
with  all  that  is  amiable  in  the  philanthropist,  as  well  as  all  that  is  chivalrous 
in  the  soldier  of  liberty,  has  been  one  of  our  most  favorite  '  household 

"  When,  in  your  tour  through  our  country,  our  hearts  have  followed  you 
and  witnessed  your  emotions  while  embracing  your  old  comrades  in  arms — 
especially  when  our  sympathies  were  roused  by  the  sublime  and  affecting 
scene  at  the  sepulchre  of  our  Washington,  the  interesting  fire-side  scenes  of 
our  early  days  were  again  brought  home  to  our  bosoms,  when  our  fathers 
and  our  mothers  taught  us  to  venerate — to  love  the  name  of  La  Fayette.  I 
have  seen  and  I  have  felt  the  tear  standing  in  the  eye  of  childhood,  when 
the  tale  has  been  told  of  your  youthful  disinterestedness,  in  devoting  your 
fortune,  your  life,  and  your  honor  to  the  cause  of  our  country,  and  of  your 
sufferings  and  wrongs,  and  of  your  unbending  virtues  that  no  sufferings  nor 
wrongs  could  subdue. 

"When  the  fires  of  persecution  assailed  you,  sir,  our  hearts  were  taught 
to  bum  with  indignation,  and  to  shiver  at  the  name  of  Olmutz,  when  its 
prison  damps  were  settling  on  the  brow  of  our  hero  and  friend.  God  be 
thanked,  we  trust  those  scenes  of  sufferings  and  wrongs  and  persecutions  will 
no  more  be  renewed.  But  on  this  spirit  stirring  subject  I  must  not  dwell. 
In  behalf  of  my  beloved  fellow-citizens,  most  cordially  do  I  welcome  you, 
where,  through  the  influence  of  our  free  institutions,  which  you  yourself,  sir, 
so  greatly  contributed  to  rear,  the  wilderness  of  yesterday  is  now  blossoming 
as  the  rose.  As  our  country's  friend  and  benefactor,  with  heartfelt  sincerity 
and  gratitude  do  I  salute  you.  May  that  ever  gracious  Being,  by  whom  we 
are  thus  favored,  strew  the  path  of  your  pilgiimage  with  his  richest  blessings, 
until,  at  some  far  distant  day,  he  may  please  to  receive  you  to  Himself  in 
glory  everlasting." 

The  General  grasped  the  speaker's  hand  with  great  emotion,  and  replied  : 


"  My  Dear  Sir  :  Accept  my  most  sincere  thanks  for  your  most  affec- 
tionate address.  Your  allusion  to  my  early  visit  to  America,  to  my  services 
here  and  to  my  sufferings  since,  are  very  kind,  and,  as  I  must  frankly  con- 
fess, are  very  gratifying  to  Aiy  feelings.  The  manner  of  my  reception  here, 
my  very  dear  sir,  in  a  place  so  shortly  since  a  wilderness,  as  you  have  said, 
surprises  me  as  much  as  it  pleases  me.  Surely,  I  am  very  much  obliged. 
And  I  beg  you,  sir,  with  the  committee,  who  have  shown  me  every  kindness, 
to  accept  my  grateful  acknowledgments." 

The  General,  then  turning  to  the  military  and  ladies  and  citizens,  assem- 
bled in  front  of  the  bower,  addressed  them  in  a  warm  and  animated 
style  of  thankfulness  for  their  attentions,  and  especially  for  awaiting  his  arri- 
val to  so  late  an  hour.  *  *  *  "  That  the  ladies,  too,"  to  use  his  own 
affectionate  words,  "that  the  ladies,  too,  should  remain  up  all  night  to  receive 
me,  surely  it  is  too  much." 

After  several  introductions,  the  ladies  were  presented  to  him,  to  whom  he 
severally  gave  his  hand,  greeting  them  most  affectionately,  and  giving  them 
many  compliments  for  these  flattering  testimonials  of  their  respect  to  him. 
The  Revolutionary  soldiers  were  next  introduced  to  him.  The  scene  was 
truly  interesting.  The  crowd  was  so  great,  that,  to  afford  all  an  opportunity 
to  see  him,  he  took  a  stand  on  the  front  of  the  platform,  where  the  military 
and  citizens  passed  in  review  before  him.  He  then  sat  down  to  an  entertain- 
ment prepared  by  Mr.  Abell  with  great  taste  and  elegance. 

Day  began  to  dawn  when  he  arose  from  the  table ;  and  the  military,  again 
in  advance,  escorted  him  to  Dunkirk,  where,  with  the  committee  and  several 
military  officers  from  this  place,  he  embarked  on  board  the  steam  brig  Supe- 
rior, which,  agreeably  to  an  arrangement,  was  in  readiness  to  receive  him  on 
board  and  convey  him  to  Buffalo.  As  the  yawl  was  gliding  along,  a  salute  of 
twenty-four  guns  was  fired  from  the  steamboat  in  quick  succession,  which  was 
followed  by  another  salute  of  twenty-four  gims  from  the  artillery  on  shore,  in 
a  handsome  style. 

Too  much  praise  can  not  be  bestowed  upon  the  military  and  band  of 
music  belonging  to  Col.  Abell's  regiment — ^all  under  the  command  of  Col. 
Smith,  the  marshal  of  the  day — who  turned  out  on  so  short  a  notice ;  and, 
notwithstanding  their  fatigue  and  exhaustion,  patiently  and  soldier-like  kept 
on  the  ground,  not  only  all  day  but  all  night,  to  welcome  the  "  Guest  of  the 
Nation."  It  was  a  pleasure  to  see  Major-General  Risley,  with  a  part  of  his 
staff,  and  Brigadier-General  Barker,  contributing,  as  on  all  similar  occasions, 
greatly  to  the  fine  appearance  of  the  military.  The  entertainment  and  prep- 
arations made  by  Mr.  Abell  were  splendid,  and  got  up  in  a  style  worthy  the 
reception  of  so  distinguished  a  guest. 

The  platform  erected  in  front  of  the  house,  set  round  with  green  trees 
planted  in  the  ground,  overhung  with  lamps  and  chandeliers,  with  an  arch  in 
front,  all  beautifully  dressed  off  by  the  fine  taste  and  decorations  of  our 
ladies,  had  an  effect  at  that  late  hour  of  the  night,  and  amid  the  illumina- 
tions of  the  village,  bordering  on  enchantment.  And  to  crown  the  imposing 
scene,  the  eloquent,  spirit-stirring  address  delivered  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Brown, 


in  a  manner  preeminently  calculated  to  awaken  the  ardor  of  the  patriot's 
bosom,  had  an  effect  which  we  are  unable  adequately  to  describe.  Every 
eye  gazed  intently,  now  at  the  General  and  now  at  the  orator,  with  thrilling 
delight.  The  reply  of  the  General  was  warm  and  affectionate,  and  showed 
that  the  patriotic  flame  which  burst  forth  so  brilliantly  and  burned  so  efful- 
gently  in  the  Revolutionary  struggle,  had  not  ceased  to  glow  in  his  devoted 
bosom  at  this  late  period  of  his  life. 

The  procession  accompanying  the  General  from  this  place  to  Dunkirk, 
consisting  of  the  military,  and  ladies  and  citizens  in  carriages  and  on  horse- 
back, extended  very  nearly  a  mile.  We  were  highly  gratified  with  the  hand- 
some manner  of  his  reception  by  the  Buffalo  committee  on  the  pier  at 
Dunkirk.  The  steam  brig  lay  off  a  mile  from  shore,  and  presented  a  fine 
appearance.  Her  salute  was  in  a  style  that  would  have  been  creditable  to  a 
ship  of  war ;  and  with  the  advantage  of  an  echo  from  our  forests,  rolling 
back  its  reverberations  on  the  ears  of  thousands  of  spectators,  we  scarcely 
recollect  anything  equal  to  it. 

The  morning  was  clear  and  tranquil,  and  everything  in  Nature  seemed  to 
have  been  carefully  arranged  for  the  purpose  of  contributing  to  the  interest 
of  the  occasion. 


Drinking  Customs. 

The  use  of  intoxicating  liquors  as  a  beverage  by  all  classes  of  the  commu- 
nity, and  the  direful  consequences  of  its  use,  prevailed  throughout  the  coun- 
try. Although  the  evils  of  intemperance  are  still  lamentably  prevalent,  a 
material  change  in  the  custom  of  drinking  has  been  wrought.  Good  men 
and  bad  indulged  in  it.  The  whisky  jug  was  thought  an  indispensable  help 
in  the  harvest  field,  and  was  ever  present  at  house-raisings,  log-rollings,  and 
corn-huskings ;  nor  was  the  decanter  with  its  exhilarating  contents  usually 
wanting  at  social  gatherings.  A  man  meeting  a  friend  near  a  tavern,  invited 
him  to  the  bar  to  "  take  a  drink."  A  man  was  deemed  wanting  in  hospitality 
if  he  did  not  "  treat"  his  visitors.  A  traveler  stopping  at  a  tavern  to  warm 
himself,  thought  it  "  mean "  to  leave  without  patronizing  the  bar  to  the 
amount  of  a  sixpence  or  a  shilling. '  The  idea  had  not  been  conceived,  that 
both  parties  would  have  been  gainers  if  the  money  had  been  paid  for  the 
fire,  and  the  liquor  left  in  the  decanter.  Liquor  bought  by  the  gallon,  and 
even  by  the  barrel,  was  kept  in  families  for  daily  use.  Seated  at  the  break- 
fast table,  the  glass  was  passed  round  to  "  give  an  appetite."  Bittered  with 
some  herb  or  drug,  it  was  used  as  a  "  sovereign  remedy  "  for  many  of  the  ail- 
ments "  flesh  is  heir  to,"  and  often  as  a  preventive.  It  was  taken  because 
the  weather  was  hot,  and  because  it  was  cold.  Liquors  being  kept  in  coun- 
try stores,  some  merchants  were  wont  to  treat  their  customers,  especially 


when  they  made  large  bills,  and  sometimes  beforehand,  to  sharpen  their 
appetite  for  trading.  Happily  most  of  these  customs  have  become  obsolete 
among  the  better  classes  of  society,  and,  it  is  hoped,  never  to  be  revived.. 

In  nearly  every  town  was  a  distillery — in  some  towns  a  number — where 
fanners  exchanged  their  rye  and  com  for  whisky,  which  was  a  common  arti- 
cle of  traffic.  Merchants  exchanged  for  it  the  grain  received  from  their  cus- 
tomers, and,  after  supplying  the  demand  at  home,  sent  the  surplus  to  the 
eastern  markets,  after  the  opening  of  the  Erie  canal.  Having  reached  its 
destination,  a  large  portion  of  it  was,  by  some  mystic  process,  suddenly  con- 
verted into  another  article,  and,  under  a  different  name,  bought,  perhaps,  by 
the  same  country  merchants,  to  supply  their  customers  with  "  a  pure  brandy 
for  medicinal  purposes.'' 

That  drunkenness,  and  its  natural  concomitants — poverty,  crime,  and  pre- 
mature death — were  the  result  of  the  practices  we  have  mentioned,  is  not 
surprising.  The  marvel  is,  that  the  opinions  and  habits  so  long  prevalent, 
should  have  had  the  sanction  of  good  men.  The  evils  of  intemperance  be- 
came at  length  intolerable,  and  remedial  measures  began  to  be  suggested  and 

Further  evidence  of  the  general  prevalence  of  liquors  as  a  beverage  among 
all  cla.sses,  is  found  in  the  by-laws  adopted  by  the  grand  jury  of  Chautauqua 
county,  in  June,  1827 — a  body  of  men  whose  duty  it  was  to  indict  men  for 
crimes,  the  most  of  which  were  committed  under  the  influence  of  the  bever- 
age which  was  the  principal  cause  of  crime,  and  to  the  popular  use  of  which 
these  inquisitors  of  crime  contributed  the  weight  of  their  example.  The 
subject  of  by-laws  was  referred  to  a  committee  who  reported  seven  rules,  the 
first  two  of  which  were  as  follows  : 

"  I.  That  the  foreman  of  the  jury  pay  one  bottle  of  brandy  for  the  honor 
of  his  seat.     2.    That  the  secretary  also  pay  one  bottle." 

The  other  rules  imposed  fines  of  12)^  cents  for  the  violation  of  certain 
rules  of  etiquette,  or  non-observance  of  some  prescribed  formality.  And  it 
is  quite  probable  that  these  fines  were  expended  in  intoxicating  drinks. 

A  noticeable  specimen  of  the  use  and  cost  of  liquor  is  found  in  a  tavern 
bar-book  of  Jacob  Fenton  in  Jamestown,  in  1817.  A  glance  over  its  pages 
will  convince  any  person  of  the  mistake  of  those  who  think  that  more  liquor 
is  drunk  now  than  there  was  before  the  organization  of  temperance  societies. 
On  page  19,  G.  G.  is  charged  with  3  half  pints  whisky,  at  three  different 
times,  at  25  cents  each,  making  75  cents,  and  supper  and  lodging,  44  cents. 
Total,  $1.19.  N.  L.  is  charged  3  milk  punches,  25  cents  each.  E.  W.  is 
credited  on  account  $2.05,  to  apply  on  tavern  bills  contracted,  it  is  presumed, 
at  the  above  rates.  H.  B.,  i  gill  whisky,  13c.  W.  M.,  2  gills  whisky,  25c. 
A  Mr.  J.  M.  buys,  in  one  day,  5  gills  at  i2}4c.  each.  On  the  next  page 
are  charged  11  gills  at  i2j^c.  each,  and  2  breakfasts  at  37c.;  2  lodgings  at 
7c.,  and  a  supper,  2sc.  Total,  $2.44.  This  man  probably  had  a  wife  and 
children  in  town.  On  another  page  are  7  half  pints  whisky  at  iz^c,  and 
I  qt.  porter,  25c.,  charged  in  succession,  no  charge  against  another  person 


intervening.  Here  are  seen  the  names  of  well  known  business  men  scat- 
tered through  the  book.  It  is  readily  seen  that,  in  proportion  to  the  capital 
employed,  tavern-keeping  must  have  been  the  most  lucrative  business  at  that 
time  carried  on ;  provided,  however,  that  there  were  no  "  bad  debts."  A 
citizen  is  charged  for  i  gallon  and  i  qt.  $2.50 ;  from  which  it  appears  that 
"  landlord  "  Fenton  sold  for  the  same  price,  pro  rata,  by  wholesale  and 

Temperance  Reform  Measures. 

Where,  or  how,  or  when  the  temperance  reform  originated,  is,  perhaps,  not 
now  known.  The  first  temperance  document  the  writer  recollects,  was  an  ad- 
dress by  Mr.  Kittridge,  of  New  Hampshire,  which,  if  it  did  not  start  the  reform, 
gave  it  a  powerful  impetus  ;  and  the  name  of  the  pamphlet,  "  Kittridge's  Ad- 
dress," became,  in  some  parts  of  the  country,  as  familiar  as  a  household  word. 
This  was  soon  followed  [in  1826]  by  "Six  Sermons  on  Intemperance,"  by  Rev. 
Lyman  Beecher,  of  Boston,  which  also  rendered  the  cause  essential  service. 
A  portion  of  the  newspaper  press  soon  came  to  its  support.  Meetings  were 
held  in  all  parts  of  the  country.  The  pledge  of  abstinence  was  circulated, 
and  was  signed  by  a  large  number  of  both  sexes,  among  whom  were  many 
intemperate  persons.  Although  many  of  these  relapsed,  some  were  effect- 
ually reclaimed. 

For  a  number  of  years  only  spirituous  liquors  were  interdicted  by  the 
pledge.  Complete  success,  it  was  believed,  required  abstinence  from  intox- 
icating liquors  of  all  kinds ;  and  the  societies  soon  adopted  the  principle  of 
total  abstinence. 

When  and  where  the  first  temperaiue  society  was  formed,  perhaps  no  person 
knows.  The  Chautauqua  County  Temperance  Society,  auxiliary  to  the  state 
society,  was  organized  in  1829.  Pursuant  to  previous  notice,  the  friends  of 
temperance  met  at  the  court-house  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  society.  In 
a  county  containing  31,000  inhabitants,  only  fifteen  met  for  that  purpose. 
The  number  being  so  small,  they  repaired  to  the  law  office  of  Anselm  Potter, 
and  organized  by  choosing  Elial  T.  Foote,  president,  and  Harvey  Newcomb, 
secretary.  Among  the  number  assembled  were  Abner  Hazeltine,  Hiram 
Couch,  and  Thomas  W.  Harvey.  This  organization,  though  small  in  its 
beginning,  soon  became  a  respectable  and  efficient  society,  sustained  by 
auxiliaries  in  the  several  towns. 

Like  other  reformatory  movements,  the  temperance  cause  had  both  open 
and  negative  opponents.  Among  the  latter  were  respectable  men.  Some  of 
them  drank  temperately;  others,  perhaps  not  at  all,  but  would  "not  sign 
away  their  liberty,"  and  manifested  their  professed  regard  for  their  unfortunate 
fellow-men  by  a  "  masterly  inactivity."  In  their  view,  it  was  well  enough  for 
drunkards,  and  those  Ukely  to  become  such,  to  take  the  pledge ;  but  for  the 
temperate  it  was  not  necessary.  Among  these  were  at  first  many  members 
of  religious  societies,  whose  example  furnished  the  intemperate  and  the  .occa- 
sional drunkard  with  the  most  effective  shield  against  the  arguments  and 


entreaties  of  the  friends  of  the  cause.  Happily,  many  of  these,  convinced 
of  the  adverse  influence  of  their  example,  abandoned  their  position,  and  took 
an  active  part  in  the  reformation. 

About  the  year  1840,  a  fresh  impulse  was  given  to  the  temperance  cause 
by  the  efforts  of  men  called  Washingtonians.  A  number  of  abandoned  men 
in  the  city  of  Baltimore,  who  had  been  wont  to  spehd  their  evenings  at  the 
taverns  and  other  haunts  of  the  vicious  and  dissipated,  resolved  to  reform, 
and  at  once  became  "  teetotalers."  They  traversed  a  larg€  portion  of  the 
country,  lecturing  to  large  gatherings.  Drunkards  in  large  numbers  and  from 
great  distances  attended ;  and  many  of  them  signed  the  pledge.  The  most 
noted  of  this  band  of  reformers  was  John  Hawkins,  who,  though  unlettered, 
was  one  of  the  most  effective  lecturers  in  the  country.  Although  there  was 
nothing  in  their  principles  or  mode  of  operation  to  distinguish  them  from 
other  temperance  men,  they  took  the  name  of  "  Washingtonians."  Their 
efforts  resulted  in  the  reformation  of  many  drunkards,  who  became  mission- 
aries, and  constituted,  for  a  time,  the  principal  lecturing  force  of  the  country. 

It  must  be  confessed,  however,  that  the  benefits  of  this  "  temperance  revi- 
val" which  many  anticipated,  were  not  fully  realized.  These  reformers  came 
to  be  regarded  by  many  as  almost  the  only  efficient  champions  of  the  cause, 
while  its  earliest  and  ablest  advocates  were  lightly  esteemed.  Hence  these 
were  chiefly  superseded  as  lecturers,  by  reformed  inebriates,  many  of  whom, 
though  for  the  time  abstaining  from  the  use  of  intoxicating  drinks,  were  far 
from  having  attained  the  character  of  the  true  reformer.  Often  was  the  pul- 
pit surrendered,  on  the  sabbath,  to  men  whose  mirth-provoking  stories  were 
wholly  unbecoming  the  place  and  the  occasion.  It  is  not  strange  that  some 
who,  under  such  influences,  signed  the  pledge,  soon  relapsed  into  their  former 
habits.  Still,  much  good  was  accomplished.  Probably  about  this  time,  and 
for  several  years  thereafter,  less  ardent  spirits  were  drank  in  proportion  to  our 
population,  than  at  any  other  time  since  distilleries  were  first  established. 

The  Washingtonian  movement  was  succeeded  by  other  organizations. 
Among  the  earliest  of  them  was  that  of  the  Sons  of  Temperance,  which  was  for 
several  years  a  popular  order  of  temperance  men.  But  it  seems  to  have  been, 
to  a  considerable  extent,  superseded  by  the  Good  Templars,  who  have  organ- 
izations in  most  of  the  towns.  These  two  orders  are  both  secret.  Whether 
their  efficiency  is  increased  by  this  feature  in  their  organization,  or  not,  it  is 
not  easy  to  determine. 

As  incidental  to  the  efforts  for  the  promotion  of  the  temperance  reforma- 
tion, came  the  license  question.  Notwithstanding  the  marked  progress  of  the 
cause  by  the  simple  instrumentality  of  the  pledge,  many,  with  a  view  to  its 
more  rapid  advancement,  began  to  mvoke  the  aid  of  legislation  by  the 
enactment  of  prohibUory  laws.  Without  questioning  the  propriety  of  these 
laws,  it  may  be  said,  with  truth,  that  in  proportion  as  the  friends  of  the  cause 
relied  on  legislation  to  accomplish  the  desired  reform,  their  labors  in  the  use 
of  the  pledge  were  relaxed.  The  effect  of  this  relaxation  of  effort  was  a 
retrogression  of  the  cause. 


A  stringent  prohibitory  law  was  passed  in  Maine.  Well  authenticated 
official  statements  soon  showed  a  reduction,  in  some  districts,  of  more  than 
three-fourths  of  the  expense  of  pauperism  and  crime.  A  similar  law  was  tried 
in  one  or  more  other  states,  and  with  similar  results,  for  short  periods  of 
time.  But  the  strong  opposition  which  these  laws  have  encountered  has 
greatly  impaired  their  efficiency,  or  effected  their  repeal.  Hence  many  of 
the  friends  of  temperance  advise  a  return  to  the  old  tried  and  effectual 
method  of  promoting  the  cause,  not  as  a  substitute  for  legislation,  but  as  a 
means  of  reclaiming  inebriates,  and  of  preparing  public  sentiment  to  sustain 
prohibitory  laws  if  any  should  be  enacted. 

Many  different  laws  for  checking  the  evils  of  intemperance  have  been 
enacted  in  many  of  the  states.  In  communities  in  which  these  laws  have 
been  enforced,  they  have  had  a  salutary  effect.  But  they  are  generally  little 
more  than  a  dead  letter  on  the  statute  book.  The  evil  to  be  remedied  is 
firmly  rooted;  and  its  eradication,  or  even  its  material  mitigation,  requires 
unwearied,  persevering  effort  on  the  part  of  the  friends  of  temperance. 
Although  intemperance  may  be  measurably  checked  by  legislation,  more 
may  be  done  hy  prevention.  Let  the  young  be  trained  in  the  principles  of 
Christian  morality,  and  be  early  pledged  to  total  abstinence  from  all  intoxi- 
cating drinks,  and  a  marked  improvement  in  the  state  of  society  will  soon 


In  1829,  Wm.  Lloyd  Garrison  became  joint-editor  of  the  Genius  of  Uni- 
versal Emancipation,  an  antislavery  journal,  published  in  Baltimore,  pre- 
viously established,  it  is  believed,  by  Benjamin  Lundy.  It  had  advocated 
the  gradual  abolition  of  slavery;  but  Mr.  Garrison  distinctly  avowed  the 
doctrine  that  immediate  emancipation  was  the  right  of  the  slave,  and  the 
duty  of  the  master.  Having,  soon  after,  denounced  certain  persons  engaged 
in  the  domestic  slave-trade,  which  he  stigmatized  as  "  domestic  piracy,"  he 
was  tried  and  convicted  for  a  libel.  Unable  to  pay  the  penalty,  he  was  sent 
to  prison.  After  a  few  weeks'  confinement,  a  friend  paid  the  fine,  and 
released  him.  He  went  to  Boston,  where,  on  the  ist  of  January,  1831,  he 
issued  the  first  number  of  the  Liberator.  Other  papers  soon  followed  in 
advocating  immediate  abolition  of  slavery ;  and  antislavery  societies  began  to 
be  formed.    The  American  Antislavery  Society  was  formed  in  1833. 

The  abolitionists  believed  with  their  opponents,  that  slavery  in  the  states 
could  only  be  abolished  by  their  respective  governments.  Their  chief  object 
was,  by  the  discussion  of  the  subject,  in  all  its  bearings,  social,  moral,  and 
political,  to  convince  slaveholders  that  it  was  their  duty,  and  that  it  would  be 
for  their  interest,  to  aboUsh  slavery.  They  hoped  also,  that  a  general  expres- 
sion of  northern  sentiment  against  the  institution  as  morally  wrong,  might 


serve  to  hasten  action  on  the  part  of  the  slave  states.  And  as  the  power  of 
Congress  to  abohsh  slavery  in  the  District  of  Columbia  and  the  territories  of 
the  United  States,  was  generally  admitted  in  the  North,  petitions  in  vast 
numbers,  praying  for  the  exercise  of  this  power,  were  sent  to  Congress  from 
all  the  free  states.  Town  and  county  societies  were  formed  throughout  the 
North.  This  movement  alarmed  as  well  as  exasperated  the  southern  people  ; 
and  the  excitement  soon  became  general.  In  the  North  as  well  as  in  the 
South,  meetings  were  held,  and  resolutions  passed,  bitterly  denouncing  the 
abolitionists.  Antislavery  meetings  in  many  places  were  broken  up  by 
violence,  and  several  antislavery  presses  were  demolished. 

These  acts  of  violence  were  not  always  the  work  of  men  of  the  "baser 
sort,"  but  were,  in  many  instances,  not  only  instigated  hnt  perpetrated  by  men 
of  high  standing.  The  men  who,  in  Utica,  in  1835,  entered  a  church  in 
which  the  delegates  of  the  New  York  State  Antislavery  Society  were  assem- 
bled, and  actually  dispersed  the  occupants  of  the  house  by  force,  were  promi- 
nent professional  men  and  other  men  of  high  official  and  social  position.  A 
respectable  minister,  a  resident  of  the  city,  was  violently  thrown  upon  the 
floor,  his  own  son,  a  lawyer,  being  one  of  the  participators  in  the  shameful 
affray.  The  governor  of  the  state,  in  1836,  took  part  in  a  meeting  in  Albany, 
by  which  the  most  denunciatory  resolutions  against  the  abolitionists  were 
passed,  and  the  deepest  sympathy  was  expressed  for  their  "southern 
brethren."  . 

An  antislavery  convention  had  assembled  in  a  court-house  in  Western 
New  York.  A  committee  of  fifty,  embracing  nearly  every  man  of  fair  social 
position  in  the  village,  having  been  appointed  for  the  purpose  at  a  public 
meeting,  entered  the  court-house,  and  read  the  resolutions  adopted  at  that 
meeting,  disapproving  the  views  of  the  abolitionists,  and  advising  the  con- 
vention to  disperse,  intimating  that  they  might  not  be  permitted  to  proceed 
peaceably  in  their  deliberations.  In  the  gallery  were  seated  about  twenty 
ruffians,  who,  on  signals  given  by  two  lawyers  and  an  editor  standing  below 
and  facing  the  gallery,  would,  by  hissing,  stamping,  and  other  noises,  inter- 
rupt the  proceedings  of  the  convention.  After  several  fruitless  attempts  to 
proceed  to  the  transaction  of  business,  the  meeting  was  adjourned  to  a  future 
day,  and  to  another  part  of  the  county. 

Many  now  will  wonder  that  the  discussion  of  an  evil  of  such  magnitude, 
should  not  be  allowed  in  a  country  whose  constitution  guaranties  the  right 
oi  freedom  of  speech,  even  when  the  subject  is  liberty  itself.  It  is,  however, 
proper  to  state,  that  much  of  this  opposition  to  the  antislavery  effort  arose, 
not  firom  a  regard  for  slavery,  but  from  a  misapprehension  of  the  aims  of  the 
abolitionists.  [For  political  action  on  the  slavery  question,  see  Political 

A  majority  of  Congress  being  opposed  to  the  objects  of  the  abolitionists, 
who  continued  to  send  in  their  petitions  for  the  abolition  of  slavery  in  the 
District  of  Columbia,  and  for  prohibiting  the  slave  trade  between  the  states, 
the  house  resolved  that  such  petitions  should,  on  presentation,  be  laid  on  the 


table  without  being  debated,  printed,  or  referred.  This  action  of  the  house 
rather  increased  than  allayed  agitation ;  and  petitions  were  daily  offered  as 
usual^some  for  the  repeal  of  the  "  gag  resolutions,"  as  they  were  called. 

But  as  yet  there  was  no  political  antislavery  party.  The  abolitionists, 
however,  began  to  vote  for  candidates  in  favor  of  their  views  without  respect 
to  party.  The  subject  of  a  political  organization  was  soon  after  agitated ; 
and  in  November,  1839,  at  a  small  meeting  of  abolitionists  in  Western  New 
York,  James  G.  Birney,  formerly  a  slaveholder  in  Alabama,  who  had  eman- 
cipated his  slaves  and  removed  to  the  North,  was  nominated  for  president. 
This  party  never  became  numerous.  A  large  majority  of  the  abolitionists 
refused  to  join  it,  believing  their  object  was  more  likely  to  be  effected  by 
adhering  to  the  original  plan  of  the  societies. 


Chautauqua  County  Medical  Society. 

This  society  was  formed  in  June,  18 18,  in  court  week.  Pursuant  to  pre- 
vious public  notice,  a  number  of  physicians  and  surgeons  met  at  the  hall  of 
Gen.  John  McMahan,  in  Mayville.  Dr.  E.  T.  Foote  was  chosen  chairman  of 
the  meeting,  and  Dr.  Fenn  Deming,  secretary.  Officers  of  the  society  were 
elected  as  follows:  President,  Elial  T.  Foote.  Vice-President,  Samuel  Snow. 
Secretary,  Treasurer,  and  Librarian,  Fenn  Deming.  Censors,  Orris  Crosby, 
John  P.  M.  Whaley,  Henry  Sargent.  The -last  three  named  were  also  ap- 
pointed as  a  committee  to  prepare  a  code  of  by-laws  for  the  society,  to  be 
presented  at  the  next  meeting ;  and  Dr.  Foote  was  appointed  a  delegate  to 
the  state  society.  At  the  meeting  in  June,  1819,  Dr.  Sargent  presented  a 
code  of  by-laws  prepared  by  himself,  which  were  adopted.  Dr.  Jediah 
Prendergast  was  chosen  president  for  the  ensuing  year ;  Dr.  Squire  White, 
vice-president;  Dr.  Ebenezer  P.  Upham,  secretary;  Drs.  Foote,  Crosby, 
and  Sargent,  censors.  Dr.  Sargent  was  appointed  to  deliver  an  address  at 
the  next  annual  meeting. 

Eclectic  Medical  Society. 

The  first  "Reform  Medical  Society"  was  organized  in  Fredonia,  in  1844, 
Dr.  J.  R.  "Qvish, president,  and  M.  Hobart,  secretary.  Under  the  auspices  of 
this  society,  a  course  of  lectures  was  given  in  Fredonia  by  Prof.  Hill,  of 
Cincinnati,  commencing  June,  1847.  About  twenty  students  were  in  attend- 
ance. The  last  meeting  of  the  society  of  which  a  record  is  obtained,  was 
held  at  Jamestown,  in  September,  1850.  The  Eclectic  Medical  Association  of 
Chautauqua  County  was  organized  in  September,  1856,  Dr.  O.  C.  Payne, 
president;  A.  P.  Parsons,  M.  D.,  secretary.  During  nine  years,  this  associa- 
tion held  thirty  meetings  for  the  transaction  of  business,  and  received  thirty- 
five  members.     Their  names  are  as  follows  : 


O.  C.  Payne,  A.  P.  Parsons,  H.  C.  Taylor,  Joseph  Carpenter,  John 
Clough,  A.  Landers,  E.  H.  Thatcher,  J.  B.  Chace,  Ezra  Mills,  Daniel 
Briggs,  W.  L.  Wilbur,  David  Bradford,  Joseph  Whitaker,  A.  S.  Davis,  Simon 
Bart-is,  I.  J.  Bowen,  John  Devoe,  Joseph  Button,  Ezra  Martin,  S.  Monroe, 
Z.  Kilboum,  A.  D.  Brooks,  S.  Logan,  C.  C.  Rugg,  C.  C.  Johnson,  G.  H. 
Bowen,  G.  L.  Whitford,  B.  Hubbard,  A.  Jackson,  Wm.  Bourne,  Orrin  Gar- 
field, E.  Clark,  N.  F.  Marble,  S.  Brown. 

At  a  meeting  held  at  Dunkirk,  September  15,  1865,  a  new  constitution 
was  adopted,  in  compliance  with  a  request  of  the  state  society;  and  to 
become  auxiliary  thereto,  the  name  was  changed  from  Association  to  Soci- 
ety, and  is  now  known  as  the  Eclectic  Medical  Society  of  the  32d  Senatorial 
District.  The  officers  chosen  were  :  H.  C.  Taylor,  M.  D.,  president ;  A.  P. 
Parsons,  M.  D.,  vice-president;  M.  M.  Fenner,  M.  D.,  secretary ;  G.  L. 
Whitford,  treasurer.  The  foUomng  are  the  names  of  members:  G.  H. 
Bowen,  A.  S.  Davis,  N.  F.  Marsh,  C.  C.  Rugg,  C.  C.  Johnson,  J.  B.  Chace, 
A.  D.  Brooks,  N.  F.  Marble,  D.  A.  Loomis,  G.  W.  Carpenter,  James  Fenner, 
Phineas  Sage,  C.  W.  Babcock,  A.  Ayers,  John  Gazley,  A.  Haynes,  J.  A.  Salis- 
bury, C.  D.  Thompson,  A.  H.  Bowen,  J.  Lord,  S.  J.  Bowen,  Q.  A.  Hollis- 
ter,  D.  C.  Storer,  W.  L.  Wilbur,  O.  H.  Simons,  M.  C.  Belknap,  J.  Phillips, 
A.  P.  Philhps,  A.  A.  Hubbell,  V.  A.  Ellsworth,  A.  Jennings,  J.  J.  Lenhart, 
J.  R.  Borland. 


Agriculture  received  public  encouragement  in  this  state  during  the  first 
term  of  Gov.  De  Witt  Clinton.  In  the  Chautauqua  Eagle.,  published  by 
Robert  I.  Curtis  at  Mayville,  we  find,  under  date  of  Jan.  4,  1820,  a  circular, 
signed  by  ten  prominent  ''  members  of  the  great  republican  family,"  residing 
in  the  city  of  New  York.  They  enumerate  a  long  list  of  considerations,  or 
measures  of  reform,  characterizing  Mr.  Clinton's  administration,  which  they 
urge  in  favor  of  his  reelection.     They  say  : 

"  Under  the  administration  of  De  Witt  Clinton,  a  board  of  agriculture  has 
been  established  upon  the  strength  of  his  special  recommendation.  This 
has  laid  the  foundation  of  our  future  agricultural  prosperity,  and  called  forth 
a  noble  and  salutary  emulation  in  the  forty-nine  counties  of  our  state.  It,  in 
fact,  has  given  a  vast  impulse  to  internal  and  even  national  industry,  and  is 
the  only  board  in  the  twenty-one  United  States.  Twenty  thousand  dollars 
will  be  hereafter  expended  annually  to  encourage  the  most  approved  cultiva- 
tion of  the  soil." 

The  following  facts  relating  to  agricultural  societies  in  this  coimty  are  found 
in  one  of  a  course  of  lectures  by  the  late  Samuel  A.  Brown,  Esq.,  before  the 
students  of  Jamestown  academy,  in  1843.  About  the  year  1820,  an  agricul- 
tural society  was  formed  at  Mayville,  and  Judge  Cushing,  a  wealthy  farmer 
of  Pomfret,  chosen  president.     This  society  did  but  little,  and  was  suffered 


soon  to  expire.  On  the  12th  6f  October,  1836,  the  citizens  met  at  the  court- 
house to  organize  an  agricultural  society  under  the  statute ;  and  Jedediah 
Tracy,  of  Mayville,  was  chosen  president,  and  Wm.  Prendergast,  2d,  secre- 
tary. They  adjourned  to  the  4th  of  January,  1837.  On  that  day  the 
Chautauqua  County  Agricultural  Society  was  organized,  and  officers  chosen. 
Wm.  Prendergast,  2d,  was  chosen  president ;  Henry  ■  Baker,  of  EUicott, 
Timothy  Judson,  of  Portland,  Thomas  B.  Campbell,  of  Westfield,  and  Elias 
Clarke,  of  EUery,  vice-presidents ;  E.  P.  Upham,  corresponding  secretary ; 
Jedediah  Tracy,  treasurer.  The  executive  committee  were  Wm.  H.  Seward, 
Thomas  B.  Campbell,  of  Westfield,  Stephen  Prendergast,  of  Ripley,  David 
Eaton,  of  Portland,  Seth  W.  Holmes,  of  Chautauqua,  John  Miller,  of  Har- 
mony, Sampson  Vincent,  of  Sherman,  Abraham  Pier,  of  Busti,  Chauncey 
Warren,  of  Stockton,  Jedediah  Vorce,  of  Ellery,  and  Richard  Walker,  of 
Mina.  The  design  of  the  society,  as  expressed  in  its  constitution,  was  "  to 
improve  agriculture,  horticulture,  the  household  arts,  and  the  breeding  and 
improvement  of  domestic  animals,  and  also  the  improvement  of  farming 
utensils,  and  domestic  manufactures." 

In  many  of  the  counties  of  this  state,  besides  the  county  organizations, 
there  are  societies  embracing  one  or  more  towns.  The  nature  of  these 
societies  is  too  well  understood  to  need  description.  That  they  have  been 
instrumental  in  advancing  the  agricultural  interest  in  the  state  will  hardly  be 
disputed  ;  and  that  practices  have  been  introduced  which  materially  detract 
from  their  usefulness,  is  extensively  believed. 


New  York  and  Erie  Railroad  Company. 

This  company  was  chartered  by  the  legislature,  April  24,  1832.  The 
first  preliminary  survey  was  made  the  same  year  by  De  Witt  Clinton,  Jr.,  by 
order  of  the  government.  The  company  was  authorized  to  organize  when 
subscriptions  for  stock  should  have  been  taken  to  the  amount  of  $1,000,000. 
Books  were  opened  in  the  city  of  New  York  and  in  the  counties  along  the 
route  of  the  contemplated  road.  No  subscriptions,  or  none  to  any  consider- 
able amount,  were  obtained.  The  commissioners  subsequently  subscribed 
$10,000  each,  and  Wm.  G.  Buckner,  of  New  York,  subscribed  for  the 
remainder  of  the  million  required  ;  and  the  company  was  organized  in  July, 
1833.  Eleazar  Lord,  of  New  York,  was  chosen  president;  Wm.  G.  Buckner, 
treasurer.  In  1834,  the  governor  appointed  Benj.  Wright  to  survey  the 
route ;  who,  assisted  by  James  Seymour  and  Charles  Ellett,  began  the  survey 
May  23d,  and  finished  it  the  same  year.  In  1835,  the  company  was  reor- 
ganized, and  40  miles  were  put  under  contract.  In  1836,  an  act  was  passed 
authorizing  a  loan  to  the  company  of  $3,000,000  on  the  credit  of  the  state ; 


and  the  comptroller  was  directed  to  issue  state  stock,  to  that  amount,  to  aid 
in  constructing  the  road.  After  this  sum  had  been  expended,  it  was  found 
necessary  to  suspend  the  prosecution  of  the  work.  In  this  county,  about  14 
miles  of  the  road  from  Dunkirk  eastward  had  been  graded,  and  for  about 
8  miles  toward  Mud  lake  the  rails  had  been  laid.  The  company  being 
unable  to  proceed  in  the  construction  of  the  road  without  further  aid,  the 
state,  in  1845,  released  its  lien  on  the  road,  and  authorized  the  original 
stockholders  to  surrender  two  shares  of  the  old  stock,  and  receive  one  share 
of  the  new. 

April  8,  1845,  a  branch  was  allowed  to  be  built  from  Chester  to  Newburgh, 
19  miles.  A  road  was  also  authorized  from  about  20  miles  west  from  Pier- 
mont,  through  New  Jersey  to  Jersey  City,  opposite  New  York,  where  nearly 
all  the  freight  and  passengers  of  the  Erie  road,  to  and  from  New  York,  are 
landed.  To  secure  to  the  people  of  the  southern  counties  of  the  state  the 
benefits  of  the  road,  the  company  was  originally  required  to  keep  the  road 
all  the  way  within  the  limits  of  the  state.  In  1846,  however,  in  order  to 
obtain  an  easier  grade,  the  company  was  allowed  to  cross  the  Delaware 
river  into  Pennsylvania,  and  run  the  road  a  short  distance  through  that  state. 
For  this  privilege  the  road  is  compelled  to  pay  the  state  of  Pennsylvania, 
annually,  a  bonus  of  $10,000.  The  road  was  opened  as  follows:  From 
Piermont  to  Goshen,  Sept.  22,  1841  ;  to  Middletown,  June  7,  1843  ;  to  Port 
Jervis,  Jan.  6,  1848;  to  Binghamton,  Dec  28,  1848;  to  Owego,  June  i, 
1849  j  to  Elmira,  Oct.,  1849 ;  to  Corning,  Jan.  i,  1859  ;  and  to  Dunkirk, 
May  14,  1851.     The  Newburgh  branch  was  opened,  Jan.  8,  1850. 

The  consummation  of  the  great  enterprise,  which  had  been  anxiously 
awaited  through  long  years  of  doubt  and  despondency,  was  appropriately 
followed  by  a 

Celebration  at  Dunkirk. 

This  was  a  joyous  occasion,  not  only  to  the  citizens  of  this  county,  but  to 
thousands  in  every  county  in  the  "  southern  tier.''  These  "  sequesterai 
counties,"  as  they  had  long  been  called,  having  participated  but  slightly 
in  the  benefits  of  the  "  grand  canal,"  were  at  length  favored  with  a  "  road 
to  market."  The  day  was  highly  auspicious,  and  many  thousands '  were 
attracted  by  the  fame  of  the  expected  guests,  and  the  novelty  of  the  antici- 
pated spectacle.  The  village  of  Dunkirk  presented  a  gay  appearance,  from 
the  flags  and  streamers  with  which  the  hotels  and  private  houses  were 
decorated.  On  the  d^pot  were  the  flags  of  three  nations ;  the  stars  and  stripes 
gracefully  floating  above  the  tri-color  of  the  French  republic  and  the  red 
cross  of  St.  George. 

At  about  1 1  o'clock,  the  Queen  City  arrived  from  Buffalo,  and  soon  after, 
in  succession,  the  Niagara,  the  Empire  State,  the  Empire,  the  Key  Stone 
State,  and  the  United  States  steamer  Michigan,  took  positions  in  the  harbor. 
Gov.  Hunt  and  suite  arrived  from  Buffalo  on  one  of  the  boats,  and  received 
his  friends  at  the  American  hotel.  The  train  from  New  York,  expected  at 
1.30  P.  M.,  did  not  arrive  until  about  4,  when  the  locomotive  "Dunkirk" 


came  in  as  a  pioneer,  followed,  soon  after,  by  the  long  expected  "iron  horse," 
from  New  York  city,  amid  the  ringing  of  bells  and  shouts  of  thousands.  The 
train  consisted  of  twelve  passenger  cars,  bearing  a  long  row  of  banners  which 
had  been  presented  along  the  line.  Among  the  guests  in  the  train,  were 
President  Fillmore;  Daniel  Webster,  secretary  of  state;  Wm.' A.  Graham, 
secretary  of  the  navy ;  Nathan  K.  Hall,  postmaster-general ;  John  J. 
Crittenden,  attorney -ganeral;  Senators  Seward  and  Fish;  Daniel  S.  Dickin- 
son ;  Ex-Gov.  Marcy ;  Senator  Douglas,  of  111. ;  Christopher  Morgan, 
sec.  of  state  of  New  York,  and  others. 

After  the  presentation  of  an-  elegant  banner  by  the  ladies  of  Dunkirk  to 
the  president  and  directors  of  the  road,  a  procession  was  formed  under  the 
direction  of  Noah  D.  Snow,  marshal,  and  to  the  music  of  Dodsworth's  New 
York  Cornet  Band,  proceeded  through  the  village,  and  back  to  the  depot, 
where  refreshments  were  provided.  The  president  and  invited  guests,  with 
the  directors  of  the  road,  repaired  to  the  Loder  house,  where  a  sumptuous 
collation  was  served  up.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  repast,  President  Fillmore, 
being  introduced  to  the  guests,  congratulated  them  on  the  completion  of  the 
road,  and  complimented  the  president  aiKl  directors  of  the  road  for  their 
exertions  in  its  behalf  He  was  followed  by  Mr.  Loder,  president  of  the 
company,  who  gave  a  history  of  the  origin  and  progress  of  the  road,  during 
which  time  the  charter  had  been  changed  some  twelve  times.  The  road, 
he  said,  was  445^  miles  in  length,  the  longest  ever  built  under  one  charter 
in  the  world. 

Mr.  Crittenden,  of  Ky.,  having  been  called  for,  said  he  was  surprised  at 
what  had  been  accompHshed.  He  had  heard  something  of  it,  but  had  pre- 
viously had  no  adequate  idea  of  its  extent.  The  French  eagle,  said 
Napoleon,  had  flown  from  spire  to  spire,  till  it  rested  on  Notre  Dame ;  but 
he  [Mr.  C]  had  been  in  a  car  that  outdid  the  French  eagle.  They  had 
been  flying,  not  from  spire  to  spire,  but  from  mountain  top  to  mountain  top. 
The  president  and  directors  of  the  road  were  benefactors  of  the  state.  Our 
country  was  destined  to  progress.  In  fifty  years,  there  would  be  a  popula- 
tion of  100,000,000.  The  speaking  was  continued  within  the  house  until  a 
late  hour,  by  Gov.  Hunt,  Senators  Seward  and  Dickinson,  and  others. 

Outside  the  house.  President  Fillmore  was  introduced  by  Hon.  Geo.  W. 
Patterson,  to  the  multitude  in  front,  and  briefly  addressed  them  in  eulogy  of 
the  road  and  the  occasion.  He  was  followed  by  Gov.  Hunt  and  Secretary 
Graham.  They  were  succeeded  by  Joseph  Hoxie,  of  New  York,  or,  as 
Lieut.-Gov.  Patterson  remarked,  better  known  as  "  Joe  Hoxie."  He  chained 
the  audience  for  some  time  by  a  flow  of  humor ;  but  the  cry  was  for  Webster, 
and  no  excuse  would  be  taken.  Mr.  Webster  at  last  appeared,  looking 
fatigued  and  care-worn,  but  spoke  at  length  on  the  benefit  of  the  work,  and 
in  behalf  of  the  Union.  The  festivities  of  the  day  were  closed  by  a  brilliant 
display  of  fireworks,  bonfires,  etc.,-  while  the  windows  of  many  dwellings 
were  illuminated.  There  were  probably  15,000  people  assembled  on  the 


Buffalo  &  Erie,  and  other  Railroads. 

The  Buffalo  &■>  Erie  Railroad  Company  was  formed  under  an  act  passed 
April  14,  1832,  with  a  capital  of  $650,000.  The  term  of  the  charter  was 
fifty  years.  Four  years  were  allowed  the  company  to  commence  the  work, 
and  ten  to  complete  it.  The  route  was  surveyed  and  located  nearly  all  the 
way  to  the  state  line.  The  stock  was  taken,  but  from  some  disagreement  in 
regard  to  the  route  at  certain  points,  the  work  was  not  commenced  within 
the  four  years,  as  required  by  the  act,  and  the  enterprise  failed. 

The  Buffalo  <S^•  State  Line  Railroad  Company  was  formed  June  6,  1849. 
The  road  was  located  by  way  of  Fredonia.  The  route  was  subsequently 
changed  by  the  company's  deciding  to  run  it  through  Dunkirk.  The  road 
was  opened  from  Dunkirk  to  the  state  line  January  i,  1852,  and  to  Buffalo 
February  22,  following.  The  company  purchased  the  Erie  &  North-east 
Railroad,  under  the  act  of  April  13,  1857,  and  operated  the  united  roads 
under  the  name  of  the  Buffalo  &•  Erie  Railroad.  The  three  railroads  be- 
tween Erie  and  Chicago,  owned  by  three  different  companies  prior  to  May, 
1869,  were  then  consolidated  under  the  name  of  Lake  Shore  &•  Michigan 
Southern  Railroad.  In  August  following,  this  road  and  the  Buffalo  &  Erie 
road  were  consolidated,  without  a  change  of  the  former  name. 

A  company  for  the  construction  of  a  railroad  from  Portland  Harbor 
\Barcelona\  to  Mayville,  was  formed  under  an  act  of  the  legislature,  passed 
March  29,  1832.  The  capital  stock  was  to  be  $150,000,  and  the  term  of 
charter  fifty  years  ;  eight  years  to  be  allowed  for  its  construction.  It  is  need- 
less to  say  the  project  was  never  carried  into  effect. 

The  Fredonia  is'  Van  Buren  Railroad  Company  was  formed  May  21, 1836, 
with  a  capital  of  $12,000.  This  was  at  the  time  when  the  projected  city  of 
Van  Buren  [elsewhere  noticed]  had  just  made  its  appearance  on  paper — the 
epoch  still  frequently  designated  in  this  section  of  the  state  as  the  time  of 
the  "  Buffalo  land  speculation,"  but  which  extended  to  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
tr}'.  [See  Van  Buren,  in  History  of  Dunkirk.]  The  people  of  Fredonia, 
having  no  hope  of  securing  an  early  connection  with  a  railroad  in  any  other 
way,  and  anticipating  the  selection  of  this  place  for  the  terminus  of  the  New 
York  &  Erie  road,  sought  cpnnection  with  the  lake  and  railroad  trade  by  this 
short  road.  But  the  "  crisis  "  which  succeeded  the  fictitious  prosperity  of  the 
years  1835  and  1836  having  crushed  the  prospective  city,  and  the  western 
terminus  of  the  N.  Y.  &  E.  R.  R.  having  been  fixed  at  Dunkirk,  the  project 
was  abandoned. 

The  Atlantic  &  Great  Western  Railway. 

This  company  was  formed  December  9,  1859.  The  line  was  said  to  extend 
from  the  New  York  &  Erie  Railroad  at  Little  Valley  to  the  south  line  of 
Chautauqua  county.  But  it  was  never  intended  to  be  thus  restricted.  On 
the  completion  of  the  road  westward  to  Jamestown,  the  Journal  Extra,  of 
August  25,  i860,  said: 

"  This  great  enterprise,  which  has  for  a  decade  of  years  absorbed  the 


interests  of  capitalists  and  commercial  men,  as  well  as  the  business  public, 
both  east  and  west,  and  which,  in  its  vastness  of  design,  unites  the  valley  of 
the  Mississippi  (and  ultimately  the  Pacific  slope)  to  the  great  emporium  of  the 
Atlantic  shore,  has  reached  a  stage  of  its  completion  that  assures  its  speedy 
and  indisputable  success.  Its  line  traverses  the  very  garden  of  the  states, 
the  central  region  through  Pennsylvania,  Ohio  and  Indiana,  so  well  known 
to  producers  and  buyers  as  the  great  market  ground  between  the  lakes  and 
the  Gulf  states." 

On  the  6th  of  April,  negotiations  between  the  companies  of  the  Erie  & 
New  York  City  Railroad  and  the  Atlantic  &  Great  Western  Railroad  were 
completed ;  the  latter  company  adopting  38  miles  of  the  Erie  &  New  York 
City  Railroad  line.  About  the  ist  of  May,  the  contractors  and  engineer 
corps  commenced  operations  at  the  junction  with  the  New  York  &  Erie 
Railroad  near  Little  Valley.  On  the  3d  of  July,  the  iron  was  laid  down  to 
Randolph,  r6  miles  from  the  junction.  On  the  25th  of  August,  i860,  the 
first  train  of  cars  arrived  at  Jamestown,  a  distance  of  33  miles  ;  the  achieve- 
ment of  the  result  being  ascribed  in  great  part  to  "  the  vigor  of  the  English 
engineer,  [Thomas  W.  Kennard,]  the  coolness  and  energy  of  his  American 
associate,  J.  Hill,  Jr.,  and  the  urging  of  the  work  by  the  able  contractors, 
Messrs.  Doolittle  and  Streator.  On  the  occasion  of  the  laying  of  the  rails  of 
the  road  into  the  village  of  Jamestown,  a  complimentary  dinner  was  given  to 
Mr.  Kennard  at  the  Jamestown  House,  where  a  large  company  of  invited 
guests  sat  down  to  a  sumptuously  furnished  table.  Col.  Augustus  F.  Allen 
presided  on  the  occasion,  which,  judging  from  the  published  proceedings, 
was  one  of  deep  interest  to  the  people  in  a  part  of  the  country  until  then 
remote  firom  canal  or  railroad. 

The  Buffalo  &•  Oil  Creek  Cross  Cut  Railroad  was  chartered  in  1865.  Its 
name  was  subsequently  changed  to  Buffalo,  Corry  &••  Pittsbu^h  Railroad. 
It  connects  Corry,  in  Pennsylvania,  with  Brocton  in  this  county,  where  it 
joins  the  Lake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  road.  Its  length  is  43.20  miles. 
The  portion  Ijdng  inlhis  state  is  37.20  miles,  and  terminates  at  the  state  line, 
which  there  forms  the  south  line  of  Clymer,  on  lot  49.  The  company  con- 
structing from  this  point  to  Corry,  was  chartered  by  the  legislature  of  Penn- 
sylvania, and  the  two  were  consoUdated  April  24j  1867. 

Dunkirk,  Allegany  Valley  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad. 

A  meeting  was  held  in  the  summer  of  1866  by  the  citizens  of  Sinclairville, 
at  which  Hon.  C.  J.  Allen  presided,  to  consider  the  practicability  of  con- 
structing a  railroad  from  Dunkirk  to  Warren,  Pa.,  by  the  way  of  the  Cassadaga 
and  Connewango  valleys.  Other  meetings  were  afterwards  held  in  the  same 
year  at  Sinclairville,  Dunkirk,  and  Fredonia,  at  which  preliminary  steps  were 
taken  for  the  organization  of  a  company  to  build  the  road.  Subscriptions 
were  also  made  to  its  capital  stock,  in  anticipation  of  the  organization  of  such 
company,  by  the  citizens  along  the  route  of  the  proposed  road.  During  the  suc- 
ceeding winter,  the  company  was  organized  under  the  name  of  the  Dunkirk, 
Warren  &  Pittsburgh  Railroad  Company.      The  officers  first  chosen  were 


'I'imothy  D.  Copp,  president;  George  Barker,  vice-president;  S.  M.  Newton, 
chief  engineer ;  T.  R.  Coleman,  treasurer ;  and  James  Van  Buren,  secretary ; 
S.  M.  Newton,  Wm.  Bookstaver,  Walter  Finkle,  and  Lee  L.  Hyde,  of  Dun- 
kirk ;  George  Barker  and  Thomas  Higgins,  of  Fredonia ;  Ebenezer  Moore, 
of  Stockton ;  T.  D.  Copp  and  Alonzo  Langworthy,  of  Sinclairville  ;  B.  F. 
Dennison,  of  Gerry ;  Patrick  Falconer,  of  Ellicott ;  and  Edwin  Eaton  and 
Wm.  H.  H.  Fenton,  of  Carroll,  directors.  April  23, 1867,  an  act  was  passed  by 
the  legislature  of  New  York,  authorizing  the  towns  in  this  county  to  subscribe 
to  the  capital  stock.  June  17,  1867,  the  first  work  on  the  road  was  done. 
A  party  consisting  of  Obed  Edson,  compassman,  Thomas  Glissan,  George 
Blackham,  Stephen  H.  Allen,  Walter  Hyde,  and  Charles  Higgins,  under  the 
direction  of  the  chief  engineer,  commenced  the  preliminary  survey  at  the 
north  end  of  Cassadaga  lake,  and  completed  this  survey  from  Dunkirk  to  the 
Pennsylvania  line  during  that  year. 

The  original  contract  for  the  construction  of  the  road  was  made  with 
T.  M.  Simpson  and  J.  Condit  Smith  ;  and  grading  was  commenced  in  Ellicott, 
at  Ross's  mills,  October  3,  1867.  In  December,  1867,  supervisors  of  towns 
issued  bonds  and  subscribed  for  stock  for  their  respective  towns,  as  fol- 
lows :  George  D.  Hinkley,  of  Pomfret,  $50,000 ;  Obed  Edson,  of  Charlotte, 
and  B.  F.  Dennison,  of  Gerry,  each  $34,000  ;  John  S.  Beggs,  of  Dunkirk, 
$100,000  ;  and  Wm.  H.  H.  Fenton,  of  Carroll,  $20,000.  This  substantially 
constituted  the  capital  stock  on  which  the  road  was  built.  In  1868,  1869 
and  1870,  the  road  was  graded.  In  1870,  the  track  was  laid  to  a  point  a  lit- 
tle south  of  Laona  ;  June  i,  1871,  to  Sinclairville  ;  June  17,  to  Worksburg ; 
to  which  place  the  first  passenger  train  passed  over  the  road,  June  22,  187 1. 
The  road  was  afterwards  completed  to  Warren,  and  continued  to  Titusville. 

The  Buffalo  and  Jamestown  Railroad  ^zs,  chartered  in' 1872.  It  passes 
through  the  towns  of  Hamburgh,  Eden,  and  Collins,  in  Erie  county ;  Persia 
and  Dayton,  in  Cattaraugus  county ;  Cherry  Creek  and  Ellington,  in  Chau- 
tauqua county  ;  Randolph,  in  Cattaraugus  ;  Poland  and  Ellicott,  in  Chautau- 
qua county. 

Early  Parties. 

Ever  since  the  organization  of  the  government  under  the  constitution, 
there  have  been  two  great  national  political  parties  in  this  country.  The  first 
had  their  origin  in  the  convention  which  firamed  the  constitution  of  the  United 
States.  Prior  to  the  formation  of  the  present  government,  national  affairs 
were  conducted  under  the  articles  of  confederation,  which  were  adopted  during 
the  Revolutionary  war.  This  confederation  was  a  mere  league  between  thir- 
teen sovereign  and  independent  states.  This  league  was  formed  for  the  more 
effectual  resistance  to  the  power  of  Great  Britain  in  the  struggle  for  American 


independence.  It  was  hardly  entitled  to  be  called  a  government.  It  had 
neither  a  legislature,  an  executive,  nor  a  judiciary.  There  was  what  was 
sometimes  called  a  legislature — the  Congress — consisting  of  delegates  from 
the  several  states,  sitting  in  a  single  body.  It  could  pass  no  law  that  was 
binding  upon  the  states  or  individuals. 

In  this  Congress  all  the  states  were  equal.  In  the  decision  of  all  ques- 
tions, each  state  had  but  one  vote ;  and  that  vote  was  determined  by  the  major- 
ity of  its  delegates.  Each  state,  large  or  small,  was  entitled  to  an  equal 
number  of  delegates,  not  exceeding  seven ;  but  its  vote  was  not  counted 
unless  at  least  two  of  its  delegates  were  present  and  voting.  Also,  if  its 
delegates  were  equally  divided  upon  a  question,  it  had  no  vote. 

The  weakness  of  the  confederation  appeared  during  the  war.  Congress 
could  not  compel  a  state  to  raise  men  or  money  to  carry  on  the  war.  Its 
business  was  to  pass  ordi7iaJices,  so  called,  assigning  to  the  states  their  respect- 
ive quotas  of  men  and  money  to  be  raised ;  but  it  could  not  enforce  its 
requisitions.  Generally,  however,  they  were  obeyed,  all  the  states  being 
united  to  avert  a  common  danger.  But  after  the  war  was  over,  the  states 
did  not  long  continue  in  harmony.  Laws  were  enacted  in  some  states  giving 
their  own  citizens  undue  advantages  over  the  citizens  of  other  states ;  and 
mutual  jealousies  and  animosities  soon  arose  which  threatened  to  break  up 
the  Union. 

It  was  now  evident  that,  to  preserve  the  union  of  the  states,  a  government 
possessing  more  extensive  powers  was  necessary ;  a  government  that  could, 
in  all  needful  cases,  control  the  action  of  the  state  governments.  Under  the 
confederation,  Congress  had  no  power  to  lay  and  collect  taxes.  It  borrowed 
money  to  carry  on  the  war ;  but,  as  the  power  of  taxation  was  in  the  states 
alone,  Congress  was  wholly  dependent  on  the  states,  which  were  not  always 
ready  and  willing  to  comply  with  its  requisitions. 

But  what  originated  the  movement  for  a  constitutional  convention,  was  the 
want  of  power  to  lay  duties  to  protect  American  labor.  Other  countries, 
especially  Great  Britain,  where  manufactures  had  become  firmly  established, 
were  flooding  this  country  with  their  fabrics,  and  were  draining  it  of  its  specie, 
and  impoverishing  our  people.  Great  Britain  had  built  up  her  manufac- 
turing interest  by  high  duties  upon  foreign  goods  ;  and  our  Congress  had  not 
the  power  thus  to  protect  capital  and  labor  by  countervailing  duties.  The 
states  had  the  power,  but  they  would  not  agree  upon  a  uniform  system  of 
duties ;  and  without  uniformity  the  object  could  not  be  accomplished.  Mr. 
Madison  and  other  eminent  statesmen,  after  several  unsuccessful  attempts 
to  have  the  evil  remedied  by  the  action  of  the  state  legislatures,  requested 
Congress  to  call  a  convention  of  commissioners  from  all  the  states,  to  alter 
the  articles  of  confederation  so  as  to  confer  upon  Congress  this  needed  power, 
and  to  make  such  other  alterations  ''  as  the  exigencies  of  the  Union  might 

The  request  for  the  calling  of  a  convention  by  Congress  was  granted  ;  and 
the  delegates  met  at  Philadelphia  on  the  second  Monday  of  May,  1787. 


There  was  soon  found  a  wide  difference  of  opinion  among  the  members 
respecting  the  plan  of  government  to  be  formed.  Some  wished  to  retain  the 
existing  plan  with  a  slight  enlargement  of  the  powers  of  Congress.  Others, 
instead  of  a  simple  confederation  of  equal  and  independent  states,  desired  a 
complete  national  government,  with  a  legislative,  an  executive,  and  a  judicial 
department — a  government  that  could  enforce  its  laws  upon  states  and  indi- 
viduals. A  resolution  in  favor  of  such  a  government  was  introduced.  It 
was  the  occasion  of  a  long,  earnest,  and,  at  times,  angry  debate,  which  came 
near  breaking  up  the  convention.  But  the  friends  of  a  national  government 
prevailed ;  and  a  plan,  of  which  Mr.  Madison  was  the  reputed  author,  was 
introduced  as  the  basis  of  action,  and  was  called  the  "  Virginia  plan."  Mr. 
Patterson,  of  New  Jersey,  presented  a  plan  in  accordance  with  the  views  of 
the  friends  of  the  confederation.  This  was  called  the  "  New  Jersey  plan." 
The  convention  had  not  proceeded  far  in  its  labors,  when  some  members  of 
the  defeated  party  left  the  convention  and  returned  to  their  homes.  The 
delegates  from  the  state  of  New  York  were  Alexander  Hamilton,  Robert 
Yates,  and  John  Lansing,  Jr.,  the  last  two  of  whom  were  among  the  depart- 
ing members.  Mr.  Hamilton  being  the  only  remaining  delegate  from  this 
state,  New  York  had  no  longer  a  vote  in  the  convention,  as  the  presence  of 
at  least  two  members  was  necessary  to  entitle  a  state  to  a  vote. 

We  have  now  come  to  the  origin  of  the  first  two  political  parties :  one  in 
favor  of  a  imion  of  sovereign,  independent  states ;  or,  as  it  has  sometimes  been 
called,  a  union  of  states  as  states ;  the  other,  in  favor  of  what  is  called  in  the 
preamble  to  the  constitution,  "  a  more  perfect  union  " — a  union  of  "  the  people 
of  the  United  States''  It  is  proper  to  here  correct  a  prevailing  error.  It 
is  generally  supposed  that,  from  the  beginning,  those  who  were  in  favor  of 
the  constitution,  were  called  federalists.  This  is  a  mistake.  Those  who,  in 
the  convention,  advocated  the  continuance  of  the  confederation,  were,  as  the 
word  itself  ira'pon^,  federalists,  and  were  distinguished  by  that  name  to  the 
close  of  the  convention,  and  for  some  time  afterwards  ;  and  the  friends  of  the 
constitution  were  termed  anti federalists.  But  while  the  constitution  was  be- 
fore the  people  for  ratification,  its  friends  came  to  be  called  federalists.  Al- 
though the  contemplated  government  was  national,  it  was  also  still  in  some 
sense,  or  to  some  extent,  a  confederacy.  And  as  the  articles  of  confederation 
were  too  weak  to  preserve  the  union,  the  anti-federalists,  believing  the  only 
way  to  perpetuate  the  confederacy  or  federal  union,  was  to  adopt  the  consti- 
tution, took  the  name  of  federalists.  And  by  this  name  they  and  their  fol- 
lowers and  successors  were  called  until  the  party  disbanded,  soon  after  the 
first  election  of  President  Monroe. 

Among  the  earliest  federalists  whose  names  are  familiar  to  the  American 
people,  were  George  Washington,  John  Adams,  James  Madison,  Alexander 
Hamilton,  John  Jay,  John  Marshall,  and  others.  Mr.  Madison,  however, 
soon  after  the  new  government  went  into  effect,  joined  the  opposite  party, 
though  not  on  account  of  any  change  of  views  in  relation  to  the  constitution. 

Notwithstanding  this  early  division  of  sentiment    Gen.  Washington  was 


unanimously  chosen  president  by  the  presidential  electors  ;  and  although  the 
leading  measures  of  his  administration  were  opposed  from  its  commence- 
ment, there  seems  to  have  been  for  several  years  no  organized  opposition 
party.     His  second  election,  like  the  first,  was  unanimous. 

The  earliest  measures  of  his  administration  which  received  material  oppo- 
sition were  his  financial  measures.  One  of  these  was  the  funding  of  the 
public  debt,  including  the  debts  of  the  states  contracted  during  the  war. 
Another  was  the  incorporation  of  a  national  bank,  in  1791.  His  foreign 
policy  also  encountered  much  opposition.  France  was  in  the  midst  of  a 
revolution.  In  the  war  of  Europe,  then  existing,  Great  Britain  and  France 
were  the  principal  belligerents.  Some  of  our  people  were  in  favor  of  taking 
part  with  France  against  Great  Britain  ;  but  Washington,  though  friendly  to 
France,  determined  to  maintain  a  strict  neutrality.  The  opponents  of  the 
federalists  at  length  took  the  name  of  the  republican  party,  and  obtained  con- 
trol of  the  government  after  the  expiration  of  the  presidential  term  of  John 
Adams,  having  elected  their  leader,  Thomas  Jefferson,  over  Mr.  Adams,  who 
was  a  candidate  for  reelection. 

These  were  the  two  national  parties  when  the  settlement  of  this  county 
commenced.  Thomas  Jefferson  had  taken  his  seat  in  the  presidential  chair, 
March  4,  1801,  for  whom  not  a  vote  had  been  cast  within  the  bounds  of  the 
present  county  of  Chautauqua ;  the  electors  by  whom  he  was  chosen  hav- 
ing been  elected  in  the  fall  of  1800.  Probably  there  was  not  a  vote  given 
for  his  reelection  in  1804,  by  any  settler  within  these  bounds.  The  town  of 
Chautauqua  had  been  formed  by  the  legislature  of  that  year,  but  no  election 
was  held  in  it  until  1805.  This  town  was  then  a  part  of  Genesee  county  : 
and  it  is  not  likely  that  any  one  of  the  few  settlers  then  here  made  a  journey 
of  eighty  or  ninety  miles  to  vote.  Besides,  there  was  not  among  them  one 
who  had  the  required  qualifications  of  property  and  term  of  residence  to 
vote  for  president,  if  the  election  had  been  at  his  own  door. 

One  of  the  causes — perhaps  the  principal  cause — of  the  unpopularity  and 
decline  of  the  federal  party,  was  the  passage  of  two  acts  during  Mr.  Adams' 
administration,  called  the  alien  and  sedition  laws.  The  alien  law,  entitled, 
"  An  act  concerning  aliens,''  authorized  the  president  to  order  out  of  the 
country  any  alien  suspected  of  any  treasonable  purpose,  or  deemed  danger- 
ous to  the  safety  of  the  country,  unless  satisfactory  proof  should  be  given 
that  no  injury  or  danger  should  arise  from  his  residing  here.  The  other  law 
was  entitled,  "  An  act  in  addition  to  '  an  act  for  the  punishment  of  certain 
crimes  against  the  United  States '" ;  but  it  was  generally  called  the  "sedi- 
tion law."  It  provided  for  punishing  persons  for  conspiring  to  oppose  any 
measure  of  the  government,  or  for  hindering  any  public  officer  in  discharging 
his  duties;  also  for  punishing  any  person  for  slandering  or  libeling  the 
government,  congress,  or  the  president.  Although  these  acts  were  well- 
intentioned,  and  approved  by  wise  and  good  men,  among  whom  were  Wash- 
ington and  Patrick  Henry,  as  being  necessary  to  check  the  influence  of 
numerous  meddlesome  foreigners  then  in  the  country,  who  were  active  in 


exciting  opposition  to  the  administration,  and  were  combined  in  organized 
associations  which  were  considered  dangerous  to  the  peace  of  the  United 
States  ;  they  were,  nevertheless,  disapproved  by  a  majority  of  the  people,  who 
regarded  them  as  infringements  upon  popular  rights,  especially  upon  the 
freedom  of  speech  and  of  the  press.  Hence,  to  render  the  act  against  sedi- 
tion the  more  odious,  its  opponents  gave  it  the  title  of  "  gig  law." 

These  laws  gave  rise  to  the  famed  "  Virginia  and  Kentucky  resolutions  of 
1798,"  which  were  for  more  than  half  a  century  referred  to  as  expressing  the 
principles  of  the  old  republican  party.  Those  passed  by  the  Virginia  legis- 
lature were  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Madison,  then  a  member.  They  declared  that 
the  constitution  was  a  compact,  to  which  the  states  were  parties,  granting 
limited  power? ;  that  in  case  of  a  deliberate,  palpable,  and  dangerous  exer- 
cise of  other  powers  not  granted,  it  was  the  right  and  duty  of  the  states  to 
interpose  for  arresting  the  progress  of  the  evil,  and  for  maintaining  the  rights 
of  the  states  within  their  respective  limits ;  and  that  the  alien  and  sedition 
laws  were  palpable  and  alarming  infractions  of  the  constitution. 

The  resolutions  of  the  Kentucky  legislature  were  drafted  by  Mr.  Jefferson. 
They  declared  the  Union  to  be  "a  compact  between  the  states  as  states ; 
that,  as  parties  to  this  compact  have  no  common  judge  or  superior,  each 
party  has  an  equal  right  to  judge  for  itself,"  of  the  constitutionality  of  a  law, 
"  as  well  as  of  the  mode  and  measure  of  redress." 

The  reader  who  recollects  the  action  of  the  convention  of  the  framers  of 
the  constitution,  as  given  on  preceding  pages,  will  be  surprised  at  the  declar- 
ation of  sentiments  like  those  expressed  in  the  above  resolutions.  The  idea 
of  a  confederation  of  states  as  states  was  rejected  by  the  convention.  Yet, 
after  the  lapse  of  only  ten  years,  the  most  eminent  statesmen  assert  that  the 
Union  is  a  compact  between  the  states  as  states.  Mr.  Madison,  the  head  or 
leader  of  the  party  in  favor  of  a  national  government  to  supersede  the  con- 
federation, which  was  a  union  of  states  as  states,  can  hardly  be  supposed  to 
have  intended  to  convey  the  impression  that  the  Union  was  a  compact 
between  the  states  as  such.  He  calls  it  "  a  compact  to  which  the  states  are 
parties."  He  may  have  meant  simply,  that,  in  the  ratification  of  the  con- 
stitution, the  people  of  each  state  acted  separately  by  state  conventions. 

The  Kentucky  resolutions  do  not  admit  of  so  favorable  a  construction.  It 
is  expressly  declared  that  there  is  no  higher  authority  than  that  of  a  state,  to 
judge  what  is  a  violation  or  "infraction"  of  the  constitution — thus  denying 
the  right  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  United  States  to  decide  questions  of 
constitutionality ;  and  claiming  the  right  to  nullify  any  act  of  Congress  which 
the  highest  state  court  shall  decide  unconstitutional.  It  must  seem  strange, 
especially  to  the  younger  class  of  our  citizens,  that  doctrines  like  the  above 
should  ever  have  been  so  explicitly  asserted,  and  so  extensively  accepted. 
Yet,  for  more  than  thirty  years,  "the  principles  of  1798"  were  regarded  as 
the  test  of  political  orthodoxy;  and  that  man's  chance  of  an  election  to 
an  important  office  was  small,  indeed,  who  could  not  avow  his  adherence  to 
the  doctrine  enunciated  in  the  resolutions  above  referred  to.     In  the  series 

lOU  hUblUKV    Vt    UilAUlAUyUA    UUUJNTY. 

of  resolutions  adopted  by  the  legislatures  of  these  states,  were  some  that 
are  unexceptionable.  Declaring  the  opinion  that  the  alien  and  sedition  laws 
were  unconstitutional  was  the  right  of  any  man  or  body  of  men.  But  a 
doctrine  that  a  law  is  null  and  void  before  it  has  been  so  pronounced  by  the 
highest  judicial  authority,  is  dangerous  and  disorganizing  in  its  tendency. 

The  doctrine  of  'state  sovereignty,  to  the  extent  asserted  by  the  Kentucky 
resolutions,  never  received  the  unanimous  assent  of  republican  statesmen. 
According  to  Mr.  Madison's  own  exposition  of  the  constitution,  not  the 
states,  as  states,  but  iht  people  of  the  several  states,  were  parties  to  the  com- 
pact ;  and  in  1830  he  expressly  repudiated  "nullification  as  a  right  remedy." 
So  also  President  Jackson,  in  his  proclamation  against  South  Carolina  in 
December,  1832,  denied  such  right,  and  maintained  the  doctrine  now  held 
by  American  statesmen  generally,  that,  instead  of  there  being  710  common 
judge,  it  is  the  prerogative  of  the  supreme  court  of  the  United  States  to  judge 
of  the  validity  of  the  acts  of  Congress.  If  every  state  might  disobey  any 
law  which  its  authorities  should  pronounce  unconstitutional,  no  general  gov- 
ernment could  be  maintained ;  secession  would  be  constitutional. 

The  transfer  of  power,  however,  from  the  federal  to  the  republican  party, 
was  not  followed  by  any  great  changes  of  policy.  The  alien  and  sedition 
laws  were  designed  only  to  have  a  temporary  eflfect ;  and  no  act  of  the  new 
administration  was  necessary  for  their  repeal.  The  alien  law  expired  by  its 
own  limitation,  June  25,  1800;  the  sedition  act,  on  the  4th  of  March,  1801, 
the  day  of  Mr.  Jefferson's  induction  into  office. 

During  our  commercial  controversy  with  France  and  Great  Britain,  prior 
to  and  during  the  war  between  the  latter  and  the  United  States,  the  hostility 
of  the  two  parties  toward  each  other  was  probably  more  marked  than  at  any 
other  period.  The  federalists  were  generally  opposed  to  the  declaration  of 
war,  the  causes  being  in  their  view  insufficient  to  justify  a  war.  The  repub- 
licans maintained  the  justice  and  propriety  of  the  war,  and  charged  their 
opponents  with  hostility  to  their  own  country,  and  sympathy  with  the  enemy. 

Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugus  counties,  it  will  be  recollected,  were,  for 
several  years  from  the  time  of  their  formation,  united,  for  judicial  and  other 
purposes,  with  Niagara,  which  then  comprised  the  present  counties  of 
Niagara  and  Erie.  And  after  they  had  become  fully  organized  with  the 
requisite  population,  [Chautauqua  in  1811,]  they  formed  but  one  assembly 
district  until  1822.  It  will  be  recollected,  too,  that  until  after  the  adoption 
of  the  constitution  of  1821,  the  general  elections  for  the  election  of  other 
than  town  officers,  were  held  on  the  last  Tuesday  in  April. 

On  the  14th  of  April,  1812,  the  federalists  of  this  assembly  district  met  at 
Buffalo ;  and  on  the  next  day  they  nominated  for  the  assembly,  Abel  M. 
Grosvenor,  of  Buffalo.  The  committees  of  the  two  towns  then  composing 
this  county,  were  the  following  : 

Pom/ret — Jacob  Houghton,  John  ^  E.  Howard,  Ozias  Hart,  Orsamus 
Holmes,  James  Hale,  Daniel  Warren;  Samuel  Sinclear,  Foster  Young, 
Isaac  Barnes. 


Chautauqua — James  McMahan,  Anselm  Potter,  Dennis  Brackett,  Wm. 
Berry,  Thomas  Prendergast,  Thomas  McClintock. 

Having  no  account  of  any  nominating  republican  convention,  we  can 
only  give  the  name  of  the  candidate  of  that  party,  Jonas  Williams,  who  had 
a  majority  in  the  district. 

In  the  same  year,  [1812,]  Messrs.  Hopkins  and  Howell,  federal  candidates 
for  Congress,  received  in  this  county  a  majority  of  47  votes. 

On  the  3d  of  November,  1812,  a  meeting  of  the  "Friends  of  Liberty, 
Peace,  and  Commerce,"  as  the  anti-war  men  called  themselves,  held  a  meet- 
ing at  David  Joy's,  in  Buffalo.  (?)  Jacob  Houghton,  chairman  ;  Anselm  Pot- 
ter, secretary.  Resolutions  were  adopted  disapproving  the  administrations 
of  Jefferson  and  Madison.  A  committee  of  correspondence  was  appointed, 
consisting  of  Orsamus  Holmes,  Samuel  Sinclear,  Anselm  Potter,  James  Mont- 
gomery, Jacob  Houghton,  James  McMahan,  and  Foster  Young.  The  meet- 
ing concurred  in  recommendations  previously  made  in  other  places,  for  a 
state  convention  to  be  held  at  Albany. 

On  the  23d  of  December,  1812,  a  county  meeting  of  the  republicans  was 
held  at  John  Scott's,  in  Mayville ;  Matthew  Prendergast,  chairman  ; 
John  Dexter,  secretary.  Resolutions  were  adopted  declaring  the  justice  of 
the  war  and  the  purpose  to  sustain  it.  Names  of  delegates,  and  of  the  mem- 
bers of  a  committee,  if  appointed,  are  not  given. 

On  the  17th  of  March,  18 13,  another  county  meeting  of  delegates  of  the 
friends  of  "  Liberty,  Peace,  and  Commerce"  was  held  in  Pomfret;  Thomas 
Martin,  chairman ;  Isaac  Pierce,  secretary.  Jacob  Houghton  was  nomi- 
nated for  the  assembly.     Committees  to  promote  the  election : 

Chautauqua — Thomas  Prendergast,  Jabez  Hurlbut,  Elisha  Wallis,  James 
Montgomery,  David  Eaton,  Asa  Hall,  Henry  Sartwell.  Ellkotl — James 
Prendergast.  Gerry — Samuel  Sinclear,  Robert  W.  Seaver,  Wm.  Devine, 
Abm.  Windsor.  Pomfret — Orsamus  Holmes,  Elijah  Risley,  Jr.,  Ozias  Hart, 
Isaac  Pierce,  Thomas  Martin,  Andrew  Bates,  Rodolphus  Loomis.  Hanover 
— John  E.  Howard,  John  Mack,  Bethel  Willoughby,  Guy  Webster,  Cushing 
Brownell,  Abel  Flint. 

The  republicans  of  the  asserftbly  district  met  at  St.  John's,  in  Buffalo,  pre- 
vious to  the  April  election  in  1813;  David  Eddy,  chairman;  John  Root, 
secretary.  Jonas  Williams  was  nominated  for  the  assembly.  Committee  in 
Chautauqua  county  : 

Pomfret — Zattu  Cushing,  Philo  Orton,  Jehiel  Moore,  Eliphalet  Day.  Chau- 
tauqua— David  Eason,  Wm.  Peacock,  M.  Prendergast,  John  E.  Marshall, 
John  Scott. 

The  majority  for  Gov.  Daniel  D.  Tompkins  in  this  county  was  57  ;  for 
Jonas  Williams,  — .  It  was  said  many  votes  were  admitted  for  governor  and 
senators  from  persons  only  holding  articles  for  land  ;  whereas,  by  the  old  con- 
stitution, none  but  freeholders  to  the 'value  of  $250,  could  vote  for  those 

April  4,  1814,  at  a  republican  convention  held  at  Buffalo,  Joseph  McCluer,. 


of  Cattaraugus  Co.,  was  nominated  for  the  assembly.  Philetus  Swift,  of  On- 
tario Co.;  Bennett  Bicknell,  of  Madison  Co.;  and  John  J.  Prendergast,  of 
Herkimer  Co.,  were  candidates  in  the  western  district  for  the  senate.  Peter 
B.  Porter,  of  Niagara,  and  Micah  Brooks,  of  Ontario,  were  candidates  for 

The  federalists  nominated  this  year  for  the  assembly,  Elijah  Holt,  of  Buf- 
falo. This  nomination  was  confirmed  at  a  meeting  in  this  county  held  in 
Pomfret,  April  nth.  Samuel  Sinclear,  chairman;  D.  Sterne  Houghton, 

In  1815,  the  republicans  nominated  Daniel  McCleary,  of  Buffalo,  and 
Elias  Osborn,  of  Clarence,  for  the  assembly.  The  federalists  nominated 
James  Prendergast,  of  Chautauqua,  and  Daniel  Chapin,  of  Buffalo.  There 
was  this  year  a  small  federal  majority  in  this  county.  The  district  was 

Parties   in  New  York.. 

Next  in  the  order  of  the  birth  of  parties  which  divided  the  people  of  this 
county,  were  the  Bucktaih  and  the  Clintonians.  These,  however,  were  not 
national  parties,  but  were  confined  to  the  state  of  New  York.  Hostilities 
between  the  two  old  parties  had  ceased,  if,  indeed,  they  could  be  said  to 
have  an  existence.  The  federalists  had,  by  their  opposition  to  the  war, 
become  quite  unpopular.  Their  weakness  may  be  imagined  from  the  presi- 
dential election  of  1816.  Of  the  presidential  electors  chosen  that  year,  Mr. 
Monroe  received  183,  and  Rufus  King,  the  federal  candidate,  but  34.  Mr. 
Monroe  received  for  reelection,  213  of  the  214  votes  cast  by  the  electors, 
there  being  no  longer  any  federal  organization.  In  April,  1820,  about  the 
time  of  the  election,  forty-eight  of  the  leading  federalists  published  a  mani- 
festo, in  which  they  assigned  their  reasons  for  dissolving  their  connection 
with  the  party,  and  changing  their  party  relations.  Being  gentlemen  of  high 
respectability,  they  were  long  spoken  of  as  the  "  forty-eight  high-minded.'' 
Most  of  them,  if  not  all,  joined  the  bucktails.  The  rank  and  file  of  the 
federalists,  having  been  deserted  by  their  leaders,  felt  at  liberty  to  go  where 
they  pleased.  Some  of  them  followed  their  leaders ;  others  attached  them- 
selves to  the  fortunes  of  De  Witt  Clinton. 

Mr.  Clinton  was  an  early  and  ardent  republican,  and  a  man  of  great  ability  ; 
and,  having  taken  an  early  and  decided  stand  in  favor  of  the  construction 
of  the  canals,  which  made  him  popular,  especially  in  the  western  part  of  the 
state,  he  had  become  the  head  and  leader  of  a  strong  party,  called  Clintoni- 
ans. The  origin  of  the  name  of  the  other  party  is  not  so  well  known.  Hon. 
Samuel  A.  Brown,  in  a  public  lecture  at  Jamestown,  in  1843,  gave  it  as 
follows : 

"  In  the  city  of  New  York,  a  political  party  had  existed  for  many  years,  by 
the  name  of  the  Tammany  Society,  so  called  in  honor  of  a  noted  Indian 
chief.  These  Tammanies  erected  Tammany  Hall,  or  the  wigwam,  as  they 
sometimes  called  it  This  society  had  its  auxiliaries  throughout  the  state  ; 
and  its  influence  was  felt  even  in  Chautauqua.     They  called  their  officers  by 


aboriginal  names,  and  on  festival  days  wore  the  Indian  costume,  and  among 
other  peculiarities,  wore  a  real  buck's  fail  on  the  hat." 

We  have  in  these  local  political  conflicts  a  striking  illustration  of  the 
mutability  of  party  associations.  In  181 2,  as  has  been  stated,  having  been 
an  unwavering  republican,  and  a  thorough-going  friend  and  advocate  of  a 
war  with  Great  Britain,  Mr.  Clinton  was  nominated  as  a  candidate  for  presi- 
dent by  the  republican  members  of  the  legislature  of  this  state,  under  the 
leadership  of  Martin  Van  Buren,  Samuel  Young,  and  others ;  now  [1820] 
we  find  two  parties,  composed  alike  of  republicans  and  federalists,  arrayetf 
against  each  other,  the  one  under  the  lead  of  Mr.  Clinton  ;  the  other  under 
that  of  Mr.  Van  Buren. 

Mr.  Clinton,  who  had  been  elected  governor  in  1817,  without  any  material 
opposition,  in  the  place  of  Mr.  Tompkins,  elected  vice-president  of  the 
United  States,  was  nominated,  in  1820,  for  reelection;  and  Mr.  Tompkins, 
whose  official  term  as  vice  president  was  near  its  close,  was  nominated  by  the 
bucktails.  A  spirited  contest  ensued,  which  resulted  in  the  election  of  Mr. 
Clinton.  He  received  47,447  vot|s  in  the  state;  Mr.  Tompkins,  45,990 — 
majority  for  Clinton,  1,457.  In  this  county,  Clinton,  744;  Tompkins,  455 
— Clinton's  majority,  289.  The  light  vote  is  accounted  for  by  the  fact,  that 
only  freeholders  were  entitled  to  vote  for  governor  and  senators  under  the 
first  constitution  of  the  state.  Mr.  Clinton  held  the  office  but  two  years  of 
the  three  years  for  which  he  was  elected.  His  term  commenced  the  ist  of 
January,  1821.  A  new  constitution,  made  the  same  year,  required  the  elec- 
tion of  new  officers  the  next  year,  when  Joseph  C.  Yates  was  elected,  who 
caune  into  office  the  ist  of  January,  1823. 

In  a  review  of  the  manifesto,  or  address  of  the  "  forty-eight  high-mipded  " 
federalists,  Mr.  Hammond,  in  his  Political  History  of  New  York,  notices 
them  substantially  thus  : 

"  They  affirm  that  the  federal  party  whose  principles  they  approve,  no 
longer  exists.  They  approve  the  administration  of  the  general  government ; 
affirm  that  the  federalists  have  now  '  no  ground  of  principle,'  on  which  to 
stand  ;  and  therefore  declare  their  intention  to  unite  with  the  great  republican 
party  of  the  state  and  Union.  They  do  not  object  to  the  character  or 
measures  of  Mr.  Clinton,  but  allege  that  he  is  attempting  to  form  '  a  personal 
party.'  The  absurdity  of  the  address  appears  from  the  fact,  that  Mr.  Van 
Buren  and  his  friends  also  approved  his  measures,  and  admitted  his  talents 
and  virtues,  but  opposed  him  solely  because  t\i&  federal  party  did  exist  in  the 
state,  and  that  Mr.  Clinton  was  secretly  inclined  to  favor  it ;  yet  the  high- 
minded  gentlemen  opposed  him  because,  as  they  alleged,  the  federal  party 
did  not  exist;  and  they  joined  the  party  that  held  the  contrary  position.  *  * 
The  anti-Clintonian  party,  which  now  fairly  deserved  to  be  called  the  repub- 
Ucan  party,  succeeded  in  electing  a  majority  of  the  members  of  assembly, 
and  in  two  of  the  senatorial  districts ;  notwithstanding  which,  Mr.  Clinton 
was  reelected  by  a  majority  of  1,457  votes." 

The  election  of  Mr.  Clinton,  while  a  majority  of  the  legislature  elected 
were  his  political  opponents,  was  ascribed  to  the  misfortune  of  Mr.  Tompkins 
in  having  lost,  or  having  never  taken,  vouchers  for  large  sums  of  money 


which  were  disbursed  by  him  while  governor,  during  the  war,  and  for  which 
he  was  unable  to  account.  Although  it  was  generally  believed  he  had 
appropriated  no  portion  of  the  money  fraudulently  to  his  own  use,  his  in- 
ability to  account  for  all  the  moneys,  was  turned  by  his  opponents  to  his 
disadvantage.  But  what  probably  contributed  rqost  to  Mr.  Clinton's  own 
success,  was  his  able,  zealous,  and  uniform  support  of  the  canal  policy.  This 
gained  for  him  a  strong  vote  in  the  counties  most  directly  interested  in  the 
completion  of  the  canals. 

,  By  the  election  of  Gov.  Yates,  the  party  opposed  to  Gov.  Clinton  had  ob- 
tained entire  control  of  the  state  government,  and  doubtless  anticipated  a  long 
and  uninterrupted  possession  of  it.  They  could,  soon  after  their  accession  to 
power,  have  had  no  premonition  of  the  political  reverse  which  awaited  them. 
The  presidential  election  of  1824  was  approaching.  The  federal  party  was 
defunct ;  and  there  were  no  questions  of  national  policy  to  divide  the  repub- 
licans. In  the  selection  of  candidates,  they  were  simply  divided  upon  men. 
Many  were  named  as  candidates  \  but  the  number  was  diminished  to  four : 
John  Quincy  Adams,  Henry  Clay,  William  H.  Crawford,  and  Andrew 
Jackson.  It  had  been  the  practice  fronf  and  including  the  year  1804,  for 
the  republican  members  of  Congress  to  meet  during  the  last  session  prior  to 
the  next  presidential  election,  to  nominate  candidates  for  president  and  vice- 
president.  These  congressional  caucuses  had  at  length  become  unpopular 
with  the  party.  The  meeting  in  1824  was  held  on  the  14th  of  February. 
Of  the  258  republican  members,  only  68  attended.  Of  the  votes  of  these, 
William  H.  Crawford  received  64. 

The  presidential  electors  were  not  chosen  then  as  now,  in  this  state,  by  a 
general  ticket,  and  voted  for  by  the  people ;  but  they  were  chosen  by  the 
legislaftire.  Mr.  Van  Buren  was  in  favor  of  the  election  of  Mr.  Crawford ; 
and  it  was  apprehended  that  he  might  influence  a  majority  of  the  members 
to  vote  for  electors  in  favor  of  Mr.  Crawford.  To  prevent  this,  a  bill  was 
introduced  in  the  legislatute  of  1824,  proposing  to  give  to  th^ people  the  right 
to  choose  the  electors^  of  president  and  vice-president.  And  notwithstanding 
a  large  majority  of  the  members  of  the  assembly  were  republicans,  the 
"  electoral  bill "  passed  that  house,  and  was  sent  to  the  senate  for  concur- 
rence, where  it  was  defeated  by  a  vote  of  17  to  14.  It  should  be  stated, 
that  the  question  of  changing  the  mode  of  choosing  the  electors  was 
agitated  before  the  election  of  the  members  of  the  legislature  in  the  fall  of 
1823;  and  that  a  large  portion  of  them  were  pledged  to  vote  for  the  pro- 
posed change.  The  republicans  who  were  opposed  to  Mr.  Crawford,  to  a 
congressional  caucus,  and  to  Mr.  Van  Buren  and  the  Albany  Regency, 
assumed  to  themselves  the  name  of  the  "  People's  Party."  [Albany  Regency 
was  a  name  given  to  'the  leaders  of  the  democratic  party  at  Albany.] 

The  defeat  of  the  electoral  bill  caused  such  a  popular  excitement  as  has 
rarely  been  witnessed  in  this  state.  The  seventeen  senators  who  voted 
against  the  bill  were  the  particular  objects  of  the  displeasure  of  the  friends 
of  the  bill;  and  to  render  them  as  odious  as  possible,  their  names  were 


published  in  the  newspapers,  and  surrounded  by  heavy  black  lines.     They 
were  for  years  spoken  of  as  the  "  infamous  seventeen." 

The  opposition  to  the  electoral  law  was  one  of  the  acts  of  the  dominant 
party  which  brought  upon  it  the  "  reverses  "  before  alluded  to.  Another  act 
having  a  similar  effect,  soon  followed.  On  the  last  day  of  the  session,  and 
within  about  an  hour  before  the  time  fixed  for  the  adjournment  of  both 
houses,  a  senator  introduced  a  resolution  for  the  removal  of  De  Witt  Clinton 
from  the  office  of  canal  commissioner.  The  resolution  was  hurried  to  its 
passage,  and  received  the  votes  of  all  the  senators  except  three.  It  was 
forthwith  sent  to  the  assembly,  where  it  was  passed  hastily  by  a  vote  of  64 
to  34.  Mr.  Clinton  had  taken  early  ground  in  favor  of  the  canal  policy  against 
a  powerful  opposition,  and  had  aided  in  bringing  the  Erie  canal  near  its  com- 
pletion, and  had  served  faithfully  as  commissioner  from  18 10,  fourteen  years, 
without  any  compensation.  It  was  evident  that  the  object  was  to  degrade 
him,  and  to  weaken  or  destroy  his  political  influence.  This  act  caused  an 
excitement  throughout  the  state  more  intense  than  did  the  defeat  of  the 
electoral  law.  Public  meetings  were  held  in  many  places,  and  resolutions 
passed  denouncing  the  act  in  the  most  severe  terms. 

The  removal  of  Mr.  Clinton  had  an  effect  the  opposite  of  that  which  was 
designed.  At  a  state  convention  of  t\\e  people's  party,  in  the  city  of  Utica,  in 
September,  1824,  Mr.  Clinton  was  nominated  for  governor,  and  James  Tall- 
madge  for  lieutenant-governor.  Mr.  T.  was  a  member  of  the  assembly,  and 
had  ably  and  zealously  supported  the  electoral  bill,  but  he  had  voted  for  the 
removal  of  Mr.  Clinton.  In  November,  Mr.  Clinton  was  elected  by  a 
majority  of  16,906  over  Samuel  Young;  and  Gen.  Tallmadge's  majority  over 
Gen.  Erastus  Root  was  32,409.  In  this  county,  Mr.  Chnton  received  1,483 
votes;  Mr.  Young,  1,093 — majority,  390.  Nathan  Mixer  was  elected  mem- 
ber of  assembly  for  this  county. 

In  1826,  Mr.  Clinton  was  renominated  for  governor,  and  Henry  Hunting- 
ton for  lieutenant-governor;  and  in  opposition  to  them  were  Wm.  B.  Roches- 
ter and  Nathaniel  Pitcher.  In  respect  to  national  parties,  these  candidates 
were  strangely  divided.  The  four  candidates  for  president,  it  will  be  recol- 
lected, were  all  republicans;  and,  so  far  as  we  may  judge  from  the  discussion 
of  their  claims  respectively  during  the  campaign  of  1824,  they  were  not 
materially  divided  on  measures  of  national  policy.  Almost  immediately 
after  the  commencement  of  Mr.  Adams'  administration,  an  organized  opposi- 
tion to  it  was  formed,  by  the  union  of  the  friends  of  the  defeated  candidates, 
Crawford  and  Jackson,  and  those  of  Mr.  Calhoun,  the  vice-president  Mr. 
Clinton  was  one  of  the  earliest  supporters  of  Gen.  Jackson,  when  Mr.  Van 
Buren,  the  leader  of  the  opposition  to  the  Clintonians,  was  strongly  opposed 
to  him ;  the  great  organ  of  the  party  declaring  him,  "  of  all  the  candidates, 
the  most  unfit  for  the  office  of  president."  Yet,  in  1826,  we  see  the  party 
supporting  for  governor  a  candidate  opposed  to  Gen.  Jackson,  on  a  ticket 
with  a  candidate  for  lieutenant-governor  in  favor  of  Gen.  Jackson.  Mr. 
Clinton  was  elected  by  a  majority  of  3,650  votes  over  Judge  Rochester  : 


and  Mr.  Pitcher  by  a  majority  of  4,188  over  Mr.  Huntington.  This  result, 
however,  is  said  to  have  been  owing,  in  some  measure,  to  Mr.  Clinton's 
having  favored  the  construction  of  a  state  road  through  the  southern  coun- 
ties, some  of  which,  though  anti-Clintonian,  gave  him  majorities.  In  Chau- 
tauqua county,  Clinton  received  1,839  votes;  Rochester,  1,612.  February 
II,  1828,  less  than  eleven  months  before  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  office, 
Mr.  Clinton  died  suddenly,  sitting  in  his  chair,  of  apoplexy ;  and  Nathaniel 
Pitcher  became  the  acting-governor. 

In  1828,  by  the  union  of  the  friends  of  Jackson,  Crawford  and  Calhoun, 
Mr.  Adams  and  Gen.  Jackson  became  the  only  candidates  for  president.  Of 
the  presidential  electors  chosen,  178  were  in  favor  of  Gen.  Jackson,  and  83 
for  Mr.  Adams.  John  C.  Calhoun  was  reelected  vice-president,  having 
received  171  of  the  electoral  votes;  Richard  Rush,  83  ;  and  Wm.  Smith,  of 
South  Carolina,  7. 

After  the  dissolution  of  the  federal  party,  there  were  no  two  national  par- 
ties known  by  distinctive  names,  until  after  the  election  of  Mr.  Adams. 
They  were  for  a  time  distinguished  as  the  Adams,  or  administration  party, 
and  Jackson,  or  opposition  party.  But  the  latter  soon  assumed  the  name  of 
the  democratic  party,  which  name  the  organization  has  borne  to  the  present 
time.  The  Adams  party  became  known  as  the  national  republican  party. 
This  name  was  retained  until  after  the  presidential  election  of  1832,  when  a 
union  was  formed  with  the  anti-masons,  under  the  name  of  whigs,  and  by 
which  name  it  was  known  during  the  remainder  of  its  existence,  which  termi- 
nated with  the  formation  of  the  present  republican  party,  in  1855,  whose 
leading  object  was  to  oppose  the  further  extension  of  slavery. 

Anti-Masonic  Party. 

In  the  month  of  September,  1826,  an  event  occurred  which  sensibly 
affected  the  people  of  this  county  in  their  social,  civil,  and  religious  associa- 
tions. William  Morgan,  of  Batavia,  Genesee  county,  having  written  for 
publication  a  work  alleged  to  contain  a  disclosure  of  the  secrets  of  free- 
masonry, and  which  was  about  to  be  issued  from  the  press  of  David  C. 
Miller,  in  that  village,  was  apprehended  on  a  criminal  process,  and  conveyed 
to  Canandaigua,  Ontario  county,  where,  upon  examination  before  a  magistrate, 
he  was  discharged.  He  was  subsequently,  the  same  day,  taken  for  debt ; 
judgment  was  rendered  against  him  ;  and  he  was  confined  in  the  county  jail. 
[Debtors  being  then  liable  to  imprisonment  in  case  of  non-payment  of  a 
judgment.]  On  the  evening  of  the  12th  of  September,  persons  concerned  in 
his  seFzure  and  confinement,  discharged  the  debt,  and  caused  his  liberation. 
On  leaving  the  jail,  he  was  forcibly  taken,  and  carried  in  a  close  carriage  to 
the  Niagara  frontier,  where  he  was  last  seen  ;  and,  as  some  alleged,  he  was 
murdered  on  the  night  of  the  14th  of  September. 

At  the  next  session  pf  the  legislature,  petition*  relating  to  the  abduction  of 
Morgan  were  presented,  and  referred  to  a  select  committee  of  the  assembly ; 
and  a  reward  of  $1,000  was  offered  by  Gov.  Clinton,  for  the  discovery  of 


Moi'gan  if  alive  ;  and  if  murdered,  $2,000  for  the  discovery  of  the  offender  or 
offenders  ;  and  a  free  pardon  to  any  accomplice  or  cooperator  who  should 
make  the  discovery. 

Bills  of  indictment  were  found  against  several  persons  who  had  participated 
in  the  abduction  ;  two  of  whom  were  convicted,  and  sentenced  to  imprison- 
ment in  the  county  jail ;  one  for  two  years  and  four  months  ;  the  other,  for 
one  year  and  three  months.  The  former  was  the  sheriff  of  Niagara  county, 
who,  as  a  witness  on  the  trial  of  the  latter,  testified  that  he  had  been  apprised 
several  days  previously  of  the  coming  of  Morgan,  and  had  been  requested  to 
prepare  a  cell  for  him  in  the  Niagara  county  jail  at  Lockport.  It  was  proved 
that  Morgan  was  conveyed  to  Lewiston  blind-folded  in  a  covered  carriage, 
which  was  kept  closed.  From  Lewiston  he  was  taken  in  another  carriage  to 
the  ferry  near  Fort  Niagara.  Witness  and  four  others  crossed  with  him  into 
Canada  in  the  night ;  their  object  being  to  get  him  away  from  Miller  into  the 
interior  of  Canada,  and  place  him  on  a  farm.  The  preparation  not  having 
been  made  for  his  reception,  he  was  brought  back  to  this  side  of  the  river,  to 
wait  a  few  days,  and  was  put  into  the  magazine  of  the  fort ;  since  which  the 
witness  had  not  seen  him. 

The  publication  of  Morgan's  book  was  followed  by  that  of  others,  claim- 
ing to  be  true  revelations  of  the  secrets  of  masonry ;  and  many  masons 
seceded  from  the  institution,  and  confirmed  the  published  statements  con- 
cerning its  ceremonies,  oaths  and  obligations,  some  of  which  were  deemed 
inconsistent  with  their  civil  duties.  Those  who  believed  that  members  who 
held  their  civil  obligations  subordinate  to  their  obligations  to  each  other, 
considered  free-masons  unfit  to  hold  office.  Those  who  thus  believed,  soon 
united  in  the  formation  and  support  of  a.  party  on  the  single  principle  of  oppo- 
sition to  masonry ;  and  in  1828,  the  year  of  the  next  gubernatorial  election, 
an  anti-masonic  candidate — Solomon  Southwick,  of  Albany — was  nominated 
for  governor.  The  two  national  parties  then  were  the  national  republicans, 
supporters  of  John  Quincy  Adams  and  his  administration,  and  the  other,  the 
friends  of  Andrew  Jackson,  who  were  opposed  to  the  party  in  power,  and  soon 
after  took  the  name  of  the  democratic  party.  Martin  Van  Buren,  the  Jack- 
son candidate  for  governor,  received  136,794  votes ;  Smith  Thompson,  the 
Adams  candidate,  106,444;  arid  Solomon  Southwick,  33,345.  The  organi- 
zation of  the  anti-masons  as  a  political  party  may  be  considered  to  have  been 
at  this  time  about  complete. 

It  is  believed  that,  at  the  time  of  the  abduction  of  Morgan,  no  paper  in 
this  county  was  published  by  a  mason.  After  the  fact  of  the  murder  had 
become  established,  all  information  on  the  subject  deemed  authentic  was 
published.  The  papers  which,  in  this  county,  first  supported  the  new  politi- 
cal organization,  were  ^e.  Jamestown  Journal,  published  by  Adolphus  Fletcher, 
and  edited  by  Abner  Hazeltine ;  and  the  Western  Star,  published  and  edited 
by  Harvey  Newcomb,  Westfield.  The  excitement  became  intense.  In 
Western  New  York,  the  two  previously  existing  parties  were  almost  broken 
up,  and  many  churches  were  divided.    ISfot  long  after  the  publication  of 


Morgan's  Illustrations  of  Masonry,  Rev.  David  Bernard,  then  of  Geflesee 
county,  published  his  Light  on  Masonry.  And  masons  in  many  parts  of  the 
country,  seceded  from  the  organizations.  The  progress  of  the  institution 
was  arrested,  and  in  a  few  years  nearly  all  the  lodges  suspended  operations. 

In  1826,  Judge  Foote  and  Nathan  Mixer  were  nominated  as  bucktails  for 
the  assembly ;  Samuel  A.  Brown  and  Philo  Orton  as  Clintonians.  The  votes 
were,  for  Foote,  2,312;  for  Mixer,  1,619;  fo^"  Brown,  1,696;  for  Orton, 
1,197.  It  is  not  likely  that  voting  was  materially  affected,  at  this  election, 
by  the  anti-masonic  excitement.  Mr.  Brown,  on  account  of  some  local  ques- 
tion, ran  ahead  of  his  colleague,  [Orton,]  and  was  elected.  Thus  James- 
town had  both  the  members,  who  were  of  opposite  politics.  De  Witt  Clin- 
ton received  1,839  votes  for  governor;  Wm.  B.  Rochester,  1,612. 

In  1827,  the  anti-masons  nominated  for  the  assembly.  Col.  Nathaniel 
Fenton  and  Nathan  Mixer,  who  received  respectively  2,192  and  2,332  votes. 
The  bucktail  candidates,  James  Mullett  and  Thomas  A.  Osborne,  received 
1,232  and  1,101  votes.  In  1828,  the  anti-masonic  votes  for  assemblymen 
were,  for  Abner  Hazeltine,  2,056;  for  Nathan  Mixer,  2,091.  The  votes  for 
the  Jackson  candidates  were,  for  Joseph  White,  1,458  ;  for  John  McAlister, 
1,158.  James  Hall  and  John  Crain,  candidates  on  a  third  ticket,  received 
respectively,  1,091  and  936.  For  governor,  Solomon  Southwick,  [anti-mason,] 
received  in  this  county  1,783  votes;  Martin  Van  Buren,  [Jackson,  or  demo- 
cratic,] 1,520  ;  and  Smith  Thompson,  [administration,  or  national  republican,] 
1,135.  Ifi  1829,  Abner  Hazeltine  and  Squire  White,  anti-masons,  received 
2,461  and  2,502  votes;  Horace  Allen  and  Benjamin  Walworth,  democrats, 
(though  neither  was  a  mason,)  1,835  ^-^^d  1,837  votes.  The  Eighth  senate 
district  gave  an  anti-masonic  majority  of  over  13,000.  In  1830,  Francis 
Granger  and  Samuel  Stevens,  anti-masons,  were  candidates  for  governor  and 
lieutenant-governor,  against  Enos  T.  Throop  and  Edward  Livingston,  demo- 
crats. Granger  received  3,470  votes,  and  Stevens  3,454.  Throop  received 
1,854,  and  Livingston  1,855.  Foi"  assembly,  John  Birdsall  and  Squire 
White,  anti-masons,  received  3,403  and  3,387  votes ;  and  Elial  T.  Foote  and 
Ernest  Mullett,  democrats,  received  1,958  and  1,884  votes.  Every  town  in 
the  county  gave  an  anti-masonic  majority,  except  EUicott,  Judge  Foote 
having  a  majority  of  19  over  the  highest  anti-masonic  candidate.  Gov. 
Throop's  majority  in  the  state  was  8,481."  In  the  Eighth  senate  district  the 
anti-masonic  majority  was  about  13,000  ;  in  the  Seventh  district,  about  2,000 ; 
in  the  Sixth,  about  1,000.  In  1831,  Squire  White  and  Theron  Bly,  anti- 
masons,  were  elected  without  opposition. 

In  1832,  Granger  and  Stevens  were  again  nominated  by  the  anti-masons 
for  governor  and  lieutenant-governor ;  also  a  full  presidential  electoral  ticket. 
And  at  a  national  convention,  William  Wirt  and  Amos  Ellmaker  were  nom- 
inated as  candidates  for  president  and  vice-president.  The  national  repub- 
lican convention  at  Utica,  nominated  Ambrose  Spencer  for  president,  and  the 
anti-masonic  electoral  ticket  and  state  candidates.  The  object  of  the  coa- 
lition probably  was  to  elect  Mr.  Clay  president,  the  anti-masonic  state  ticket, 


and  a  union  legislature.  Wm.  L.  Marcy,  democrat,  was  elected  governor  by 
a  majority  of  9,733;  John  Tracy,  lieutenant-governor,  by  about  the  same 
majority,  and  the  whole  Jackson  electoral  ticket.  The  anti-masonic  electoral 
ticket  had  a  majority  of  1,717  in  Chautauqua  county;  John  Griffin,  for 
senator,  1,637  ;  Alvin  Plumb  and  Nathaniel  Gray,  for  assembly,  about  1,600 
over  Albert  H.  Camp  and  Robertson  Whiteside.  Abner  Hazeltine  for 
Congress,  1,580  majority.  In  1833,  James  Hall  and  Thomas  A.  Osborne, 
democrats,  were  elected  over  Waterman  Ellsworth  and  Austin  Smith,  anti- 
masons.  Albert  H.  Tracy  was  reelected  state  senator  over  Judge  John  H. 
Jones,  by  only  165  majority — the  only  one  out  of  the  eight  elected.  Of 
the  128  members  of  assembly  elected,  104  were  democrats. 

The  union  of  the  anti-masons  and  national  republicans,  in  1832,  termi- 
nated the  existence  of  the  anti-masonic  party.  The  coalition  was  not  an 
unnatural  or  a  strange  one.  The  national  republicans  were  striving  to  regain 
political  supremacy,  and  to  restore  the  policy  which  had  characterized  the 
administration  of  Mr.  Adams  ;  and  knowing  a  large  majority  of  the  anti-masons 
to  be  in  favor  of  that  policy,  they  desired  the  alliance.  The  masons  having 
been  quieted,  and  their  lodge  meetings  generally  having  been  suspended, 
the  anti-masons  saw  no  necessity  for  continuing  their  organization,  and  quite 
naturally  consented  to  the  proposed  union. 

The  anti-masonic  party  owed  much  of  its  strength  to  the  aid  of  Thurlow 
Weed,  of  the  Albany  Journal.  Mr.  Weed  had  for  some  time  conducted  an 
anti-masonic  paper  at  Rochester.  The  Journal  was  established  early  in 
March,  1830,  by  Packard,  Hoffman  8z:  White,  (or  two  of  them,)  who  placed 
its  editorial  control  in  the  hands  of  Mr.  Weed,  who  continued  to  occupy  the 
position  of  editor-in-chief  during  the  remaining  two  and  a  half  years  of  the 
anti-masonic  period,  and  the  entire  period  of  the  existence  of  the  whig  party. 
Soon  after  the  union  of  the  national  republican  and  anti-masonic  parties,  the 
organization  took  the  name  of  whig^  which  it  retained  until  the  formation  of 
the  republican  party. 

The  American  Party. 

Several  attempts  have  been  made  to  weaken  or  destroy  the  political  influence 
of  foreigners  in  this  country.  It  was  held  that  persons  educated  in  monarchical 
countries ;  those  who  have  in  their  native  land  enjoyed  scanty  educational 
advantages ;  and  especially  those  who  have  been  reared  under  papal  in- 
fluences, were  unsafe  depositaries  of  political  power,  after  so  short  a  proba- 
tion as  our  laws  prescribe.  They  held  that  the  required  term  of  residence, 
previous  to  their  full  admission  to  citizenship,  was  insufficient  for  their 
acquiring  an  adequate  knowledge  of  our  free  institutions,  and  to  form  a  proper 
attachment  to  them.  And  it  was  proposed  to  extend  this  preparatory  period 
to  twenty-one  years. 

An  effort  was  made,  to  some  extent,  in  this  state,  thirty  years  ago,  to  elect 
members  of  the  legislature,  and  of  Congress,  who  were  in  favor,  of  the  pro- 
posed change  in  our  naturalization  laws.  In  several  of  the  eastern  and 
south-eastern  counties  of  the  state,  members  of  both  houses  were  elected. 


The  motto  of  the  advocates  of  the  measure  was :  "  Let  Americans  govern 
America."  But  the  attempt  to  form  a  strong  party  upon  this  basis,  was 
abortive.  The  mass  of  our  people  were  indisposed  to  raise  so  powerful  a 
barrier  to  immigration.  It  had  been  the  policy  of  our  government,  from  the 
time  of  its  organization,  to  invite  the  people  of  the  monarchies  of  the  Old 
World  to  the  "asylum  of  liberty,"  established  in  the  New. 

About  the  year  1853,  a  new  movement  in  the  same  direction,  and  more 
effective  than  the  former,  was  originated.  The  plan  of  organization  in  detail 
was  not  then — perhaps  is  not  now — fully  understood  by  most  persons  outside 
of  the  order.  The  meetings  of  its  members  were  conducted  in  secret.  And 
it  is  believed,  generally,  that  secrecy  and  concert  in  action  were  secured  by 
extra-judicial  oaths.  We  are  not  aware  that  this  has  been  admitted  by 
members  of  the  order,  or  that  it  has,  to  any  considerable  extent,  been  posi- 
tively affirmed  by  many  persons  outside  of  it.  When  questioned  by  the 
curious  concerning  certain  things  pertaining  to  the  organization,  members 
would  often  profess  to  know  nothing  about  them.  Hence  is  supposed  to  have 
come  the  appellation  so  generally  applied  to  them,  Kitow  Nothings,  or  Know 
Nothing  party.  Their  own  chosen  and  proper  name,  if  we  rightly  remem- 
ber, was  the  Native  American  party. 

This  party  increased  and  spread  rapidly,  until  it  reached  every  state  in  the 
Union  ;  and  it  embraced  many  of  our  best  and  most  patriotic  citizens.  They 
saw  what  many  of  their  opponents  admitted,  that  evils  had  resulted  from  the 
facilities  afforded  aliens  for  becoming  invested  with  all  the  privileges  of 
American  citizens.  Men  differed  then  as  they  differ  now,  as  to  the  jneans 
of  remedying  these  evils.  Admitting  that  the  remedy  proposed  would,  if 
adopted,  be  effectual ;  there  could  be  no  reasonable  hope  of  effecting  its 
adoption.  The  millions  of  voters  of  foreign  birth  would  be  nearly  unanimous 
in  their  opposition  to  the  measure,  and  would  overcome  any  supposable 
majority  of  native  voters  in  its  favor.  But  even  if  the  contest  were  confined 
to  our  native  citizens,  the  hope  of  the  success  of  the  measure  would  be  so 
slight  as  to  render  the  idea  of  engaging  in  the  struggle  unworthy  of  a 
moment's  consideration. 

The  first  trial  of  the  strength  of  Americanism  in  this  county,  was  in  1854. 
A  member  of  Congress  was  to  be  elected  to  succeed  Reuben  E.  Fenton, 
whose  term  of  office  would  expire  in  March  following.  The  Americans  nom- 
inated Francis  S.  Edwards,  of  Fredonia,  and  the  whigs,  George  W.  Patterson, 
of  West&eid.  The  congressional  district,  composed  of  the  counties  of  Chau- 
tauqua and  Cattaraugus,  had  given  large  whig  majorities ;  but  through  the 
nomination  of  an  unpopular  candidate  by  the  whigs,  in  1852,  Mr.  Fenton,  a 
democrat,  was  elected.  It  soon  becoming  apparent  that  there  would  be  a 
great  defection  from  the  whig  party  to  the  Americans,  whose  candidate  had 
been  a  whig,  and  Mr.  Fenton  having  broken  from  his  party  in  Congress  by 
voting  against  the  Kansas  bill,  Mr.  Patterson  declined  the  whig  nomination, 
and,  with  many  of  his  party,  supported  Mr.  Fenton.  The  result  was  the 
election  of  Mr.  Edwards. 


On  the  2d  of  February,  1855,  a  meeting  of  citizens  of  this  county  opposed 
to  the  principles  and  aims  of  the  new  party,  was  held  at  Mayville,  composed 
of  men  of  both  the  whig  and  democratic  parties.  Abram  Dixon,  of  Westfield, 
was  chosen  chairman  of  the  meeting;  George  S.  Harrison,  of  Stockton; 
Theron  S.  Bly,  of  Harmony  ;  and  William  Colville,  vice-presidents  ;  Stephen 
Snow,  of  Fredonia,  and  J.  S.  Phillips,  secretaries. 

The  meeting  was  addressed  by  Messrs.  Alvin  Plumb,  and  Walker,  of 
Westfield;  Baker,  of  Sherman;  Mason,  of  Harmony;  and  Van  Ness,  of 
Chautauqua.  — 

The  committee  on  resolutions,  consisting  of  George  W.  Patterson,  Niram 
Sackett,  John  H.  Pray,  Emory  F.  Warren,  and  John  M.  Edson,  reported 
resolutions,  which  were  adopted.  They  expressed  alarm  at  the  organization 
of  secret  political  societies,  whose  members  are  sworn  to  vote  in  political 
matters  for  political  offices  for  second  degree  members  of  this  order.  They 
regarded  these  secret  workings  as  evidence  of  evil  and  corrupt  design ;  de- 
nounced the  efforts  that  were  making  to  discourage  immigration  as  "  unwise 
and  reprehensible  ;"  deprecated  a  change  in  the  established  mode  of  natural- 
ization ;  and  declared  slavery  a  state  institution  which  can  not  exist  in  the 
absence  of  special  enactments.  They  approved  of  a  tariff  for  revenue  with 
discriminating  duties,  affording  incidental  protection  to  the  labor  and  products 
of  our  own  country  ;  and  recommended  organizations  in  the  several  towns  of 
those  opposed  to  secret  political  societies. 

In  several  states,  the  American  party  had  considerable  strength.  It,  how- 
ever, gave  early  indications  of  decay.  In  1856,  the  American  vote  of  that 
party  for  presidential  electors,  in  this  county,  was  about  1,300.  It  can 
hardly  be  said  to  have  survived  the  election  of  1856. 

Present  Parties. 

A  history,  in  this  place,  of  the  two  national  parties,  can  not  be  given.  The 
origin  of  the  democratic  party  has  been  briefly  noticed.  It  was  opposed  by 
the  whig  party  during  the  existence  of  the  latter.  The  principal  measures 
upon  which  these  two  parties  were  divided,  were  the  tariff,  a  national  bank, 
the  currency  question  in  general,  and  legislation  on  the  subject  of  slavery. 
The  attempt  to  force  slavery  into  free  territory  in  1854,  gave  rise  to  the  repub- 
lican party,  which  assumed  the  form  of  a  political  organization  in  1855.  Its 
design  was  to  resist  all  further  encroachments  of  slavery  upon  free  territory 
in  the  United  States.  The  efforts  to  force  slavery  into  Kansas  awakened 
such  an  interest  in  this  subject  as  had  never  been  witnessed  in  this  country, 
and  hastened  that  most  important  event  in  our  country's  history — the  attempt, 
by  a  resort  to  arms,  to  sever  the  Union.  The  responsibility  of  carrying  the 
country  through  the  perilous  ordeal  to  which  it  was  subjected,  and  the  recon- 
struction of  the  seceding  states,  devolved  upon  the  republican  party.  All 
these  states  are  again  members  of  the  Union.  The  party  suflFered  a  reverse 
at  the  last  election,  [1874,]  which  resulted  in  the  election  of  a  majority  of 
democratic  members  to  the  present  house  of  representatives. 


WAR  HISTORY— WAR  OF   1812. 

Causes  of  the  War. 

That  war  was  declared  by  the  United  States  against  Great  Britain,  in 
181 2,  every  adult  reader  probably  knows.  But  there  are  doubtless  many 
among  the  younger  class  of  our  people  who  do  not  know  the  causes  of  that 
war,  nor  its  effects  upon  the  early  settlers  of  this  county.  The,y  are  thus 
briefly  stated : 

Great  Britain  and  France  had  long  been  at  war.  In  August,  1804,  Great 
Britain,  with  a  view  to  cripple  the  trade  of  France,  declared  certain  ports  of 
France  in  a  state  of  blockade,  by  which  the  vessels  of  other  nations  were 
prohibited  from  entering  her  ports,  except  in  certain  cases.  This  order  was 
followed,  on  the  part  of  Napoleon,  by  a  decree  declaring  the  British  islands 
in  a  state  of  blockade,  and  prohibiting  all  commerce  with  them.  This  was 
intended  to  stop  trade  between  Great  Britain  and  the  continent,  and  applied 
also  to  American  commerce. 

Great  Britain  then  issued  another  order,  declaring  in  a  state  of  blockade 
all  ports  and  places  belonging  to  France  and  her  allies,  from  which  the 
British  flag  was  excluded,  and  all  the  colonies  of  his  Britannic  majesty's 
enemies.  Only  the  direct  trade  between  neutral  countries  and  the  colonies 
of  his  majesty's  enemies  was  allowed.  This  measure  so  detrimental  to  neu- 
tral commerce,  was  followed  by  a  still  more  sweeping  one,  on  the  part  of 
France,  declaring  the  British  islands  in  a  state  of  blockade,  by  sea  and  land ; 
and  every  ship  sailing  from  ports  of  England  or  her  colonies,  and  proceeding 
to  England  or  to  her  colonies,  or  to  countries  occupied  by  the  English,  to  be 
lawful  prize.  And  every  ship  which  had  submitted  to  search  by  an  English 
ship,  or  had  made  a  voyage  to  England,  or  paid  any  tax  to  that  government, 
was  declared  denationalized,  and  lawful  prize. 

These  measures  were  disastrous  to  American  commerce,  and  unauthorized 
ty  the  law  of  nations.  To  be  lawful,  a  blockade  must  be  maintained  by  a 
force  stationed  at  the  enemy's  ports,  sufficient  to  make  it  dangerous  for  vessels, 
to  enter.  This  had  not  been  done  by  either  party.  Yet  under  these  orders 
and  decrees,  or  mere  "  paper  blockades,"  as  they  were  called,  many  American 
vessels,  with  their  cargoes,  were  captured  by  the  privateers  and  cruisers  of 
the  two  belligerents,  and  condemned  as  prize. 

But  there  was  another  grievance- — the  impressment  of  American  seamen. 
Great  Britain  claimed  the  right  to  search  our  vessels  on  the  high  seas,  and,  if 
among  the  seamen  any  were  found  to  be  Englishmen,  to  impress  them  into  her 
service.  The  claims  of  the  two  governments  have  been  thus  stated  :  "  The 
government  of  the  United  States  asserts  the  broad  principle,  that  the  flag  of 
their  merchant  vessels  shall  protect  the  mariners.  The  privilege  is  claimed, 
although  every  person  on  board,  except  the  captain,  may  be  an  alien.  The 
British  government  asserts,  that  the  allegiance  of  their  subjects  is  inalienable, 
in  time  of  war,  and  that  their  seamen,  found  on  the  sea,  the  common  highway 

WAR   HISTORY.  1 73 

of  nations,  shall  not  be  protected  by  the  flag  of  private  merchant  vessels." 
This  doctrine,  it  was  said,  was  common  to  all  the  governments  of  Europe. 
France,  as  well  as  England,  claimed,  in  time  of  war,  the  services  of  her  sub- 
jects. Both,  by  decrees,  forbid  their  entering  into  foreign  employ;  both 
recall  them  by  proclamation. 

Attempts  to  adjust  the  differences  between  the  two  countries  by  negotia- 
tion having  failed,  our  government,  on  the  i8th  of  June,  1812,  declared  war 
against  Great  Britain;  and  the  British  minister  at  Washington  soon  after 
took  his  departure,  bearing  a  letter  from  our  government  to  our  representative 
at  London,  authorizing  him  to  propose  to  the  British  government  a  suspension 
of  hostilities  with  a  view  to  an  adjustment  of  all  difficulties.  At  Halifax, 
on  his  way  home,  the  British  minister,  [Mr.  Foster,]  received  dispatches  from 
his  government,  dated  about  the  17th  of  June,  directed  to  him  at  Washington, 
but  which  he  there  opened,  informing  him  of  the  intended  revocation  of  the 
orders  in  council,  to  take  effect  on  the  ist  of  August,  Presuming  that  it  was 
the  object  of  his  government  to  prevent  or  stop  hostilities,  he  sent  the 
dispatches  to  Mr.  Baker,  secretary  to  the  British  legation,  still  at  Washington, 
to  be  communicated  to  our  government.  And,  having  had  a  conversation 
at  Halifax,  with  Vice-Admiral  Sawyer,  naval  commander,  and  Sir  John  Sher- 
broke,  lieutenant-governor,  he  was  authorized  by  them  to  say  to  Mr.  Baker, 
that  the  decisions  of  cases  of  capture  of  American  vessels  should  be 
suspended.  Our  government,  however,  declined  the  proposition,  preferring 
to  await  the  result  of  the  proposition  sent  by  Mr.  Foster  to  the  British 

It  appears  from  the  foregoing  statement  of  affairs,  that  this  triangular  com- 
mercial warfare  continued  for  many  years  before  it  brought  us  into  a  state  of 
actual  hostility  to  Great  Britain.  Many  of  our  most  patriotic  citizens  and 
statesmen  believed  that  the  differences  between  the  two  nations  might  have 
been  settled,  and  probably  would  have  been,  without  a  resort  to  arms,  and 
without  a  sacrifice  of  our  national  honor.  But  a  majority  of  the  people's  rep- 
resentatives in  Congress,  who  are  by  the  constitution  vested  with  the  power 
to  declare  war,  having  thought  it^proper  to  exercise  this  power,  the  support 
of  the  war  was  alike  the  dictate  of  duty  and  of  patriotism. 

The  Chautauqua  county  militia  were  among  those  who  entered  earliest 
into  service  in  the  war.  In  1812,  previous  to  the  declaration  of  war,  the 
militia  was  organized  into  one  regiment,  commanded  by  Col.  John  Mc- 
Mahan.  In-  June,  Col.  M.  received  orders  to  detach  from  his  regiment  a 
full  company  to  be  in  readiness  to  march  at  a  minute's  warning.  The  regi- 
ment was  called  together  for  a  draft,  when  all  volunteered,  and  no  draft  was 
made.  This  company  was  commanded  by  Capt.  Jehiel  Moore.  The  dec- 
laration was  made  a  few  days  after,  [June  i8th,]  and  the  company  ordered 
to  march,  and  to  rendezvous  at  Lewiston.  Early  in  July,  they  joined  the 
regiment  there,  [the  i8th  regiment  of  New  York  detached  militia,]  com- 
manded by  Col.  Hugh  W.  Dobbin,  of  Geneva ;  Majors  Burbank,  of  Gen- 
esee, and  Morrison,  of  Niagara,  and  Adjutant  Gerritt  L.  Dox,  of  Geneva. 


Nothing  particularly  worthy  of  notice  occurred,  until  the  battle  of  Queens- 
ton,  on  the  13th  of  October.  The  troops  were  called  up  at  3  o'clock  in  the 
morning,  and  marched  to  the  river.  As  many  as  the  boats  would  carry, 
crossed  over  before  daylight.  The  boats  returned,  and  the  Chautauqua 
company  embarked  and  crossed  at  the  dawn  of  day.  The  movement  was 
discovered  by  the  enemy,  and  the  cannon  began  to  roar  on  both  sides  of  the 
river.  It  was  not  yet  quite  light,  and  no  enemy  was  visible ;  but  a  scattering 
fire  was  kept  up  from  the  bushes  on  the  side  hill,  and  from  the  road  that  leads 
to  Queenston.  A  part  of  the  Chautauqua  company  was  ordered  to  scour  the 
hill  side,  which  was  done,  but  without  meeting  any  enemy  :  the  firing,  how- 
ever, from  that  quarter  ceased.  In  a  description  of  the  Queenston  battle  by 
an  officer  from  this  county,  (probably  David  Eaton,  of  Portland,)  is  the 
following : 

"  On  returning,  we  found  that  the  troops  had  retreated  to  the  very  verge 
of  the  river,  and  all  lay  flat  on  the  ground,  so  as  to  be  protected  by  the  bank 
from  the  fire  of  the  enemy;  and  that  Col.  Van  Rensselaer  was  wounded, 
and  unable  to  remain  on  his  feet.  He  lay  on  the  ground  with  the  officers 
standing  around  him,  holding  a  council  of  war.  It  is  believed  there  was,  on 
that  side,  no  officer  unwounded,  higher  in  rank  than  captain.  Van  Rensselaer 
told  them  to  remain  where  they  were ;  that  we  would  soon  be  reenforced, 
and  that  some  officer  would  be  over  to  take  the  command.  But  neither 
officer  nor  reenforcement  came.  Our  position  was  distinctly  seen  from  this 
side ;  and  as  we  had  but  just  ground  enough  to  lie  upon,  the  militia,  taking 
advantage  of  the  '  constitutional '  doctrine  that  they  could  not  be  ordered  be- 
yond the  territory  of  the  United  States,  declined  to  come  to  our  assistance. 
Having  no  hope  of  a  reenforcement,  Col.  Va*  Rensselaer,  still  lying  on  the 
ground,  said  :  '  Parade  your  men,  and  go  up  and  take  that  battery  /'  In  a  few 
minutes  we  were  marching  silently  along  the  bank  of  the  river,  hid  by  the 
bank  from  the  view  of  the  enemy,  but  in  full  view  of  our  friends  on  the  oppo- 
site side. 

"  The  battery  was  at  about  two-thirds  of  the  distance  from  the  base  of  the 
hill.  Marching  up  the  river  until  we  were  just  within  the  great  chasm  of  the 
Niagara,  we  found  a  path  which  wound  its  way  up  this  stupendous  precipice, 
so  steep,  in  many  places,  as  to  render  it  necessary  to  pull  ourselves  up  by 
taking  hold  of  the  bushes,  which  also  served  to  conceal  us  from  the  enemy. 
When  the  front  of  the  column  had  gained  about  two-thirds  of  the  distance  up 
the  hill,  it  came  to  a  small  level  spot,  and  halted,  to  give  the  center  and  rear 
a  chance  to  close  up.  On  arriving  at  this  spot,  we  found  those  in  front 
huddled  promiscuously  together ;  and  the  most  of  our  company,  which  was 
near  the  center  when  the  line  was  formed,  happened  to  get  on  that  side  from 
which  the  path  led  off  towards  the  top  of  the  hill ;  so  that,  when  the  order 
was  given  to  advance,  our  company,  or  at  least  a  part  of  it,  led  the  van  ;  and 
the  first  Americans  who  set  foot  on  Queenston  Heights  that  day,  were  from 
Chautauqua.  Our  line  was  immediately  formed  along  the  bank,  with  this 
horrid  chasm,  nearly  200  feet  deep,  directly  in  its  rear.  When  about  100  of 
our  men  had  reached  the  Heights,  we  were  discovered  by  the  enemy ;  and 
the  troops  stationed  in  the  battery  sallied  out,  and  attacked  us.  But  at  the 
second  fire,  they  retreated  to  Queenston,  and  left  us  in  possession  of  the  bat- 
tery. We  mounted  the  works,  swung  our  hats,  and  gave  three  hearty  cheers  ; 
when  lo  !  the  boats  were  filled  with  troops  who  came  over  to  our  relief — their 

WAR   HISTORY.  1 75 

'  constitutional '  scruples  having  subsided  on  seeing  us  in  possession  of  the 
enemy's  works  ! 

"  The  enemy  came  on  to  the  attack  three  times,  and  were  as  often  repulsed. 
In  the  third  attack  I  was  wounded  and  retired  to  the  rear.  For  about  an  hour 
the  attack  was  not  renewed ;  and  our  troops  remained  on  the  ground,  reen- 
forcements  constantly  arriving.  At  this  time  I  recrossed  the  river.  A  few 
of  our  men  recrossed  the  river  during  the  day.  Those  who  remained  were 
made  prisoners  of  war.  They  were,  however,  paroUed  the  next  day.  There 
was  but  one  act  of  downright  cowardice  in  any  one  from  this  county,  that 
came  to  my  knowledge.  As  this  was  somewhat  amusing,  even  amidst  the 
carnage  by  which  it  was  surrounded,  I  shall  briefly  relate  it.  As  the  men 
were  wounded,  they  retired  to  the  brink  of  the  river,  where  they  lay  on  the 
ground,  waiting  for  the  surgeon  to  dress  their  wounds.  When  the  turn 
of  Sergeant  ****  came,  the  surgeon  inquired  where  his  wound  was.  He 
answered  only  by  a  groan.  The  surgeon  turned  him  over  ;  no  blood  was  to 
be  seen,  but  he  kept  groaning.  The  surgeon  supposing  he  was  really  wounded, 
unceremoniously  uncoated  and  unpantalooned  him,  and  examined  his  body  all 
over ;  but  not  a  scratch  was  found.  The  poor  sergeant,  finding  himself  ex- 
posed and  roughly  handled,  muttered  out,  '  I'm  sick.'  The  surgeon  then,  with 
a  contemptuous  smile,  turned  to  one  who  was  really  wounded,  and  left  the  re- 
doubtable sergeant  to  adjust  his  costume  at  his  leisure.  In  this  battle,  Nath- 
aniel Bowen,  of  Villenova,  was  killed,  and  a  Mr.  Winsor  died  of  wounds ;  David 
Eaton,  Alpheus  Mclntyre,  Erastus  Taylor,  and  Alex.  Kelley  were  wounded. 

"Near  the  close  of  the  year  1813,  the  militia  of  the  county  were  called 
out,  en  masse,  for  the  defense  of  Buffalo.  They  promptly  turned  out  at  the 
call.  The  regiment  was  commanded  by  Col.  John  McMahan.  The  events 
of  the  battle  of  Black  Rock,  and  the  burning  of  Buffalo,  are  too  well  known 
to  need  recapitulation.  In  the  summer  of  18x4,  the  militia  were  again  called 
out,  en  masse,  and  stationed  below  Black  Rock,  during  the  siege  and  storming 
of  Fort  Erie.  They  were  not  engaged  in  any  battle,  but  almost  every  man 
was  sick  of  ague  and  fever,  either  while  on  the  line,  or  after  their  return  home. 
A  few  died,  among  whom  was  Ensign  Campbell  Alexander,  of  Ripley." 

British   Cruisers — Battle  of  Black  Rock. 

During  the  war,  our  coast  was  infested  with  British  cruisers  with  a  view  to 
plunder ;  and  the  people  of  the  county  were  subjected  to  frequent  alarms. 
This  being  a  frontier  county,  with  a  coast  of  40  miles  exposed  to  the  depre- 
dations of  a  powerful  enemy,  composed  of  trained  British  soldiers  and  their 
savage  allies,  these  alarms  were  not  causeless.  Indeed,  several  incursions 
were  made  by  the  British  at  different  points  in  this  county,  but  as  often, 
perhaps,  with  damage  to  themselves  as  to  our  inhabitants.  Captain  Harman, 
of  Ashtabula,  Ohio,  passing  up  the  lake,  was  driven  into  the  mouth  of  Cat- 
taraugus creek  by  the  British  brigs  of  war  Queen  Charlotte  and  Hunter, 
which  fired  a  number  of  cannon  shot,  several  of  which  were  afterwards  found 
on  the  shore.  An  express  was  sent  to  the  Indians  on  the  creek  for  help. 
They  turned  out  in  great  numbers,  and  stationed  themselves  on  both  sides  of 
the  stream,  well  armed,  anxious  for  the  British  to  come  ashore.  Harman's 
boat  escaped  without  injury.  The  British  turned  and  went  off,  to  the  great 
disappointment  of  the  Indians,  but  much  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  settlers. 


Lay's  house,  this  side  of  Buffalo,  was  rifled  by  the  British ;  but  on  the 
remonstrance  of  the  American  commander  to  the  British,  the  goods  were 
ordered  to  be  restored.  They  were  accordingly  put  on  board  the  British 
Queen,  an  armed  vessel  of  10  or  12  guns,  manned  for  the  purpose,  and  carry- 
ing a  flag  of  truce,  and  were  sent  to  Chadwick's  Bay,  now  Dunkirk.  They 
were  sent  ashore  in  a  boat  with  13  men  under  the  command  of  a  lieutenant. 
On  landing,  twelve  of  the  boat  crew  raised  their  caps  and  bade  their  com- 
mander adieu,  and  "  quit  the  service,"  leaving  the  oflicer  and  a  single  sailor, 
a  Frenchman,  to  return  to  the  vessel.  While  they  were  parleying  with  the 
citizens  resident  at  the  place,  the  neighboring  militia,  whom  a  notice  of  the 
arrival  had  attracted  to  the  spot,  not  observing  the  flag  of  truce,  but  having 
their  attention  principally  directed  to  the  red  coats  of  the  oSicer  and  his 
remaining  sailor,  fired  upon  them,  and  broke  the  leg  of  the  latter.  The 
officer  otitered  a  liberal  reward  to  the  citizens  to  row  him  and  the  Frenchman 
to  the  vessel.  Failing  to  obtain  assistance,  he  picked  up  the  maimed  man, 
and  made  the  best  of  his  way  on  board. 

Newark,  in  Canada,  having  been  burnt  by  the  Americans,  it  was  rumored 
that  the  British  intended  to  retaliate  by  burning  Bufialo.  Having  already 
taken  Fort  Niagara,  the  militia  of  this  county  was  called  out  en  masse,  in 
December,  1813,  to  repel  any  attack  upon  Buffalo.  They  constituted  the 
i62d  regiment,  and  numbered  about  400;  about  200  hundred  of  whom  went 
under  the  command  of  Col.  John  McMahan  and  Majors  Wm.  Prendergast 
and  Barnes.     There  were  four  companies,  commanded  by  Captains  John 

Silsby  and  Jehiel  Moore,  and  lieutenants  Wm.  Forbes  and Hale.     There 

was  also  a  company  of  Silver  Greys,  commanded  by  Capt.  Hart.  They 
were  ordered  to  rendezvous  at  Buffalo,  and  were  quartered  in  log  huts  a  short 
distance  eastward  of  the  village.  The  militia  there  assembled  numbered 
about  2,000  men,  and  were  under  the  command  of  Gen.  Hall.  The  British 
force  detailed  for  the  attack  upon  Buffalo  consisted  of  about  1,500  regulars 
and  400  Indians,  under  Gen.  Riall. 

On  the  night  of  the  30th  of  December,  about  1 2  o'clock,  the  American 
camp  was  alarmed  by  the  receipt  of  intelligence  that  the  enemy  were  cross- 
ing Niagara  river  at  Black  Rock.  A  portion  of  the  militia  was  marched 
down  to  oppose  their  landing.  The  main  body  of  the  British  had  effected  a 
landing  at  the  mouth  of  Conjockity  creek,  a  mile  or  more  below  the  ferry. 
Efforts  were  made  to  prevent  their  progress,  though  with  but  partial  success. 
The  militia,  who  had  proceeded  to  the  ground,  not  in  a  body,  but  in  detached 
parties,  were  easily  routed  by  the  disciplined  troops  of  the  enemy,  and  driven 
back  as  fast  they  arrived  on  the  scene  of  action. 

The  skirmishing  continued  during  the  greater  part  of  the  night,  the  firing 
of  which  was  distinctly  heard  at  Buffalo,  where  the  Chautauqua  regiment  had 
remained,  under  arms,  paraded  in  front  of  Pomeroy's  tavern,  as  a  reserve. 

About  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  the  31st,  Col.  McMahan's  regiment 
was  marched  to  Black  Rock,  and  posted  opposite  the  ferry,  in  the  rear  of  the 
battery  that  had  been  erected  at  that  point.     Soon  after  daylight,  six  or  seven 

WAR   HISTORY.  1 77 

boats,  containing  each  fifty  or  sixty  men,  were  seen  to  put  oflF  from  the  Cana- 
dian shore,  with  the  evident  intention  of  effecting  a  landing.  A  firing  was 
kept  up  by  the  battery  at  the  ferry,  and  was  returned  from  the  opposite  shore. 
One  of  the  enemy's  boats  was  struck  by  a  cannon  shot  from  the  American 
side,  and  sunk  with  its  hostile  freight.  About  the  break  of  day,  the  Chau- 
tauqua regiment  was  ordered  to  advance.  They  proceeded  down  the  river 
nearly  half  a  mile,  and  met  the  enemy  in  force  near  the  residence  of  Gen. 
Porter.  A  sharp,  though  unequal  contest  ensued,  when  the  militia  broke 
and  fled,  as  those  who  had  preceded  them  had  done.  During  the  engage- 
ment, a  part  of  the  British  force  had  passed  up  under  the  bank  of  the  river, 
and  taken  post  in  the  road  leading  from  Buffalo  to  the  ferry,  with  a  view  of 
cutting  off  the  militia  in  their  retreat.  Escape  by  the  avenue  through  which 
they  had  arrived  being  thus  prevented,  and  pressed,  as  they  were,  by  the 
advance  of  the  enemy,  they  were  compelled  to  take  to  the  woods  in  the  rear 
of  the  ferry  for  safety,  through  which  many  of  the  American  force,  including 
a  portion  of  the  Chautauqua  regiment,  fled  precipitately ;  and  such  of  them 
as  escaped  the  rifle  and  tomahawk  of  the  savages,  who  immediately  filled  the 
woods  in  pursuit,  reached  the  main  road  at  Buffalo  and  at  various  points  for 
several  miles  to  the  eastward  in  the  direction  of  Batavia,  The  largest  por- 
tion of  the  whole  force  returned  to  their  homes,  among  whom  were  the  prin- 
cipal part  of  the  Chautauqua  militia.  The  remainder,  who  had  survived, 
were  afterwards  quartered  for  several  weeks  at  Miller's  tavern,  about  two 
miles  to  the  east  of  Buffalo.  Towards  noon  of  the  31st,  the  British  set  fire 
to  Buffalo,  and  finally  recrossed  the  river  to  Canada,  the  second  or  third  day 
after  that  event. 

The  loss  to  this  county  was  severe  in  proportion  to  the  number  engaged. 
James  Brackett,  a  lawyer  from  Mayville,  was  killed  and  scalped  by  the 
Indians  during  the  retreat  from  Black  Rock.  Joseph  Frank,  from  Busti, 
Wm.  Smiley,  from  Ellery,  Ephraim  Pease  and  John  Lewis,  from  Pomfret, 
Aaron  Nash,  Bovee  and  Hubbard,  from  Hanover,  and  several  others,  were 
killed.  Maj.  Prendergast  had  a  number  of  balls  shot  through  his  hat  and 
clothes.  Capt.  Silsby  was  severely  wounded,  and  Lieut.  Forbes  had  one 
man  killed  and  five  men  wounded  of  the  twenty-one  under  his  command. 
The  bodies  of  the  killed  which  were  found,  were  buried  in  a  common  grave 
near  the  road  leading  from  Buffalo  to  Black  Rock,  into  which  eighty-ijine 
were  promiscuously  thrown.  Among  these  were  the  bodies  of  the  Chautau- 
qua militia.  They  were  afterwards  disinterred,  and  many  of  them  claimed 
by  their  relatives,  and  taken  home  to  be  buried.  The  bodies  of  several 
others,  who  had  been  killed  on  their  retreat  through  the  woods,  and  scalped 
by  the  Indians,  were  found  during  the  winter  and  spring,  and  committed  to 
the  earth. 

To  the  foregoing  sketch  of  military  operations  along  the  frontier  of  West- 
em  New  York,  by  Judge  Warren,  he  subjoins  the  following : 

"  At  this  period,  the  frontier  presented  a  scene  of  desolation  rarely 
witnessed.     The  inhabitants  who  had  escaped  the  tomahawk,  fled  into  the 


interior,  in  the  depth  of  winter,  without  shelter  or  means  of  support,  and 
subsisted  on  the  charity  of  their  friends.  The  panic  was  general,  and  per- 
vaded this  county,  though  in  a  degree  somewhat  less  than  in  the  section  of 
country  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  point  of  attack.  The  only  build- 
ings remaining  in  Buffalo  were  the  jail,  which  was  built  of  stone,  a  small 
framed  house,  and  an  armorer's  shop.  All  the  houses  and  almost  every 
building  between  Buffalo  and  Niagara  Falls  were  destroyed,  as  were  also 
many  of  those  on  the  Batavia  road,  for  several  miles  beyond  Buffalo." 

The  following  are  names  of  the  commissioned  and  non-commissioned 
officers  of  companies  of  Chautauqua  militia,  under  the  command  of  Col. 
Hugh  W.  Dobbin  : 

Capt.  Moore's  Company — -July  4  to  October  4.,  18  12. 

Captain — Jehiel  Moore.  Lieut. — David  Eaton.  Ensign — Charles  Burritt. 
Sergeants — Alpheus  Mclntyre,  John  Ingersoll,  Samuel  J.  Smith,  John  Dull. 
Corporals — Amos  Wright,  Jonathan  S.  Pattison,  Daniel  Densmore.  Fifers — 
Arnold  Russell,  John  Bate. 

Capt.  Maoris  Company — October  4  to  Dec.  ji,  181 2. 

Captain — Jehiel  Moore.  Lieut. — Samuel  D.  Wells.  Ensign — Charles 
Burritt.  Sergeants — Alpheus  Mclntyre,  Asa  Johnson,  Isaac  Badgley,  John 
Dull.  Corporals — Hezekiah  G.  Canfield,  Jonathan  S.  Pattison,  Josiah  Gibbs. 
Drummer — John  Bartoo.     Fifer — Horatio  Hopkins. 

Names  of  commissioned  and  non-commissioned  officers  of  companies  of 
Chautauqua  militia,  under  the  command  of  Col.  John  McMahan : 
Capt.  Silsby's  Compa7iy — Dec.  20,  181J,  to  Feb.  j,  1814. 

Captain — John  Silsby.  Lieut. — Charles  Bemus.  Ensign — Clark  Parker. 
Sergeants — Zephaniah  Phelps,  Abijah  Bennett,  Peter  Simmons,  John  Wisner, 
Wm.  Russell,  [substitute  for  H.  Tinkcom,]  David  Bly.  Corporals — Robert 
Latham,  Stephen  Deming,  Samuel  Griffith,  Hezekiah  Seymour,  Asa  Martin. 
Drummer — John  Lee.     Fifers — Myron  Bly,  Alanson  Root. 

Lieut.  Forbes'  Company — Dec.  20,  J8ij,  to  Feb.  j,  1814. 

[This  company  was  set  off  from  Capt.  Silsby's.  Solomon  Jones  was 
appointed  captain ;  Wm.  Forbes,  lieut. ;  and  William  Martin,  ensign.  Mr. 
Jones  decHning  the  appointment,  Forbes  was  the  senior  in  command.] 

Lieutenant — William  Forbes.  Ensign — William  Martin.  Sergeants — Amos 
Bird,  Phineas  Palmeter,  Jr.,  Isaac  Martin,  Elijah  Akin.  Corporals — Stephen 
Hadley,  Ira  Owens. 

*  Capt.  Adam^  Company — Dec.  20,  i8ij,  to  Feb.  j,  1814. 

Captain — Moses  Adams.  First  Lieut. — David  Eaton.  Second  Lieut. — 
Campbell  Alexander.  Ensign — William  Ingersoll.  Sergeants — Nathaniel 
Fay,  Ja.mes  Dickson,  John  Dull,  Philip  Stephens,  Daniel  C.  Northrup,  Robert 
C.  Dickson.  Corporals — Pliny  Case,  [substitute  for  I.  Sweet,]  Friend  John- 
son, [taken  prisoner  at  Black  Rock,]  Rufiis  Perry,  Wm.  M.  Riddle,  Wilder 
Emerson,  John  Smith,  [wounded.]  Drummer — George  Hall.  Fifer — Bar- 
ney Turtelot. 

Capt.  Tubbs'  Company — Dec.  20,  181  j,  to  Feb.  j,  1814. 

Captain — Martin  B.  Tubbs.  Lieut. — Peter  Ingersoll.  Ensign — Guy 
Webster.     Sergeants — Miles  Webster,  Joel  Barrell,  James  Knapp,  Nathaniel 


Barney,  Jonathan  S.  Pattison.  Corporals — Salmon  Munger,  Ira  Clothier, 
Allen  Denny,  Asahel  Burnham,  Uriah  Nash,  Moses  Hines.  Fifers — Wm. 
Wilcox,  Thomas  Nevins.  _  DrumfHers — ^John  Bartoo,  Samuel  Nevins. 

Capt.  Tubbs"  Company — Aug.  i,  1814,  to  Sept.  26,  1814. 

Captain — Martin    B.    Tubbs.      Lieut. — Benj.    Perry.      Ensign — Samuel 

Smith.     Sergeants — Miles   Webster,  Sudim   Graves,   Jonathan  S.  Pattison, 

James  Knapp.    Corporals — Chester  Smith,  Arunah  Gilmore,  Rufus  Ransted, 

Preserved  Wells,  Ira  Clothier.   Drummer — Jno.  White.   Fifer — Thos.  Nevins. 

Capt.  McMahan's  Company — August  i,  1814. 
Captain — James  McMahan.  Lieutenant — Charles  Bemus.  Second  Lieut. — 
Campbell  Alexander.  Ensign — William  Ingersoll.  Sergeants — Zephaniah 
Phillips,  Nathaniel  Fay,  Isaiah  Martin,  Daniel  C.  Northrup,  Reuben  Ellis, 
Daniel  Bennett.  Corporals — Robert  Latham,  Stephen  Dunning,  Pliny  Cass, 
Lorrel  Nichols,  Rufus  Berry.     Fifers — Wm.  Bandel,  Myron  Bly. 

In  the  original  record  of  the  companies,  we  find  a  large  portion  of  the 
persons  enrolled,  marked  as  deserters.  Of  one  of  the  companies,  more  than 
one-half  are  so  designated ;  of  two  or  three  others,  a  considerable  number  ; 
and  a  few  in  the  remaining  ones.  The  greater  portion  of  those  who  were 
returned  as  deserters,  are  not  to  be  considered  as  really  such.  The  state  of 
their  families,  and  the  condition  of  affairs  at  and  about  Buffalo,  were  such  as 
to  justify  a  majority  of  them  to  visit  their  homes.  Circumstances  clearly 
indicate  that  the  defection  of  most  of  them  may  not  be  justly  ascribed  to 
cowardice  or  disloyalty.  Their  character  forbids  the  supposition.  They 
were  then  and  during  the  remainder  of  their  lives,  highly  respected  citizens, 
some  of  whom  are  still  living.  Nor  did  they  leave  clandestinely  as  deserters 
usually  do.     Judge  Foote,  in  a  note  at  the  end  of  the  lists,  says  : 

"  It  will  be  seen  that  nearly  all  the  desertions  were  in  the  companies  of 
Col.  McMahan's  regiment,  in  the  winter  of  1813-1814,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Buffalo,  after  it  had  been  burned.  They  had  notRing  to  do.  They  had  no 
quarters  or  tents,  nor  comfortable  rations  ;  and  they  went  home  openly  and 
boldly,  with  the  knowledge  of  the  officers,  without  opposition,  though  without 
their  consent." 

George  W.  Manly,  a  substitute  for  Asahel  Russell,  under  Capt.  Silsby, 
and  discharged  at  or  near  Fort  Niagara,  where  he  remained  until  after  the 
Buffalo  battle,  after  which  he  went  to  the  battle  ground  "  to  look  for  the  dead 
and  wounded,"  says : 

"There  was  not  a  house  nor  tent  for  the  soldiers  in  the  town.  They  could 
not  procure  food  or  lodging ;  and  there  was  not  an  enemy  on  this  side  of  the 
river.  The  soldiers  that  went  home  to  Chautauqua  did  so  because  they  were 
obliged  to ;  being  without  money,  and  having  no  government  stock  on  hand. 
Besides,  most  of  them  had  left  their  families  and  cattle  without  food.  The 
latter  had  to  be  kept  on  browse,  and  some  of  them  died.  The  weather  was 
cold,  and  the  soldiers  had  to  furnish  their  own  blankets,  for  the  want  of 
which  their  families  were  suffering  ;  and  their  presence  at  home  was  necessary 
to  keep  their  families  from  starvation." 

William  Russell,  a  sergeant  in  Capt.  Silsb/s  company,  thus  describes  the 
state  of  things  at  home  on  his  return  : 


"  My  wife  and  children  met  me  at  the  gate  to  welcome  me  in,  and  said : 
'  You  will  not  go  back  again  ?'  I  told  her  I  should,  the  day  after  to-morrow, 
[the  3d  of  January,]  and  that  I  had  the  premise  of  being  discharged  in  a  few 
days.  On  the  6th  day  I  returned  to  Buffalo  with  what  deserters  I  could  find, 
about  ten.  We  were  in  season  to  help  gather  and  bury  the  dead.  I  returned 
home  the  last  week  in  February  or  the  first  in  March.  I  found  two  of  my 
cows  lying  dead,  having  died  of  starvation.  Isaac  Young  had  brought  my 
wife  a  peck  of  musty  meal.  She  boiled  a  quart  into  mush  and  fed  it  to  one 
cow  at  night,  and  another  quart  the  next  morning ;  but  it  did  not  save  her 
life.  Young  promised  her  a  peck  of  com  per  week  until  I  returned  home — 
a  small  allowance  for  her  and  six  children^  She  proceeded  to  get  supper. 
There  was  a  little  meat,  but  no  bread  except  a  little  piece  of  johnny-cake. 
I  said,  boil  some  potatoes  ;  but  there  was  not  one  left ;  all  had  been  fed  to 
the  cows  to  save  their  lives,  but  they  died.  Bed  time  came  ;  when  she  said : 
'  We  will  fix  for  bed  ;  I  suppose  you  have  got  seasoned  to  lying  on  the  floor.' 
'Yes,'  I  replied,  'and  on  the  ground  too.'  She  swept  the  floor,  and  brought 
on  the  bed.  I  told  her  to  bring  on  the  straw  bed.  She  said  there  had  been 
no  straw  in  the  tick  for  three  weeks  ;  it  had  all  been  fed  to  the  cows.  *  *  * 
Now,  Judge  Foote,  you  can  better  conceive  my  feelings  than  I  can  describe 
them.  To  think  of  the  privations  and  hardships  we  all  went  through,  and  to 
bear  the  name  of  deserters  withal,  makes  the  blood  boil  in  my  veins.  Not  a 
word  is  said  about  our  volunteering  under  Gen.  Peter  B.  Porter,  and  going 
over  to  Fort  Erie  ;  that  is  all  forgotten." 

David  Eaton,  late  of  Portland,  under  date  of  August  26,  1832,  wrote  on 
this  subject  as  follows  : 

"  We  all  admitted  and  felt  that  the  affair  at  Black  Rock  and  BuflFalo  was 
disgraceful  to  the  militia,  not  of  Chautauqua  county  alone,  but  of  Western 
New  York.  While  a  part  of  the  militia  of  this  county  remained  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  Buffalo,  and  another  part  returned,  and  continued  in  service  some  five 
or  six  weeks,  I  have  no  knowledge  that  any  from  the  other  counties, — Cattar- 
augus, Allegany,  Niagara,  •Genesee,  and  perhaps  Orleans  and  Steuben — ever 
returned  at  all.  If  the  odium  of  desertion  fairly  attaches  to  any  of  us,  it  does 
also  to  all  of  them,  their  oflScers  included.  And  I  strongly  suspect,  (though 
I  do  not  know,)  that  the  regiments  from  those  counties  were  never  mustered 
at  all ;  and,  if  so,  no  record  was  ever  made  of  their  being  in  the  service. 
And  thus  they  slipped  their  own  necks  out  of  the  yoke,  and  left  the  disgrace, 
so  far  as  appears  from  the  returns,  to  be  borne  wholly  by  poor  old  Chau- 
tauqua. *  *  *  If  they  [from  those  counties]  did  desert,  officers  and  all, 
that  is  no  excuse  for  us.  I  have  no  disposition  to  gloss  over  our  conduct 
by  a  comparison  with  others,  but  am  willing  that  the  truth  should  be  known. 
A  part  of  our  regiment  did  leare  after  the  battle,  came  home,  and  did  not 
return ;  and  perhaps  there  was  no  other  way  than  to  return  them  as  deserters. 
But  even  in  their  case,  something  may  be  said  in  their  favor.  It  was  well 
known  that  Gen.  McClure  had  just  burned  Newark,  and  everybody  expected 
that  the  enemy  would  retaliate  by  burning  Buffalo.  When  the  mihtia  of  the 
western  counties  were  called  out,  en  masse,  it  was  generally  understood  that 
it  was  for  the  express  purpose  of  defending  that  place.  And  when  they  found 
that  all  was  lost,  it  was  not  unnatural  for  them  to  suppose  that  their  services 
were  no  longer  needed.  Col.  John  McMahan,  who  commanded  the  regiment 
from  this  county,  said,  he  had  been  legally  called  into  the  service  of  the 
United  States,  and  he  meant  to  stay  till  he  could  be  legally  discharged.     He 

WAR   HISTORY.  l8l 

did  so,  and  did  all  he  could  to  get  the  men  back,  and  keep  them  there.  He 
was,  however,  rather  liberal  in  giving  furloughs,  and  many  of  us  took  the  ad- 
vantage of  it,  myself  among  the  rest." 

Gen.  Hall,  in  his  report  of  January  6,  1814,  says:  "The  Chautauqua 
militia,  a  regiment  under  the  command  of  Lt.  Col.  McMahan,  which  arrived 
at  Buffalo  on  the  29th  of  December,  about  300  men,  swelled  my  force  to 
2,011 ;  which  was  reduced  by  alarm  and  desertion,  on  the  morning  of  the 
alarm,  to  less  than  1,200  men.  And  so  deficient  were  my  supplies  of  ammu- 
nition, that  a  great  part  of  the  cartridges  for  Lt.  Col.  McMahan's  regiment 
were  made  and  distributed  after  they  were  paraded  on  the  morning  of  the 
battle.  *  *  *  Col.  McMahan's  regiment  had  been  a  reserve  in  battle ; 
but  when  ordered  into  action,  terror  seized  them — they  flew  in  disgrace, 
though  some  stood  by  and  behaved  well,  and  endeavored  to  rally  men." 

To  the  defection  of  the  reserve,  he  imputes,  in  great  part,  his  defeat. 

From  the  statements  in  preceding  pages,  it  is  not  easy  to  determine  what 
measure  of  blame  attaches  to  the  Chautauqua  militia.  It  should  be  remem- 
bered that  they  were  raw  soldiers,  without  adequate  drill,  and  without  expe- 
rience, hurried  into  action,  almost  at  the  moment  of  their  arrival,  against  the 
well-drilled  and  experienced  British  soldiers.  There  may  have  been  Other 
difficulties  which  could  not  have  been  overcome  by  the  best-disciplined 
troops.  It  was  well  for  themselves  and  their  families,  that  their  services 
were  not  needed  for  any  considerable  period  after  the  unfortunate  engage- 
ment we  have  described. 

When  the  war  was  about  to  commence,  many  were  more  apprehensive  of 
our  inability  to  cope  wilh  the  enemy  on  the  seas  than  on  the  land.  But  it 
is  now  generally  conceded  that  our  greatest  successes  were  achieved  by  our 
navy.  Both  the  belligerents  probably  congratulated  themselves  on  the  re- 
turn of  peace,  though  neither  had  occasion  to  rejoice  at  what  had  been 
gained  in  the  contest.  We  doubtless  convinced  Great  Britain  of  our  strength 
as  a  nation,  and  our  ability  to  defend  ourselves  against  the  encroachments 
and  injuries  of  other  powers;  but  our  government  failed  to  secure  the  only 
object  fought  for — to  redress  the  grievance  of  the  impressment  of  seamen  on 
American  vessels.  The  repeal  of  the  British  orders  in  council,  of  which  we 
justly  complained,  as  will  be  remembered,  was  proclaimed  before  the  war 
had  really  commenced,  leaving  only  the  impressment  question  at  issue,  which 
was  left  as  it  had  been,  without  any  concession  on  the  part  of  Great  Britain. 
Peace,  even  with  this  grievance  unredressed,  was  a  boon,  for  which  our 
people  had  reason  to  be  grateful.  Especially  have  we  occasion  to  rejoice  at 
the  prospect  of  perpetual  peace  between  two  nations  having  a  common  ori- 
gin, a  common  language,  and  a  common  religion. 

The  last  battle  was  fought  at  New  Orleans,  in  which  our  army  under  Gen. 
Jackson  gained  a  brilliant  victory,  after  the  treaty  of  peace  had  been  negoti- 
ated in  Europe.  Peace,  however,  was  not  proclaimed  in  this  country  until 
February  following. 



Its  Origin. 

An  enumeration  of  all  the  events  which  led  to  the  war  of  the  rebellion,  is 
incompatible  with  the  design  as  well  as  the  prescribed  limits  of  this  work. 
Yet,  as  it  seems  proper  that  some  statement  of  the  causes  of  a  war  should  be 
transmitted  with  its  history,  we  preface  our  brief  sketch  of  the  rebellion  with 
the  mention  of  a  few  of  the  antecedents  of  the  war  in  which  many  of  the 
citizens  of  Chautauqua  county  bore  an  honorable  and  a  conspicuous  part. 

Our  late  civil  war  may  be  justly  ascribed,  in  great  part,  to  that  grand  politi- 
cal heresy  named  in  the  South  state  rights ;  by  which  is  meant  the  right  of  a 
state  to  nullify  an  act  of  Congress  which  state  authorities  may  declare  uncon- 
stitutional— a  doctrine  expressly  asserted  in  the  original  draft  of  the  Ken- 
tucky Resolutions  of  1798,  and  which,  for  a  time,  was  accepted  by  a  majority 
of  the  people  of  the  North  as  well  as  the  South — a  doctrine  which  involves 
the  right  of  a  state  to  secede  from  the  Union.  In  1832,  South  Carolina, 
displeased  with  a  protective  tariff,  passed  an  ordinance  of  secession ;  but  by 
concessions  to  her  prejudices  and  demands,  she  was  induced  to  repeal  her 
ordinance,  and  consented  to  remain  in  the  Union.  The  cause  of  the  late  war 
was  the  evident  determination  of  the  Northern  states  to  prevent  the  further 
extension  of  slavery.  The  effort  to  introduce  slavery  into  Kansas  had  proved 
unsuccessful.  The  election  of  Mr.  Lincoln  was  regarded  by  the  South  as  a 
death-blow  to  their  favorite  project,  unless  they  could  separate  themselves 
from  the  Union. 

The  republican  party  had  been  formed  in  1855,  upon  the  issue  of  slavery 
extension.  In  1856,  threats  of  disunion,  in  case  of  the  election  of  Fremont, 
were  uttered  by  the  leading  statesmen  of  the  South  ;  and  the  election  of  Mr. 
Lincoln  in  i860  was  made  the  occasion  for  carrying  their  meditated  project 
into  effect.  South  Carolina  took  the  lead  in  the  secession  movement.  A 
state  convention  was  called  to  meet  on  the  17th  of  December.  Before  the 
end  of  November,  similar  calls  were  issued  in  Georgia,  Mississippi,  Alabama, 
Virginia,  Florida,  and  Louisiana;  and  their  legislatures  assembled  in  Decem- 
ber and  January.  Before  the  meeting  of  Congress  in  December,  the  move- 
ment for  immediate  secession  was  confined  to  the  cotton  and  Gulf  states. 
The  secession  of  Tennessee,  Texas,  Arkansas,  and  North  Carolina  was  for 
a  time  delayed. 

Congress  met  December  3,  i860.  In  his  message,  President  Buchanan 
ascribes  the  occurrences  at  the  South  to  "  the  long  continued  and  intemperate 
interference  of  the  northern  people  with  the  question  of  slavery."  He  says 
it  would  be  "  easy  for  the  American  people  to  settle  the  slavery  question  for- 
ever, and  to  restore  peace  and  harmony.  *  *  *  All  that  is  necessary, 
and  all  for  which  the  slave  states  have  ever  contended,  is  to  be  let  alone." 
He  denies  the  right  of  secession  as  a  constitutional  right,  and  says :  "  Seces- 
sion is  neither  more  nor  less  than  revolution.      It  may,  or  it  may  not,  be  a 

WAR  HISTORY.  1 83 

justifiable  revolution ;  but  still  it  is  revolution."  He  discusses  the  question 
as  to  the  power  of  Congress  to  coerce  into  submission  a  state  which  is 
attempting  to  withdraw,  or  has  withdrawn  from  the  confederacy ;  and  con- 
cludes, "  that  no  such  power  has  been  delegated  to  Congress  or  to  any  other 
department  of  the  federal  government.  *  *  *  War  would  present  the 
most  effectual  means  of  destroying  the  Union,  and  banish  all  hope  of  its 
peaceable  reconstruction.  *  *  *  Congress  possess  many  means  of  pre- 
serving it  by  conciliation;  but  the  sword  was  not  placed  in  their  hand  to 
preserve  it  by  force.'' 

The  argument  of  the  president  against  the  power  to  coerce  a  state,  seems 
to  have  been  based  upon  the  official  opinion  of  Attorney-General  Black. 
The  president  may  employ  the  land  and  naval  forces  to  aid  him  in  executing 
the  laws.  He  can  thus  enforce  the  collection  of  the  duties  within  the  proper 
port  of  entry,  but  he  is  not  confined  to  the  custom-house  nor  any  particular 
spot.      He  says  : 

"  To  send  a  military  force  into  a  state  to  act  against  the  people,  would  be 
simply  making  war  upon  them.  Existing  laws  put  and  keep  the  government 
strictly  on  the  defensive.  Force  can  be  used  only  to  repel  an  assault  upon 
the  public  property,  and  aid  the  courts  in  the  performance  of  their  duty. 
*  *  *  If  war  can  not  be  declared,  nor  hostilities  carried  on  against  a 
state,  by  the  central  government,  then  it  seems  to  follow  that  an  attempt  to 
do  so  would  be  ipso  facto  an  expulsion  of  such  state  from  the  Union.  Being 
treated  as  an  alien  and  an  enemy,  she  would  be  compelled  to  act  accordingly. 
And  if  Congress  shall  thus  break  up  this  Union,  will  not  all  the  states  be  ab- 
solved from  their  federal  obligations  ?  Is  any  portion  of  the  people  bound 
to  contribute  their  money  or  blood  to  carry  on  such  a  contest  ?  *  *  * 
If  this  view  of  the  subject  be  as  correct  as  I  think  it  is,  then  the  Union  must 
utterly  perish  at  the  moment  when  Congress  shall  arm  one  part  of  the  people 
against  another  for  any  purpose  but  that  of  merely  protecting  the  general 
government  in  the  exercise  of  its  proper  constitutional  functions." 

On  the  2ist  of  December,  i860.  South  Carolina  passed  the  secession  ordi- 
nance; and  on  the  24th,  Gov.  Pickens,  by  proclamation,  declared  South 
Carolina  to  be  "  a  separate,  sovereign,  free  and  independent  state,  having  a 
right  to  levy  war,  conclude  peace,  negotiate  treaties,"  etc.  It  is  worthy  of 
note,  that  the  secretary  of  war,  John  B.  Floyd,  of  Va.,  had  placed  in  the 
arsenal  at  Charleston  about  70,000  stand  of  arms ;  and  the  arsenal  was  put 
in  the  care  of  the  governor  of  the  state,  by  which  means  the  arms  got  into 
the  hands  of  the  conspirators ;  thus  showing  the  complicity  of  the  secretary 
in  the  treason.  The  two  South  Carolina  senators  had  resigned  their  seats. 
Cobb,  secretary  of  the  treasury,  resigned  December  loth;  and  Senator  Cass, 
of  Michigan,  on  the  14th.  The  resignation  of  the  latter  was  believed  to 
have  been  caused  by  the  president's  unwillingness  to  resort  to  coercion,  even 
to  protect  the  public  property. 

Serious  apprehensions  for  the  safety  of  Major  Anderson  and  his  men  in 
Fort  Moultrie,  were  entertained.  His  garrison  consisted  of  only  sixty  effec- 
tive men;  and  the  fort  was  an  indifferent  and  insecure  one.  Unsuspected  by 
the  South  Carolina  authorities,  and  without  the  knowledge  of  the  president, 


and  having,  moreover,  been  denied  reenforcements,  on  the  night  of  the 
26th  of  December,  he  left  Fort  Moultrie,  and  occupied  Fort  Sumter,  which 
had  been  prepared  for  him.  The  evacuation  of  Fort  Moultrie  surprised 
the  South  Carolinians  and  the  president :  the  former,  because  they  consid- 
ered the  president  under  a  pledge  to  prevent  such  a  movement ;  the  latter, 
because  he  had  instructed  Major  Anderson  to  pursue  a  course  which  should 
guard  against  a  collision  of  troops  with  the  people  of  that  state.  He  had 
enjoined  him  "not  to  take  up,  without  necessity,  any  position  which  could 
be  construed  into  the  assumption  of  a  hostile  attitude ;  but  to  hold  posses- 
sion of  the  forts,  and,  if  attacked,  to  defend  himself" 

From  the  feelings  and  expressions  of  the  people  in  and  about  Charleston, 
and  from  the  preparations  for  military  movements,  Anderson  had  reason 
to  expect  either  an  attack  in  an  almost  defenceless  fort,  or  an  early  occupa- 
tion of  Fort  Sumter.  Should  the  latter  take  place,  he  could  not  maintain 
his  position  a  single  day ;  and  having  no  expectation  of  reenforcements,  he 
thought  it  his  duty  to  change  his  position.  This  movement,  however,  was 
construed  into  a  threat  of  coercion,  and  was  immediately  followed  by  prep- 
arations for  resistance. 

Commencement  of  Hostilities. 

The  South  Carolina  convention  which  had  been  called  to  meet  on  the  17  th 
of  December,  i860,  elected  three  commissioners  "to  treat  with  the  United 
States  "  for  a  peaceful  settlement.  They  arrived  at  Washington  the  26th, 
and,  in  obedience  to  their  instructions,  demanded  of  the  president  the  un- 
conditional evacuation  of  the  forts  in  the  harbor,  in  case  of  his  refusal  to 
order  Anderson  back  to  Fort  Moultrie.  The  post-office  and  the  telegraph 
offices  were  taken  under  control  of  the  state  authorities ;  and  possession  was 
taken  of  the  custom-house  and  of  Fort  Moultrie  and  Castle  Pinckney  by  the 
state  troops,  who  were  readily  supphed  by  the  arms  and  munitions  which  Sec- 
retary Floyd  had  placed  in  the  arsenal  there.  Of  the  interview  between  the 
commissioners  and  the  president,  it  needs  only  to  be  said  that  it  was  fruitless. 

F^rly  in  January,  1861,  the  steamer.  Star  of  the  West,  left  New  York,  by 
order  of  the  war  department,  then  conducted  by  Joseph  Holt,  of  Ky.,  with 
provisions  and  munitions  and  200  troops  for  Fort  Sumter.  The  Charleston 
authorities  having  become  apprised  of  this,  they  made  preparations  to  resist 
the  passage  of  the  steamer  to  her  destination.  When  within  about  two  mUes 
of  Fort  Sumter,  a  masked  battery  from  Morris'  Island  opened  fire  upon  her. 
She  was  struck  several  times,  and  was  compelled  to  return  without  accom- 
plishing her  mission. 

Early  in  February,  the  secretaries  of  departments  from  the  seceding  states, 
and  their  senators  and  many  of  their  representatives,  had  resigned  their  seats. 
In  January,  the  seven  states  which  united  in  forming  the  Southern  Confed- 
eracy, had  adopted  their  ordinances  of  secession ;  [South  Carolina,  Dec.  20, 
i860;  Texas,  Feb.  i,  1861.] 

On  the  4th  of  February,  the  members  of  the  sofifcem  convention  met  at 

WAR   HISTORY.  1 85 

Montgomery,  Ala.,  for  the  purpose  oi  forming  a  government.  The  delegates 
had  been  chosen  by  the  several  state  conventions.  The  constitution  of  the 
United  States,  with  some  alterations  and  additions  relating  to  slaves  and 
slavery,  was  adopted  as  the  constitution  of  the  confederacy.  On  the  9th,  the 
convention  chose  Jefferson  Davis  to  be  provisional  president,  and  Alexander 
H.  Stephens,  vice-president. 

Sundry  peace  measures  were  proposed  in  Congress,  but  without  effect. 
Also  a  "peace  convention,"  proposed  by  the  state  of  Virginia,  in  which 
twenty-one  states  were  represented,  met  at  Washington  on  the  4th  of  Feb- 
ruary, and  continued  its  session  until  the  27  th.  The  seceding  states  took  no 
part  in  it.     It  was  without  any  practical  result. 

The  war  was  commenced  by  the  bombardment  of  Fort  Sumter,  April  1 2, 
x86i.  The  batteries  of  Sullivan's  Island,  Morris'  Island,  and  other  points, 
were  opened  on  the  fort  at  4  o'clock  in  the  morning.  Fort  Sumter  returned 
the  fire,  and  a  brisk  cannonading  was  kept  up  for  some  time.  In  answer  to 
the  Confederate  General  Beauregard's  demand  to  surrender  the  fort,  Major 
Anderson  replied,  that  he  would  surrender  when  his  supplies  were  exhausted ; 
that  is,  if  he  were  not  reenforced.  On  the  next  day  he  surrendered  the  fort. 
After  the  surrender,  bells  were  rung  and  cannons  fired  in  Charleston.  No 
lives,  it  was  said,  were  lost  in  the  bombardment,  though  several  of  Ander- 
son's men  were  wounded.  The  rebels  also  pretended  that  they  had 
suflfered  no  loss.  This  was  at  first  believed.  It  was  afterward  stated  on  what 
was  considered  reliable  authority,  that  about  300  were  killed  in  Fort  Moultrie 
alone.  This  statement  was  corroborated  by  a  northern  man  who  had  been 
forced  into  the  confederate  service,  and  who  was  in  Fort  Moultrie  during 
the  bombardment.  Major  Anderson  and  his  men  left  on  the  14th  for  New 
York,  on  the  steamer  Isabel.  The  necessity  of  the  surrender  appears  from 
Major  Anderson's  dispatch  to  the  secretary  of  war : 

"  Sir  :  Having  defended  Fort  Sumter  34  hours,  until  quarters  were  en- 
tirely burned,  main  gates  destroyed  by  fire,  the  gorge  wall  seriously  injured, 
magazine  surrounded  by  flames,  and  its  door  closed  from  the  effects  of  heat, 
four  barrels  and  three  cartridges  of  powder  only  being  available,  and  no 
provisions  but  pork  remaining,  I  accepted  terms  of  evacuation  offered  by 
Gen.  Beauregard,  being  the  same  offered  by  him  on  the  nth  instant,  prior 
to  the  commencement  of  hostilities,  and  marched  out  of  the  fort  on  Sunday 
afternoon,  14th  instant,  with  colors  flying,  drums  beating,  bringing  away 
company  and  private  property,  and  saluting  my  flag  with  fifty  guns." 

It  was  believed  that  the  confederates  intended  to  march  on  Washington 
with  a  large  army;  and  detachments  of  cavalry  were  stationed  on  roads 
outside  of  the  city,  and  volunteer  companies  were  in  the  capital.  Action 
was  immediately  taken  in  many  of  the  states  for  raising  troops.  The  services 
of  many  thousand  volunteers  were  promptly  offered. 

On  the  15th  of  April,  1861,  President  Lincoln  issued  s. proclamation  calling 
for  7 5, 000  men,  whose  first  services  would  "probably  be  to  repossess  the 
forts,  places,  and  property  which  had  been  seized  firom  the  Union."  He 
stated  that  the  utmcwKare  would   be  observed,  to   avoid  injury  to  the 


property  or  persons  of  peaceful  citizens  of  any  part  of  the  country.  And  he 
commanded  the  persons  composing  the  combinations  against  the  government 
to  disperse,  and  to  return  to  their  homes  within  20  days  from  date.  He  also 
called  a  special  session  of  Congress,  to  meet  on  the  4th  of  July  next,  to  deter- 
mine such  measures  as  the  public  safety  and  interest  might  seem  to  demand. 
This  proclamation  was,  within  a  few  days,  followed  by  another,  declaring  a 
blockade  of  the  ports  of  all  the  seceded  states. 

Two  days  after  orders  for  troops  had  been  issued  by  Gov.  Andrew,  of 
Massachusetts,  two  regiments,  collected  from  different  parts  of  the  state, 
appeared  at  the  capitol,  and  reached  New  York  city,  en  route  for  Washington, 
before  a  regiment  of  this  state  was  ready  to  march.  Many  banks  and  wealthy 
individuals  offered  large  loans  of  money  to  the  government.  Public  meetings 
were  held  in  almost  every  village  to  raise  money  and  other  means  of  support 
for  the  families  of  the  volunteers. 

At  Fredonia,  a  public  meeting  was  held  on  the  evening  of  the  20th  of 
April,  and  was  effectively  addressed  by  Oscar  W.  Johnson,  Frederick  A. 
Redington,  George  Barker,  Lorenzo  Morris,  Ezra  S.  Ely,  and  Orson  Stiles, 
all  of  Fredonia,  and  Geo.  C.  Cranston,  of  Sheridan.  A  series  of  patriotic 
resolutions  were  adopted,  and  a  finance  committee  was  appointed  to  take 
charge  of  and  to  disburse  the  fund  to  be  raised  for  the  relief  of  the  famiUes 
of  the  volunteer  soldiers.  The  names  of  those  who  subscribed  to  this  fund 
at  this  meeting,  and  the  sums  they  respectively  pledged,  were  as  follows  : 

George  Barker,  Orson  Stiles,  Stephen  M.  Clement,  John  B.  &  Heman  D. 
M.  Miner,  [firm,.]  Scott  Aldrich,  Geo.  H.  White,  Lewis  B.  Grant,  Geo.  W. 
Lewis,  Calvin  Hutchinson,  $100  each;  Joel  R.  Parker,  $125  ;  Censor  o^c^, 
James  P.  MuUett,  Taylor  &  Jennings,  Geo.  N.  Frazine,  Alva  Colbum, 
Henry  C.  Frisbee,  John  B.  Forbes,  A.  N.  Clark  &  Co.,  Luther  Crocker,  J. 
N.  Greene,  James  O.  Putnam,  Frederick  A.  Redington,  R.  U.  Wheelock, 
Leveret  B.  Greene,  Duane  L.  Gumsey,  David  Barrell,  Geo.  D.  Hinkley,  each 
$50  ;  W.  W.  Lewis,  $35  ;  Erastus  Holt,  Charles  E.  Washburn,  John  M.  Van 
Kleek,  Thomas  W.  Bristol,  Aaron  L.  Putnam,  Salmon  Hart,  Nathan  A.  Put- 
nam, Caleb  Stanley,  Geo.  W.  Briggs,  Isaac  A.  Saxton,  Delos  Beebe,  Charles 
J.  Orton,  W.  W.  Scott,  Preston  Barmore,  John  Hamilton,  Jr.,  E.  M.  Spink, 
Ezra  S,  Ely,  L.  A.  Barmore,  Emory  F.  Warren,  Oscar  W.  Johnson,  J.  B. 
Putnam,  Aaron  O.  Putnam,  Charles  F.  Matteson,  C.  W.  Burton,  Simeon 
Savage,  Spencer  Allen,  Stephen  Snow,  Daniel  J.  Pratt,  each  $25  ;  Stephen 
O.  Day,  Allen  Hinkley,  Obed  Bissell,  Wm.  B.  Archibald,  Ralph  H.  Hall, 
Abner  N.  Clark,  Jesse  E.  Baldwin,  Julius  J.  Parker,  John  C.  Mullett,  R.  E. 
Post,  D.  O.  Sherman,  Lorenzo  Morris,  H.  Bouton,  each  $20.     Total,  $2,870. 

Movements  in  the  North. 

At  Jamestown,  a  mass-meeting  was  held  on  the  29th  of  April,  which  was 
stated  to  be  the  first  large  movement  of  the  people  in  that  section  of  the  county. 
The  occasion  was  honored  by  the  closing  of  store^^  business  places,  and 
a  grand  display  of  colors.      A  magnificent  flag  thl^Btd  seen  service  in  the 


navy,  was  run  up  on  a  staff  at  the  stand,  comer  of  Pine  and  Third  streets. 
Hon.  Samuel  A.  Brown  was  chosen  president  of  the  meeting ;  and  Horace 
Allen,  Jehlel  Tiffany,  Levi  Barrows,  Sardius  Steward,  D.  G.  Powers,  Daniel 
Williams,  John  A.  Hall,  Emri  Davis,  David  Wilbur,  H.  N.  Thornton,  John 
Markham,  S.  E.  Palmer,  vice-presidents.  The  meeting  was  addressed  by  the 
president  on  the  nature  of  the  nation's  crisis  and  the  duty  of  her  citizens. 
He  introduced,  successively,  as  speakers,  Hon.  R.  P.  Marvin,  Rev.  Messrs. 
S.  W.  Roe,  H.  H.  Stockton,  of  Panama,  T.  H.  Rouse,  L.  W.  Norton,  Henry 
Benson,  and  J.  Leslie.  They  were  followed  by  Capt.  James  M.  Brown,  of 
company  B.,  and  Hon.  Madison  Bumell.  A  subscription  for  the  volunteers 
was  then  opened  and  a  generous  fund  raised.  After  which,  short  speeches 
were  made  by  Rev.  Isaac  George,  and  Messrs.  Wm.  H.  Lowry  and  Theodore 
Brown.  Also  a  committee  of  ladies  was  appointed  to  provide  for  the  ward- 
robe and  other  wants  of  the  volunteers :  Mrs.  A.  F.  Allen,  Mrs.  D.  H. 
Grandin,  Mrs.  R.  P.  Marvin,  Mrs.  Lewis  Hall,  Mrs.  O.  E.  Jones,  Mrs.  J.  H. 
Clark,  Mrs.  C.  L.  Harris,  Mrs.  Orsell  Cook,  Mrs.  C.  L.  Jeffords,  Mrs.  Wm. 
Post,  Mrs.  W.  Barker,  Mrs.  S.  Seymour. 

Another  meeting  was  held  at  Jamestown,  Friday  evening,  July  25th,  fol- 
lowed by  two  others  on  Saturday  and  Monday  evenings.  In  the  Journal, 
from  which  the  following  account  is  taken,  the  proceedings  were  thus 
introduced  : 

Three  Huge  Meetings  in  Jamestown — Prodigal  Outpouring  of  Money  and  Men 
for  the  Good  Cause — Grand  Speeches  from  Orators  and  the  People — 
Poland,  Carroll,  Kiantone,  Ellington,  Busti,  Harmony,  and  the  county 

The  editor  says  :  We  hardly  know  where  to  commence  the  narration  of 
the  exciting  events  of  the  past  week.  Our  people  have  been  wrought  up  to 
a  pitch  of  enthusiasm  and  patriotic  ardor,  that,  in  some  respects,  can  find  no 
parallel  in  previous  experiences.  *  *  *  Three  meetings,  such  as  this 
place  has  never  seen  before,  have  been  held.  The  meeting  of  Friday  even- 
ing, July  25th,  exceeded  the  expectations  of  the  most  sanguine.  Every  seat 
in  Jones'  Hall  was  filled  before  dark,  and  all  the  standing  room  was  packed 
full  before  the  meeting  commenced.  Probably  hundreds  were  turned  away 
from  the  stairs,  which  also  were  crowded. 

Hon.  Samuel  A.  Brown  was  chosen  to  preside,  and  J.  E.  Mayhew  made 
secretary.  The  meeting  was  addressed  by  Rev.  L.  W.  Norton,  Capt.  Tuck- 
erman,  Capt.  A.  J.  Marsh,  of  company  K.,  49th  regiment,  Hon.  Madison 
Burnell,  and  John  F.  Smith,  Esq.  Subscriptions  for  money  were  again  taken 
for  the  families  of  volunteers.  Upwards  of  $500  was  subscribed;  In  the 
meantime  lists  were  open  for  vplunteers  to  subscribe.  Then  came  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  and  exciting  scenes  ever  witnessed  in  this  county. 
Capt.  Marsh,  Capt.  John  F.  Smith,  Rev.  Henry  Benson,  Madison  Bumell 
and  others,  gathered  in  front  of  the  platform  receiving  the  names  of  subscrib- 
ers, their  amounts,  andJlfc^names  of  recruits,  exhorting  in  the  most  thrilling 
and  patriotic  tone.     '^^^Kp  the  ball  rolling,  as  each  noble  fellow  walked  to 



the  stand,  and  laid  himself  a  live  offering  on  his  country's  altar,  three  cheers 
were  given  to  each  by  the  excited  audience. 

Col.  Henry  Baker  was  called  to  the  stand,  and  made  most  touching  and 
patriotic  remarks.  The  old  man,  trembling  and  weak,  told  how  he  "went  to 
the  defense  of  his  country  when  but  i6  years  old;"  that  he  had  three  boys 
in  the  army  now ;  that  he  hated  to  let  'them  go  ;  but  he  "  could  not  blame 
them,  for  their  'dad'  went  when  he  was  only  sixteen."  He  did  not  know 
that  he  should  ever  see  the  boys  again.  One  of  them  was  badly  wounded 
and  a  prisoner — if  he  was  alive — the  second  was  sick  in  the  hospital.  Then 
the  old  man  broke  clear  down,  and  sobbingly  declared  that  his  only  regret 
was,  that  he  had  not  six  boys  more  to  send  ;  and  closed  with  the  most 
touching  benediction  on  the  old  flag  and  on  the  country.  Many  wept  with 
him,  sharing  alike  his  emotion  and  his  devotion  to  his  country. 

Wm.  H.  Tew,  from  the  back  side  of  the  room,  said  he  wanted  the  thing  to 
move  a  little  faster;  and  he  offered  $2  to  every  man  who  would  enlist,  in  ad- 
dition to  the  gross  amount  subscribed  by  him  before.  O.  E.  Jones  offered 
$5  to  every  man.  Col.  Allen  pledged  $io  to  every  man ;  Solomon  Jones, 
$5  ;  and  others  enough  to  make  $25  to  every  man — making  $50  bounty  to 
every  one.  Midnight  arrived ;  and  the  enthusiasm  of  the  audience  was  un- 
abated. Nine  volunteers  had  been  enrolled ;  and  it  was  moved  to  suspend 
operations  until  the  next  evening.  The  offers  mentioned  above  were  extended 
until  the  next  night. 

The  meeting  on  Saturday  evening  was,  if  possible,  more  enthusiastic  than 
the  former  one,  and  was  more  fertile  in  practical  accomplishments  of  the  end 
in  view — enlistments.  The  speakers  were  Rev.  Messrs.  S.  W.  Roe,  P.  Byrnes, 
and  H.  Benson,  and  Mr.  Bumell  and  Capt.  Smith.  When  the  roll  was 
opened,  volunteers  came  in  squads  and  platoons.  Thirty  names  were  re- 
ceived in  addition  to  those  previously  obtained.  The  meeting  adjourned 
while  the  excitement  was  high,  to  Broadhead  Hall,  Monday  evening. 

The  meeting  on  Monday  evening  was  as  well  attended  as  the  others.  It 
was  addressed  by  Rev.  T.  H.  Rouse,  Major  Wm.  O.  Stevens,  Theodore 
,  Brown,  Qr.  Master  Knapp,  Col.  A.  F.  Allen,  Capt.  Tuckerman,  Rev.  H. 
Benson,  and  others.  Seven  more  volunteered.  At  a  late  hour  the  meeting 
adjourned,  sine  die.  At  this  series  of  meetings,  the  names  oi forty-six  patriots 
were  enrolled,  and  $2,600  were  pledged  to  be  raised  for  them. 

In  Westfield,  on  Saturday  evening,  April  20th,  a  meeting  of  the  citizens 
was  held  in  Hinkley  Hall  to  consider  measures  for  raising  volunteers,  and 
for  the  support  of  their  families.  The  hall  was  densely  packed  with  persons, 
from  the  s^ppl^^outhnto  the  tottering,  gray  old  man,  each  eager  to  contribute, 
in  some  way,  to  Vhe~  defense  of  his  country.  Hon.  George  W.  Patterson 
was  called  to  the  chair,  and  addressed  the  meeting  in  a  stirring  and  patriotic 
manner.  E.  W.  Dennison  was  cliosen  secretary.  Messrs.  Austin  Smith, 
Joshua  R.  Babcock,  and  Alpheus  U.  Baldwin,  were  appointed  a  committee 
to  prepare  resolutions  expressive  of  the  sense  of  U|Mpeeting.  Hon.  Henry 
A.  Prendergast,  of  Ripley,  being  present,  beinfl^Hed  for,  addressed  the 

f  U^^ei 

WAR  HISTORY.  1 89 

meeting  in  an  earnest  and  patriotic  manner,  and  was  greeted  with  enthusiastic 
applause.  The  resolutions  reported  by  the  committee,  approved  the  action 
of  the  president  in  calUng  out  troops  to  aid  in  executing  the  laws  and  repos- 
sessing the  forts  and  other  places  and  property  seized  by  the  insurgents ; 
invited  all  true  patriots  able  to  bear  arms  to  volunteer  their  services ;  and 
pledged  the  means  necessary  for  the  support  of  the  families  of  those  who 
were  absent  in  the  service  of  their  country.     The  resolutions  were  adopted. 

Rev.  Jeremiah  C.  Drake,  pastor  of  the  Baptist  church,  was  called  out,  and 
made  a  thrilling  speech.  He  excited  the  wildest  enthusiasm,  and  was  often 
interrupted  with  loud  applause.  He  was  folUowed  by  Messrs.  H.  C.  Kings- 
bury, John  C.  Long,  —  Adams,  Geo.  W.  Palmer,  and  Capt.  Thomas  Baker, 
of  company  C,  who  expressed  a  readiness  to  lead  his  company  wherever 
duty  should  call.  They  all  spoke  with  great  ardor,  and  took  decided  ground 
in  favor  of  sustaining  the  government  at  all  hazards.  The  chair,  on  motion, 
appointed  M.  C.  Rice,  E.  W.  Dennison,  and  Wm.  Hynes,  a  committee  to 
solicit  subscriptions  to  procure  a  complete  officer's  outfit  for  Capt.  Baker,  as 
an  expression  of  the  appreciation  of  the  citizens  of  Westfield  of  his  patriot- 
ism in  proffering  his  services  for  the  defense  of  the  government.  A  call  for 
volunteers  was  favorably  responded  to  by  a  large  number  of  young  men.  A 
subscription  for  the  benefit  of  the  families  of  volunteers  was  circulated,  and 
upwards  of  $1,000  signed  on  the  spot;  and  many  agreed  to  furnish  military 
■suits  for  those  who  volunteered. 

The  circumscribed  limits  of  our  history  forbid  a  particular  account  of  war 
movements  throughout  the  country.  The  foregoing  sketch  of  the  proceedings 
of  the  meetings  in  this  county,  is  a  fair  specimen  of  the  feeling  that  pervaded 
the  free  states.  Never,  in  any  country,  was  the  spirit  of  patriotism  more 
clearly  displayed  or  more  highly  intensified.  Its  genuineness  was  evinced 
throughout  the  North,  by  the  immense  sacrifices  of  the  people  for  the  defense 
and  preservation  of  the  Union.  Party  lines  seemed,  for  a  time,  at  least,  to 
be  obliterated,  and  all  classes  manifested  a  determination  to  suppress  the 
rebellion  at  all  hazards. 

Further  Action  of  the  Government. 

On  the  29th  of  April,  the  president  called  out  more  troops,  as  follows:  vol- 
unteers for  three  years'  service,  40,000 ;  regulars  for  five  years'  service, 
25,000  ;  seamen  for  five  years'  service,  18,000. 

Although  Maryland  was  not  among  the  seceding  states,  the  rebel  element 
prevailed  in  it  extensively.  The  Massachusetts  volunteers,  passing  through 
Baltimore,  were  assaulted  by  a  mob  in  that  city.  They  .eccupied  eleven  cars. 
Nine  cars  succeeded,  with  some  difficulty,  in  reaching  the  d^pot  on  the  other 
side  of  the  city,  amidst  the  hooting,  yelling,  and  loud  threats  of  the  mob. 
The  crowd,  unable  to  exasperate  the  volunteers,  hurled  stones,  brickbats,  and 
other  missiles,  in  showers  against  the  cars,  smashing  the  windows  and  wound- 
ing some  of  the  trooD|g|||^he  remaining  two  cars  of  the  train,  containing 
about  100  men,  cut  ^^^Bn  the  main  body,  were  soon  encompassed  by  a 




mob  of  several  thousand,  and  attacked ;  and  some  of  the  soldiers  had  their 
muskets  snatched  from  them.  The  Massachusetts  men,  finding  the  cars 
untenable,  alighted,  and  formed  a  hollow  square,  advancing  with  fixed  bay- 
onets, upon  all  sides  in  double  quick  time,  all  the  while  surrounded  by  the 
mob — swelled  by  the  addition  of  thousands — yelling  and  hooting.  The 
military  still  abstained  from  firing  upon  their  assailants.  The  mob  then 
commenced  throwing  missiles,  and  occasionally  gave  a  fire  with  a  revolver  or 
a  musket.  Two  soldiers  were  killed  and  several  wounded.  The  troops,  at 
last,  exasperated  by  the  treatment  they  had  received,  commenced  returning 
the  fire  singly,  killing  several,  and  wounding  many  of  the  rioters.  The 
volunteers,  at  last,  succeeded  in  reaching  the  d^pot  with  their  killed  and 
wounded,  and  embarked.  The  calm  courage  and  heroic  bearing  of  the 
troops  gained  them  much  honor.  Effecting  their  passage  through  crowded 
streets,  and  opposed  by  overwhelming  odds,  was  a  feat  not  easily  accom- 
plished by  a  body  of  less  than  loo  men. 

Patriotism  was  not  confined  to  the  masses  of  our  citizens  ;  it  found  unequiv- 
ocal expression  in  those  who  were  intrusted  with  the  administration  of  the 
government.  Of  this  we  have  an  admirable  specimen  in  the  instructions  of 
Secretary  Seward  to  Wm.  H.  Dayton,  the  new  minister  to  France.  A  few 
of  the  concluding  paragraphs  are  given  below.  In  regard  to  the  answer  of 
Mr.  Faulkner,  Mr.  Dayton's  predecessor,  to  M.  Thouvenul,  the  French  home 
minister,  relative  to  the  adoption  of  coercive  measures,  in  which  Mr.  Faulk- 
ner expressed  his  opinion  that  a  modification  of  the  constitutional  compact 
would  settle  the  difficulty,  or  a  peaceable  acquiescence  made  to  a  separate 
sovereignty,  the  secretary  says  : 

"  The  time  when  these  questions  had  any  pertinency  or  plausibility  has 
passed  away.  The  United  States  waited  patiently  while  their  authority  was 
defied  in  turbulent  assembly  and  insidious  preparations,  willing  to  hope 
that  mediation  on  all  sides  would  conciliate  and  induce  the  disaffected  parties 
to  return  to  a  better  mind  ;  but  the  case  has  now  altogether  changed.  The 
insurgents  have  now  instituted  revolution  with  open,  flagrant  and  deadly 
war,  to  compel  the  United  States  to  acquiesce  in  the  dismemberment  of  the  • 

"  The  United  States  have  accepted  this  civil  war  as  an  inevitable  necessity. 
Constitutional  remedies  for  all  complaints  of  the  insurgents  are  still  open, 
and  will  remain  so ;  but  on  the  other  hand,  the  land  and  naval  forces  of  the 
Union  have  been  put  into  activity  to  restore  federal  authority,  and  save  the 
Union  from  danger.  You  can  not  be  too  decided  or  explicit  in  making 
known  to  the  French  government  that  there  is  not  now,  nor  has  there  been, 
nor  will  there  be,  any  or  the  least  idea  existing  in  the  government  of  suffer- 
ing a  dissolution  of  this  Union  to  take  place  in  any  way  whatever.  There 
will  be  only  one  nation  and  one  government,  and  there  will  be  the  same 
republic  and  the  same  constitutional  Union  that  has  already  survived  a  dozen 
national  changes  of  government  in  almost  every  other  country.  These  will 
stand  hereafter  as  they  are  now,  objects  of  human  wonder  and  human 

"  You  have  seen,  on  the  eve  of  your  departure^i|^Iasticity  of  the  national 
spirit,  the  vigor  of  the  national  government,  ani^H|  lavish  devotion  of  the 



national  treasures  to  this  great  cause.  Tell  M.  Thouvenal,  with  the  highest 
consideration,  that  the  thought  of  the  dissolution  of  this  Union,  peaceably 
or  by  force,  has  never  entered  the  mind  of  any  candid  statesman  here,  and 
it  is  high  time  that  it  be  dismissed  by  statesmen  in  Europe.     I  am,  etc., 

"Wm;  H.  Seward." 

Suspension  of  the  Writ  of  Habeas  Corpus. 

For  some  time  after  the  commencement  of  the  war,  the  rebel  authorities 
seemed  to  anticipate  the  plans  of  our  government  and  the  movements  of  our 
armies.  It  was  presumed  that  information  of  the  same  was  secretly  com- 
municated from  Washington  by  persons  sympathizing  with  the  enemy.  A 
man  having  been  arrested  as  a  traitor  by  Gen.  Keira,  and  put  into  the  custody 
of  Gen.  Cadwallader  in  Fort  McHenry,  a  writ  of  habeas  corpus  was  obtained 
from  Chief  Justice  Taney  to  procure  the  release  of  the  prisoner.  Gen.  C. 
refused  to  produce  the  prisoner,  responding  that  he  was  acting  under  the 
orders  of  the  president,  who  was  authorized  by  the  constitution  to  suspend 
the  writ  in  case  of  rebellion  or  invasion.  The  power  of  the  president  to 
suspend  this  writ  without  the  consent  of  Congress  was  questioned  by  many, 
among  whom  were  some  of  the  friends  of  the  administration,  who,  however, 
justified  the  exercise  of  the  power  by  the  executive,  on  the  ground  of  neces- 
sity. The  safety  of  the  Union  would  be  in  jeopardy  if  spies  were  released 
on  bail,  and  permitted  to  renew  and  continue  their  traitorous  employment. 
Hence  it  was  deemed  right  and  just  to  exercise  a  doubtful  power,  rather  than 
that  traitors  should  triumph  through  the  action  of  federal  judges  in  sympathy 
with  the  rebellion ;  and  the  case  of  Jackson  at  New  Orleans  was  cited  in 
justification.  The  views  of  the  president  on  this  subject  were  subsequently 
given  by  himself,  in  the  following  extracts  from  his  message  to  Congress  at 
its  special  session  in  July : 

"  Soon  after  the  first  call  for  militia,  it  was  considered  a  duty  to  authorize 
the  commanding  general,  in  proper  cases,  according  to  his  discretion,  to  sus- 
pend the  privilege  of  the  habeas  corpus,  or,  in  other  words,  to  arrest  and  de- 
tain, without  resort  to  ordinary  processes  and  forms  of  law,  such  individuals 
as  he  might  consider  dangerous  to  the  public  safety.  This  authority  has  pur- 
posely been  exercised  but  very  sparingly.  Nevertheless,  the  legality  and  pro- 
priety of  what  has  been  done  under  it  are  questioned,  and  the  attention  of 
the  country  has  been  called  to  the  proposition,  that  one  who  is  sworn  to  take 
care  that  the  laws  be  faithfully  executed,  should  not  himself  violate  them. 

"  Before  this  matter  was  acted  upon,  the  whole  of  the  laws  which  were  re- 
quired to  be  faithfully  executed,  were  being  resisted  and  failing  of  execution, 
in  nearly  one-third  of  the  states.  Must  they  be  allowed  to  finally  fail  of  exe- 
cution, even  had  it  been  perfectly  clear  that,  by  the  use  of  the  means  neces- 
sary to  their  execution,  some  single  law,  made  in  such  extreme  tenderness  of 
the  citizens'  liberty,  that  practically  it  relieves  more  of  the  guilty  than  the 
innocent,  should,  to  a  very  limited  extent,  be  violated  ? 

"  To  state  the  question  more  directly  :  Are  all  the  laws  but  one  to  go  un- 
executed, and  the  government  itself  to  go  to  pieces,  lest  that  one  be  violated? 
Even  in  such  a  case.dBQuld  not  the  official  oath  be  broken  if  the  govern- 


raent  should  be  overt^Bfti  when  it  was  believed  that,  disregarding  the  single 


one  would  tend  to  preserve  it  ?  But  it  was  not  believed  that  this  question 
had  been  presented.  It  was  not  believed  that  any  law  was  violated.  The 
provision  of  the  constitution  is,  the  writ  of  habeas  corpus  shall  not  be  sus- 
pended except  when,  in  cases  of  rebellion  or  invasion,  the  public  safety  may 
require  it.  It  was  decided  that  we  have  a  case  of  rebellion,  and  the  public 
safety  does  require  the  qualified  suspension  of  the  privilege  of  the  writ  which 
was  authorized  to  be  made. 

"  Now  it  is  insisted  that  Congress,  and  not  the  executive,  is  vested  with 
the  power.  But  the  constitution  itself  is  silent  as  to  which  or  who  is  to 
exercise  the  power ;  and  as  the  provision  was  plainly  made  for  a  dangerous 
emergency,  it  can  not  be  believed  that  the  framers  of  the  instrument 
intended  that,  in  every  case,  the  danger  should  run  its  course  until  Congress 
should  be  called  together,  the  very  assembling  of  which  might  be  prevented, 
as  was  intended  in  this  case  by  the  rebellion." 

Enlistments  were  proceeding  rapidly.  In  our  own  county,  company  after 
company  was  announced  as  ready  to  leave  for  their  destination.  About  the 
middle  of  June,  1861,  there  had  been  about  225,000  men  mustered  into 
service,  and  were  under  pay — about  30,000  of  them  from  this  state. 

It  was  a  cause  of  regret  as  well  as  discouragement  to  the  fri^ends  of 'the 
Union,  that  so  many  of  their  fellow-citizens  not  only  manifested  great  indif- 
ference in  regard  to  the  result  of  the  war  for  its  preservation,  but  were 
actually  engaged  in  efforts  to  prevent  the  successful  prosecution  of  the  war. 
In  June,  1861,  a  petition  was  circulated  in  the  city  of  New  York  which 
many  had  been  led  to  sign  under  false  pretenses,  and  from  which  they  wished 
to  erase  their  names.  A  search  for  the  petition  was  made  by  the  police,  who 
found  and  seized  it  in  the  office  of  a  Wall  street  broker.  The  following  is  a 
copy  of  it : 
''  To  his  Excellency  Abraham  Lincoln,  President  of  the  United  States  : 

"  The  undersigned,  citizens  of  New  York,  beg  leave  to  present  to  you, 
most  respectfully  and  earnestly,  the  following  considerations  : — 

"  While  they  hold  themselves  ready  to  sustain  and  defend  their  govern- 
ment, and  you  as  its  legal  head,  they  respectfully  suggest  that  the  only 
remaining  position  for  you  to  prevent  the  horrors  of  civil  war  and  preserve 
the  Union,  is  to  adopt  the  policy  of  an  immediate  general  convention  of  all 
the  states,  as  suggested  in  your  Inaugural.  This  course  would  secure  a 
peaceful  solution  of  all  our  national  difficulties ;  and  if  any  state  should 
refuse  to  join  said  convention  to  amend  the  constitution,  or  3id]ust  a.  peaceable 
separation,  it  would  stand  unanimously  condemned  before  the  civilized  world. 

"  Earnestly  deprecating  civil  war  among  brethren,  we  implore  and  beseech 
you  to  adopt  this  course,  which,  you  may  rest  assured,  is  the  real  voice  of  the 

About  ^ve  hundred  names  had  been  appended  when  the  police  took  pos- 
session of  it.  It  was  carried  to  the  chief's  office,  where  it  was  left  to  allow 
all  whose  names  had  been  obtained  by  fraud  to  erase  them.  The  petition,  it 
will  be  seen,  not  only  proposes  a  dissolution  of  the  Union,  but  condemns 
every  state  which  refuses  to  sanction  this  design. 

In  his  message  to  Congress,  at  its  special  meetug  in  July,  the  president 
recommended,  that  there  be  placed  at  the  control  4^b  government,  at  least 

WAR  HISTORY.  1 93 

400,000  men  and  $400,000,000,  with  the  view  of  "  making  this  contest  a 
short  and  decisive  one."  And  there  appeared  throughout  the  North,  a  dis- 
position to  comply  with  every  requisition  for  all  the  men  and  money  neces- 
sary to  subdue  the  confederates.  The  session  lasted  but  nine  days.  Among 
the  bills  passed,  were  the  following :  To  legalize  the  past  action  of  the 
president ;  to  authorize  the  president  to  call  out  500,000  volunteers ;  a  bill 
appropriating  about  $266,000,000,  principally  for  the  prosecution  of  the 
war ;  an  act  to  confiscate  property  used  for  insurrectionary  purposes.  The 
confiscation  act  provided  that — 

"  In  case  of  any  insurrection  against  the  government  that  can  not  be  sup- 
pressed in  the  ordinary  course  of  law,  and  property  used  or  given  by  per- 
mission of  its  owner  to  aid  and  abet  the  insurrection,  shall  be  lawful  subject 
of  prize  and  capture  wherever  found ;  and  that  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
president  to  cause  it  to  be  seized,  confiscated,  and  condemned;  and  that  when 
any  slaveholder  shall  employ  or  permit  the  employment  of  his  slave  in  aiding 
or  promoting  an  insurrection,  the  master  shall  forfeit  all  right  to  such  slave ; 
and  the  slave  shall  be  free." 

This  bill  was  opposed  as  contrary  to  the  provision  of  the  constitution,  which 
declares,  that  "  no  attainder  of  treason  shall  work  corruption  of  blood,  or 
forfeiture,  except  during  the  life  of  the  person  attainted."  It  is  believed  no 
case  involving  the  principle  assumed  in  this  bill,  has  ever  been  decided  in 
the  court  of  the  United  States. 

The  preceding  pages  are  but  an  introduction  to  the  history  of  the  war  of 
the  rebellion.  Nor  will  the  reader  expect  to  find,  in  the  few  pages  which 
can  be  devoted  to  this  subject,  more  than  a  mere  outline  of  the  history  of 
a  war  which  furnishes  material  for  a  number  of  volumes  of  the  capacity  of 
this,  which  embraces  a  hundred  different  topics  which  claim  a  notice  in 
this  work. 

When  the  war  broke  out,  many  of  our  wisest  men  anticipated  a  short 
struggle  of  sixty  or  ninety  days.  Some  imagined  that  the  first  call  for  75,000 
men  would  not  need  to  be  supplemented  by  more  than  one  or  two  calls  for  an 
equal  number.  Few  supposed  that  several  calls  for  huTidreds  of  thousands 
would  be  found  necessary  to  quell  the  insurrection.  Meeting  after  meeting 
was  held  in  nearly  every  town  for  raising  men  and  providing  for  the  support 
of  their  families.  Nor  were  our  male  citizens  alone  active  in  labor  in  pro- 
moting the  war  for  the  Union ;  equal  zeal  and  activity  were  manifested  by 
the  women.  Societies  of  various  names  were  seen  springing  up  in  all  parts 
of  the  North,  through  which  material  aid  was  rendered.  Sanitary  committees 
were  appointed ;  relief  circles,  aid  societies,  and  other  associations  were 
formed,  and  in  great  'part  conducted  by  ladies ;  and  through  them  contri- 
butions were  made  of  money,  clothing,  hospital  supplies,  and  whatever  was 
required  for  the  comfort  of  soldiers  and  their  families.  Fairs  also  were  held,, 
the  proceeds  of  which  were  appropriated  to  this  grand  object  of  benevolence 
and  humanity.  Not  a  small  portion  of  the  labor  of  females  wjis  the  pre- 
paring of  bandages,  lint,  and  savory  food,  for  the  wounded  and  the  sick  in. 
the  hospitals.  'M 



Instead  of  a  war  of  only  two  or  three  months,  as  some  expected,  the  coun- 
try was  destined  to  a  sanguinary  contest  oi  four  years,  which  was  maintained 
at  an  expense  of  life  and  treasure  scarcely  equaled,  in  the  same  space  of 
time,  in  any  country  during  the  present  century.  Our  armies,  during  those 
years,  experienced  alternations  of  success  and  reverse,  until  the  resources  of 
the  enemy  had  been  nearly  exhausted.  The  successes  of  Grant,  Sheridan 
and  others,  and  the  triumphal,  resistless  march  of  Sherman  through  the  South 
to  the  seaboard,  gave  signs  of  the  rapid  approach  of  peace.  The  object  of 
the  labors  and  the  prayers  of  the  friends  of  the  Union  was  at  length  attained. 
But  although  the  Union  has  been  preserved,  the  sad  results  of  the  war  have 
not  entirely  disappeared.  Let  every  friend  of  a  united  republic  contribute 
his  influence  to  hasten  the  time  when  a  perfect  reconciliation  between  the 
parties  lately  at  variance  shall  have  been  effected,  and  when  they  shall  be 
not  merely  members  of  the  same  great  political  family,  but  in  heart  and 
feeling  brethren. 

The  number  of  men  furnished  for  the  war  by  Chautauqua,  as  nearly  as 
can  be  ascertained,  is  about  2,300.  The  enlistments  from  the  several  towns 
were  nearly  as  follows  : 

Arkwright,  33.  .  Busti,  81.  Carroll,  42.  Charlotte,  42.  Chautauqua,  115. 
Cherry  Creek,  62.  Clymer,  61.  Dunkirk,  233.  Ellery,  31.  Ellicott,  299. 
Ellington,  52.  French  Creek,  51.  Gerry,  37.  Hanover,  169.  Harmony, 
163.  Kiantone,  17.  Mina,  41.  Poland,  71.  Pomfret,  161.  Portland,  66. 
Ripley,  42.  Sheridan,  46.  Sherman,  70.  Stockton,  61.  Villenova,  84. 
Westfield,  93.     Total,  2,293. 


The  Chautauqua  Gazette,  the  first  paper  published  in  the  county,  was 
started  at  Fredonia,  in  Jan.,  181 7,  by  James  PercivaL  It  was  afterwards 
issued  by  Carpenter  &  Hull,  and  by  James  Hull,  until  1822,  when  it  was 
suspended.  In  1823,  it  was  revived  by  James  Hull,  and  continued  until 
1826,  when  it  was  united  with  the  Peoples  Gazette,  from  ForestviUe;  and  its 
name  was  changed  to  Fredonia  Gazette.  It  was  published  a  short  time  by 
Hull  &  Snow,  and  removed  by  Mr.  Hull  to  Dunkirk,  and  in  a  few  months  to 
Westfield,  and  united  with  the  Chautauqua  Phoenix. 

The  Fredonia  Censor  was  commenced  in  182 1  by  Henry  C.  Frisbee,  who 
continued  its  publication  17  years.  In  1838,  it  passqd  into  the  hands  of  E. 
Winchester,  and  was  published  by  him  2  years,  and  by  R.  Cunningham  i 
year.  In  1 841,  it  was  bought  by  Willard  McKinstry,  and  published  by  W. 
McKinstry  &  Brother,  [A.  McKinstry;]  and  at  present  by  W.  McKiilstry 
&  Son,  [Louis  McKinstry.] 

The  Western  Democrat  and  Literary  Inquirer  was  started  at  Fredonia  in 
183s,  by  Wm.  Verrinder.     It  was  issued  successively  by  Randall,  Crosby  & 


Co.,  and  Arba  K.  Maynard ;  and  by  the  latter  it  was  removed  to  Fan  Buren 
Harbor  in  1837,  and  issued  as  The  Fan  Buren  Times.  It  soon  passed  into 
the  hands  of  W.  H.  Cutler,  and  was  continued  about  2  years.  The  Settler 
was  issued  a  short  time  in  1840,  from  the  Censor  office,  by  E.  Winchester. 
The  Frontier  Express  •vi^'i  started  in  June,  1846,  by  Cuder,  Cottle  &  Perham. 
In  1849,  it  was  changed  to  The  Fredonia  Express,  and  published  by  J.  P. 
Cobb  &  Co.,  and  afterwards  by  Thomas  A.  Osborne  &  Co.  In  1850,  it  was 
changed  to  The  Chautauqua  Union,  and  was  pubUshed  a  short  time  by  E.  F. 
Foster.  The  Fredonia  Advertiser  was  started  July  14,  1851,  by  Tyler  & 
Shepard.  It  was  afterward  published  by  Levi  L.  Pratt  and  J.  C.  Frisbee, 
and  later  by  L.  L.  Pratt.  It  is  now  published  by  Benton  &  Cushing,  at  Fre- 
donia and  Dunkirk.  The  Botanic  Medical  Journal  was  published  a  short  time 
at  Fredonia.     The  Pantheon  was  published  at  Fredonia  a  short  time. 

The  Jamestown  Journal  was   commenced  in  June,    1826,  by  Adolphus 
Fletcher,  and  continued  by  him  until  1846.     It  was  then  issued  by  his  son, 
John  W.  Fletcher,  for  two  years,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  F.  W. 
Palmer,  who  continued  at  the  head  of  the  establishment  until  1858,  having 
been  associated,  in  the  meantime,  \vith  Francis  P.  Bailey,  Ebene2er  P.  Upham, 
and  C.  D.  Sackett.     From  1858  to  1862,  it  was  published  by  Sackett  & 
Bishop;  and  after  the  death  of  Mr.  Sackett  in  1862,  it  was  published  by 
Bishop  Brothers.     After  the  death  of  Prentice  E.  Bishop,  in  1865,  by  Cole- 
man E.  Bishop  until  1866 ;  then  by  Bishop  and  Alex.  M.  Clark,  until  June 
I,  1868,  when  Clark  became  sole  proprietor.     Jan.  i,  1870,  he  started  the 
Daily  Journal,  C.  E.  Bishop,  editor;  and  in  Aug.,  187 1,  sold  a  half  interest 
to  Davis  H.  Waite  ;  and  in  March,  1875,  his  remaining  interest  to  Mr.  Waite, 
who,  in  April,  1875,  started  the  Weekly  Grange,  an  agricultural  paper.     All 
still  continue.     The   Chautauqua  Republican  was  started  in  Jamestown   in 
1828,  by  Morgan  Bates.     Richard  K.   Kellogg,  Lewis   C.  Todd,  Charles 
McLean,  Alfred  Smith,  and  Wm.  H.  Cutler,  were  successively  interested  in 
its  publication  until  1833,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  S.  S.  C.  Hamil- 
ton ;  and  its  name  was  changed  to  the  Republican  Banner.     It  was  soon  after 
removed  to  Mayville,  and  in  a  few  months  discontinued.     The  Genius  of 
Liberty  was  started  at  Jamestown  in  1829,  by  Lewis  C.  Todd,  and  continued 
about  two  years.     The  Liberty  Star  was  started  at  Jamestown  in  1847,  by 
Harvey  A.  Smith.     In  1849,  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Adolphus  Fletcher, 
and  was  changed  to  the  Northern  Citizen.      In  1853,  John  W.  Fletcher 
became  proprietor;  and  in  1855,  it  was  changed  to  the  Chautauqua  Demo- 
crat, under  which  name  it  was  issued  by  Adolphus  Fletcher;  James  Parker, 
editor;  from  i860,  by  Fletcher  &  Co.,  A.  B.  Fletcher  having  been  a  partner; 
from    1862,    by  Davis    H.   Waite   and   A.   B.   Fletcher,  until   1866;   from 
1866   to    1872,  •by   A.   B.   Fletcher,   when  E.  Anderson   became   a   part- 
ner  of  Fletcher.     A   daily    Democrat  was   soon   published,  and   the   firm 
was    dissolved   in    1873.        The   Daily  and    Weekly  Democrat    are    both 
continued  by  Mr.  Fletcher.     The  Undercurrent  was  published  at  Jamestown 
a  short  time  in  1851-52,  by  Harvey  A.  Smith.     The  Jamestown  Herald  ^■3.% 


Started  in  August,  1852,  by  Dr.  Asaph  Rhodes.  In  1853,  Joseph  B.  Nessel 
became  proprietor,  removed  it  to  Ellington  Center,  and  changed  its  name  to 
the  Ellington  Luminary.     A  Swede  paper  was  started  in  1874. 

The  Chautauqua  Eagle  was  commenced  at  Mayville  in  1819  by  Robert 
J.  Curtis  and  continued  about  one  year.  The  Mayville  Sentinel  was  started 
in  1834,  by  Timothy  Kibbe,  and  the  next  year  passed  into  the  hands  of 
Beman  Brockway,  who  continued  it  ten  years.  In  1845,  it  was  sold  to  John 
F.  Phelps,  by  whom  it  is  still  published.  The  Republican  Banner,  formerly 
Chautauqua  Republican,  published  at  Jamestown,  was  removed  to  Mayville, 
and  published  there  a  few  months.  The  Tocsin,  a  temperance  paper,  was 
published  at  Mayville,  by  Lloyd  Mills,  a  short  time,  about  1845.  In  Octo- 
ber, 1868,  Wright  L.  Patterson  commenced  the  Chautauqua  Republican,  and 
issued  18  weekly  numbers.  In  September  or  October,  1870,  Byron  W. 
Southworth  moved  the  Sherman  News  to  Mayville,  changed  its  name  to 
Chautauqua  News,  which  was  continued  until  March,  1874.  The  Chautau- 
qua Whig  was  started  at  Dunkirk  in  August,  1834,  by  Thompson  &  Car- 
penter. About  1844,  its  name  was  changed  to  the  Dunkirk  Beacon  ;  and  it 
was  discontinued  a  short  time  afterward.  The  Chautauqua  Journal  was 
started  at  Dunkirk  in  May,  1850,  by  W.  L.  Carpenter.  In  a  short  time  its 
name  was  changed  to  the  Dunkirk  Journal,  and  was  issued  by  him  until 
18 — ,  when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Isaac  George,  who  published  it  for  a 
time.  It  has  for  several  years  been  published  by  W.  McKinstry  &  Son,  of 
Fredonia,  its  present  proprietors.  The  Dunkirk  Press  and  Argus,  a  continua- 
tion of  the  Western  Argus,  removed  from  Westfield  in  1858,  was  published 
several  years.  The  Panama  Herald  was  commenced  in  August,  1846,  by 
Dean  &  Hurlbut,  and  continued  by  Stewart  &  Pray  until  1848. 

The  Western  Star  was  started  in  Westfield,  1826,  by  Harvey  Newcomb, 
and  published  two  years.  It  was  soon  after  revived,  as  the  Chautauqua 
Phoenix,  by  HuU  &  Newcomb.  In  1831,  its  name  was  changed  to  the 
American  Eagle;  and  it  was  issOed  by  G.  W.  Newcomb.  In  1838,  it  was 
changed  to  the  Westfield  Courier,  and  was  issued  a  short  time  by  G.  W. 
Bliss.  The  Westfield  Lyceum,  started  in  1835,  was  published  a  short  time 
by  Sheldon  &  Palmer.  The  Western  Farmer  was  started  at  Westfield  in 
1835,  by  Bliss  &  Knight,  and  was  continued  about  two  years.  The  Westfield 
Advocate  ytas  commenced  in  May,"  184 1,  and  in  a  few  months  was  discon- 
tinued. The  Westfield  Messenger  was  started  in  August,  1841,  by  C.  J.  J.  & 
T.  Ingersoll.  In  1851,  it  passed  to  Edgar  W.  Dennison,  and  was  changed 
to  the  Westfield  Transcript,  which,  in  185-,  passed  to  Buck  &  Wilson,  who 
continued  it  one  year.  The  Westfield  Republican  was  commenced  April  25, 
1855,  by  M.  C.  Rice,  by  whom  it  was  continued  until  1873,  when  it  passed 
to  Joseph  A.  &  C.  Frank  Hall ;  and  in  a  few  months  C.  Fr^k  Hall,  its  pres- 
ent publisher,  became  its  sole  proprietor.  The  Western  Argus  was  started 
at  Westfield  in  1857,  by  John  F.  Young.  In  about  one  year  it  was  removed 
to  Dunkirk,  and  changed  to  the  Dunkirk  Express  and  Argus,  edited  by 
James  S.  Sherwood,  and  continued  about  a  year. 


TTie  Peoples  Gazette  was  started  at  Forestville  in  1824,  by  Wm.  S.  Snow. 
In  1826,  it  was  united  with  The  Chautauqua  Gazette  at  Fredonia.  The 
Western  Intelligencer  was  published  at  Forestville  a  short  time  in  1833. 

The  Silver  Creek  Mail  was  started  in  1848,  by  John  C.  Van  Duzen.  It 
was  changed,  in  1852,  to  The  Home  Register,  and  was  published  by  James 
Long.  In  1854,  Samuel  Wilson  became  proprietor,  and  changed  it  to  The 
Silver  Creek  Gazette,  and  continued  it  until  1856,  when  it  was  discontinued. 
In  August  of  that  year,  it  was  revived  as  The  Lake  Shore  Mirror,  by  H.  M. 
Morgan,  and  was  afterward  published  by  George  A.  Martin. 

The  Ellington  Luminary,  changed  from  The  Jamestown  Herald,  and  re- 
moved from  Jamestown  in  1853,  was  continued  until  1856.  The  Philoma- 
thean  Exponent  was  issued  at  Ellington  by  the  students  of  the  academy  in 

The  Western  New  Yorker  was  started  in  1853,  in  Sherman,  edited  by 
Patrick  McFarland ;  discontinued  in  1855.  The  Sherman  News  was  com- 
menced some  years  ago,  (the  year  not  ascertained;)  and  in  1870  was  re- 
moved to  Mayville,  its  name  changed  to  Chautauqua  News,  and  published 
there  about  twc^years. 


Reunion  at  Fredonia. 

The  nth  day  of  June,  1873,  will  never  be  forgotten  by  those  who  were 
so  fortunate  as  to  be  present  at  the  Reunion  of  "  Old  Settlers,"  at  Fredonia. 
It  was  an  experiment,  and  many  entertained  doubts  of  its  success.  An 
earlier  day  for  the  meeting  had  been  announced ;  but  a  later  day  was  fixed 
upon  as  more  likely  to  secure  a  fuller  attendance. 

At  an  early  hour  of  the  day,  the  people  from  all  parts  of  the  county,  and 
not  a  few  from  other  counties  and  states,  former  residents  of  Chautauqua, 
came  together  to  exchange  salutations  once  more  with  their  old  pioneer 
neighbors  and  friends.  The  streets  were  soon  thronged ;  and  the  air  was 
made  vocal  with  joyful  greetings,  as  friends  met  friends,  after  years  of 

The  exercises  were  appointed  to  be  held  at  Union  Hall,  which,  after  it 
was  opened,  was  filled  in  a  few  moments,  without  any  apparent  diminution 
of  the  crowd  outside.  As  far  as  possible,  those  over  80  were  seated  in  front;  v 
those  between  70  and  80,  next ;  and  so  on  till  most  of  the  young  folks  were 
driven  out,  and  the  platform  overlooked  a  sea  of  gray  heads.  The  crowded 
room  was  called  to  order  at  10.45  ^-  "i-'  ^.nd  A.  C.  Gushing,  Esq.,  president 
of  the  village,  delivered  the  following  Address  of  Welcome : 

"  If  out  of  the  abundance  of  the  heart  the  tongue  always  found  utterance, 
I  might  hope  that  my  lips  on  this  occasion  would  be  touched  with  a  little  of 


that  inspiration,  flowing  from  earnest  and  profound  feeling,  which  sometimes 
lends  eloquence  to  those  who,  like  myself,  possess  neither  utterance  nor  the 
power  of  speech. 

"Friends  of  to-day,  friends  of  former  years,  friends  whose  venerable  heads 
are  now  white  with  the  snows  of  more  than  seventy  winters,  friends  who  have 
clasped  hands  in  genial  companionship  with  our  fathers,  we  bid  you  welcome 
here  to-day.  If  but  few  of  those  who  started  with  you  on  the  march  of  life 
are  left  to  extend  their  hearty  greeting,  we,  their  descendants,  who  stand  in 
their  places,  receive  you  to  our  homes  and  our  hearts  with  grateful  recogni- 
tion, as  the  representatives  of  a  generation  whose  hardy  virtues,  courage  and 
endurance  laid  the  foundation  of  all  the  advantages,  all  the  prosperity  we  now 
enjoy.  It  is  the  seed  sown  by  your  hands  in  the  solitudes  of  the  forest  amid 
hardships,  privation  and  toil,  which  we  reap  in  the  glorious  harvest  of  a  high 
cultivation,  surrounded  by  its  comforts,  its  luxuries,  and  its  refinements. 

"And  an  honorable  welcome,  a  welcome  tender,  kind  and  true  as  their  own 
brave  loving  hearts,  to  the  noble  women,  who  in  those  early  years,  stood  side 
by  side  with  husbands,  brothers  and  sons,  sharing  their  hardships  and  light- 
ening their  toils  with  pleasant  smiles  and  encouraging  words — women  as 
heroic  and  self-sacrificing  as  those  whom  poets  and  historians  have  made 
immortal,  although  their  virtues  are  written  only  in  the  hearts  of  those  who 
love  them.  • 

"  Some  of  you  present  to-day  have  witnessed  the  wonderful  transformation 
which,  within  the  allotted  time  of  man's  existence,  has  changed  the  whole 
face  of  the  county.  You  retain  vivid  recollections  of  the  early  homes  of  the 
pioneers,  and  of  the  struggles  and  privations  they  endured.  You  also  have 
pleasant  remembrances  of  happy  days  and  the  warm  friendship  existing  be- 
tween neighbors,  though  living  miles  apart,  and  making  visits  through  the 
woods  with  ox-teams  over  roads  marked  only  by  blazed  trees — softer  memo- 
ries of  quilting  frolics  where  they  ate  pumpkin  pie  and  doughnuts,  and 
'  courted  their  sweethearts — pretty  girls — ^just  fifty  years  ago.'  But  many  of 
your  number  have  not  been  spared  to  note  the  march  of  improvement  which 
has  caused  the  '  wilderness  and  the  solitary  place  to  rejoice  and  blossom  as 
the  rose,'  has  tracked  the  once  pathless  forests  with  roads  on  which  the  iron 
horse  obliterates  distance ;  has  raised  beautiful  temples  to  the  living  God, 
where  once  stood  the  humble  meeting-house  of  the  early  worshipers ;  has 
built  costly  edifices  of  learning,  the  elegance  of  the  structures  only  inferior 
to  the  grandeur  of  the  objects  to  which  they  are  dedicated ;  has  peopled  the 
county  with  a  busy  and  prosperous  population ;  has  dotted  it  with  thriving 
towns  and  villages,  the  seats  of  wealth  with  all  its  attendant  luxuries  and 
elegancies ;  has  broken  the  silence  of  the  solitudes  with  the  ceaseless  roar  of 
machinery,  the  blast  of  the  furnace,  and  the  hundred  inventions  of  science 
and  art. 

"  Yes,  my  friends,  we  are  proud  of  our  old  Chautauqua.  Her  hills  and 
plains  are  dear  to  us.  We  love  her  clear  lakes  and  sparkling  rivulets.  Gen- 
■^  erous  nature  has  indeed  been  bountiful,  and  we  feel  that  our  '  lines  have  been 
laid  in  pleasant  places.'  We  modestly  exult  in  the  high  character  for  intel- 
ligence and  enterprise  borne  by  her  people.  Nor  in  looking  over  the  long 
list  o*  names  made  prominent  in  our  country's  history,  need  we  blush  for  the 
place  held  there  by  Chautauqua  county.  Amid  that  array  in  positions  of 
high  trust  and  responsibility  stand  honorably  conspicuous  many  of  her  citizens. 
Of  offices  of  highest  dignity  and  honor  bestowed  by  our  state,  she  holds  a 
full  and  worthy  share.     Some  of  her  sons  have  been  called  to  fill  high  and 


exalted  positions  in  the  councils  and  conduct  of  national  affairs.  She  claims 
as  hers  the  venerated  names  of  some,  who,  having  dropped  the  harness  of 
earthly  toil,  now  rest  from  their  labors  and  sleep  in  honored  and  honorable 

"  We  are  assembled  to-day  in  commemoration  of  the  merits  and  memories 
of  these  and  such  as  these,  the  early  founders  of  our  county,  to  whose  firm 
courage,  perseverance  and  energy  we  owe,  under  God,  all  the  blessings  with 
which  we  are  so  richly  endowed.  *  *  *  To  our  departed  pioneer  heroes 
we  render  not  worship,  but  the  affectionate  remembrance  and  profound 
veneration  which  their  merits  and  our  deep  obligations  demand.  To  the 
veteran  band,  whom  it  is  our  privilege  still  to  retain  in  our  midst,  we  can 
only  say,  that  the  tribute  of  applause  and  grateful  respect  which  we  tender 
to  them  and  to  their  departed  companions,  in  the  perils  and  hardships  of 
pioneer  life,  Sows  straight  from  earnest  hearts,  and  is  the  utterance  of 
honest  lips. 

"  The  establishment  of  an  annual  festival,  which  shall  call  friends  together 
in  hospitable  and  pleasant  reunion,  we  conceive  to  be  a  happy  idea,  and  a 
laudable  attempt  to  keep  bright  the  links  of  social  intercourse  between  those 
who  once  may  have  been  close  companions,  or  old  neighbors,  but  are  now 
sundered  by  the  changes  of  time  and  circumstance.  Each  passing  year,  we 
trust,  shall  again  bring  us  together,  at  the  period  of  the  Old  Settlers'  Annual 
Festival,  and  tighten  the  bands  of  good  fellowship  and  unity.  Like  the 
patriarchs  of  old,  we  will  spread  our  yearly  '  feast  of  fat  things,'  and,  with 
old  friends  and  neighbors,  drink  '  the  wine  of  gladness.'  "  • 

After  his  address,  for  the  purpose  of  organization,  Mr.  Gushing  "  nominated 
a  gentleman  as  president  of  the  day  who  has  often  held  positions  of  dignity 
and  responsibility  in  the  state  and  county,  and  who  has  ever  discharged  his 
duties  to  the  approbation  of  all — Hon.  Geo.  W.  Patterson,  of  Westfield." 

The  nomination  was  adopted  unanimously.  Gov.  Patterson  was  conducted 
to  the  chair,  and  responded  as  follows : 

"Mr.  Chairman,  and  Fellow- Citizens :  For  the  honor  which  the  commit- 
tee of  arrangements  have  conferred  upon  me  in  offering  my  name  as  pre- 
siding officer,  I  tender  my  grateful  acknowledgments.  With  my  fellow-citi- 
zens from  other  localities  I  wish  to  congratulate  you,  one  and  all,  that  the 
people  of  Fredonia  have  invited  you,  not  only  to  this  reunion,  but  to  the 
hospitality  of  their  homes.  Great  credit  is  due  them  for  their  efforts  which 
will  be  appreciated. 

"  Fellow-citizens  :  It  is  about  seventy  years  since  the  first  white  man  settled 
in  the  county.  *  *  *  In  July,  1802,  the  first  infant  child  was  bom  at 
Westfield.  I  had  hoped  to  have  the  first  bom  of  the  county  here  ;  I  passed 
him  to-day  in  a  private  conveyance — (voice  in  the  audience — "  He  is  in  the 
village.")  Bring  him  up.  (Orson  Stiles  :  "  We  will ;  he  is  being  escorted  in 
by  a  four-horse  team.")     His  name  is  John  McHenry. 

"  I  know  something  of  the  hardships  and  privations  of  the  early  pioneers, 
although  but  little  of  the  full  reality.  In  1822-3-4,  I  built  fanning  mills  in 
Ripley,  where  I  tried  to  raise  the  wind,  with  what  success  many  of  you  know. 
There  may  be  gentlemen  here  who  settled  in  Chautauqua  in  1804  and'  1805. 
Just  think  of  the  improvements  which  they  have  witnessed.  Not  a  foot  of 
land  was  then  owned,  except  one  farm.  The  first  title  given  was  to  Alexander 
Cochran,  of  Ripley,  in  1804,  but  contracts  were  recorded  prior  to  that.  The 
history  of  Westfield  shows  that  for  some  families  that  came  in  during  those 


years,  the  first  table  spread  was  a  stone  on  a  stump.  It  is  comparatively  but 
a  few  years  since  land-holders  owned  their  land  in  fee  simple.  I  see  before 
me  faces  that  then  hardly  expected  to  own  lands  in  fee  simple.  As  late  as 
1841,  when  I  took  charge  of  the  land-office  at  Westfield,  there  was  due 
$1,500,000,  and  95, 000  acres  of  untaken  land.  To-day  there  are  a  hundred 
men  before  me  that  could  pay  that  debt.  I  know  not  the  arrangements  of 
the  committee,  but  suppose  others  are  to  follow  me,  and  will  yield  the  floor.'' 

At  the  conclusion  of  Gov.  Patterson's  remarks,  Mr.  Stiles  spoke  in  behalf 
of  the  multitude  outside,  suggesting  that  the  afternoon  session  be  held  in  the 
park ;  and  he  would  arrange  for  seats  immediately.  The  suggestion  was 
adopted  unanimously. 

C.  F.  Matteson,  chairman  of  committee  of  arrangements,  announced  the 
following  named  gentlemen  as  vice-presidents  and  secretaries  : 

Vice-Fresidents — Levi  Baldwin,  Arkwright ;  Eliakim  Garfield,  Busti ; 
Nathan  Cleland,  Charlotte;  Thomas  A.  Osborne,  Chautauqua  ;  Alva  Billings, 
Cherry  Creek;  Edwin  Eaton,  Carroll;  Nehemiah  Royce,  Clymer ;  Walter 
Smith,  Dunkirk;  Abner  Hazeltine,  Ellicott;  Charles  B.  Green,  Ellington; 
Abijah  Clark,  Ellery ;  Silas  Terry,  French  Creek;  Sidney  E.  Palmer,  Gerry ; 
Amos  R.  Avery,  Hanover ;  Daniel  Williams,  Harmony ;  Aaron  J.  Phillips, 
Kiantone;  Luke  Grover,  Mina ;  Joseph  Clark,  Foland;  Elisha  Fay,  Fort- 
land;  Wm.  Risley,  Pom/ret;  Charles  B.  Brockway,  Ripley ;  Jonathan  S. 
Pattison,  Sheridan;  Piatt  Osbom,  Sherman;  Harlow  Crissey,  Stockton; 
Obadiah  Warner,  Villenova;  Thomas  B.  Campbell,  Westfield. 

Robert  Miles,  of  Warren,  Pa.,  who  settled  within  a  mile  of  the  Chautauqua 
county  line  in  1797,  was  also  made  a  vice-president. 

Secretaries — C.  E.  Benton,  of  the  Advertiser  and  Union;  Louis  McKins- 
try,  of  the  Fredonia  Censor;  A.  B.  Fletcher,  of  ih^  Jamestown  Daily  Demo- 
crat; Davis  H.  Waite,  of  \h^  Jamestown  Daily  Journal ;  C.  F.  Hall,  of  the 
Westfield  Republican;  John  F.  Phelps,  of  the  Mayville  Sentinel;  D.  A.  A. 
Nichols,  reporter  for  Young's  History  of  the  County. 

Rev.  T.  Stillman,  D.  D.,  was  called  upon  to  offer  prayer,  upon  the  conclu- 
sion of  which  Judge  Foote  said  he  had  a  favor  to  ask.      He  wanted  all 
present  to  join  with  him  in  singing  the  first  verse  of  old  "  Coronation  : " 
"  All  hail  the  power  of  Jesus'  name  ! "  etc. 

Judge  Foote,  in  the  interval  of  business,  addressed  the  meeting.  He 
spoke  of  his  "  love  of  old  Chautauqua,"  and  of  his  endeavors  to  preserve  its 
history,  pointing  to  the  twenty-six  large  folio  volumes  of  historic  scrap-books  on 
the  stage  as  evidence  of  his  labor.  He  spoke  with  deep  feehng  and  earnest- 
ness. Among  other  things,  he  said  :  "  I  want  a  history  that  commemorates 
your  virtues  and  hardships  before  I  came  into  the  county.  I  love  these  gray 
heads,  many  of  -them  I  have  known  since  I  came  into  the  county.  I  pro- 
posed that  hymn  because  I  know  you  are  a  Christian  people.  We  all  believe 
alike  in  the  foundation — Christ  Jesus.  I  reside  in  New  Haven,  but  live  in 
Chautauqua.  Here  I  am  to  be  buried — have  so  provided  in  my  will.  This  is 
the  last  meeting  for  many  of  us,  but  no  matter,  if  we  are  ripe  for  the  harvest." 

The  chairman  introduced  to  the  audience  the  first  man  born  of  Chautau- 


qua  "dust."  The  Fredonia  Musical  Association  then  gave  "Auld  Lang 
Syne"  with  excellent  effect,  under  lead  of  Prof.  Riggs — Mrs.  E.  F.  Swart  at 
the  organ. 

For  the  purpose  of  estimating  how  many  decades  of  ages  could  be  accom- 
modated at  the  first  table,  those  over  ninety  years  old  were  called  on  to 
stand  up,  then  those  over  eighty.     The  following  named  responded  : 

Those  over  po — Elijah  Fay,  of  Portland;  Bartlett  Luce,  of  Pomfret ; 
Timothy  Goulding,  91,  of  Sheridan;  Charles  F.  Arnold,  93,  of  Sheridan. 

From  80  to  po — Isaac  Bussing,  Pomfret,  89 ;  Ama  Wood,  Pomfret,  82  ; 
Charles  P.  Young,  Ripley,  82  ;  Allen  Denny,  Stockton,  82 ;  Samuel  Rock- 
wood,  Sheridan,  86  ;  John  Seymour,  Pomfret,  80 ;  Stephen  Ross,  Arkwright, 
87  ;  Rev.  John  P.  Kent,  Lima,  80 ;  Hugh  Harper,  Charlotte,  85  ;  Ezekiel 
Gould,  Chautauqua,  84;  Aaron  Smith,  Stockton,  80;  Jeremiah  Curtis,  Stock- 
ton, 80 ;  Darius  Knapp,  Pomfret,  84 ;  David  Griggs,  Pomfret,  84 ;  Silas 
Spencer,  Westfield,  84 ;  Abram  Dixon,  Westfield,  86 ;  Beqj^min  H.  Dick- 
son, Ripley,  81  ;  Chester  Brown,  Pomfret,  86  ;  Naomi  Miller,  Stockton,  83  ; 
David  Parker,  Perrysburg,  80;  Orpha  Burritt,  Fredonia,  81;  D.  J.  Matteson, 
Fredonia,  81 ;  Mr.  Lazelle,  Stockton,  85 ;  Henry  Smith,  Charlotte,  82  ;  Thos. 
Magee,  Hanover,  87  ;  T.  B.  Campbell,  Westfield,  85;  J.  Ackley,  Pine  Grove, 
Pa.,  83  ;  Abner  Hazeltine,  Jamestown,  80 ;  Joseph  Davis,  Pomfret,  80 ; 
Polly  Wilson,  Pomfret,  80;  Samuel  Cleland,  85  ;  John  Cleland,  81 ;  Nathan 
Cleland,  78,  of  Charlotte,  and  Oliver  Cleland,  79,  of  Berlin,  O. ;  Hoel 
Beadle,  Westfield,  80;  James  Billings,  Chautauqua,  82;  with  others  subse- 
quently recorded,  making  upwards  of  forty. 

Of  those  between  70  and  80  years  of  age,  the  record,  though  said  to  be 
incomplete,  shows  nearly  150. 

Gov.  Patterson  then  announced  that  it  was  time  to  go  to  dinner.  He  had 
his  grandfather's  time-piece  with  him,  which  was  never  wound  up  but  once, 
and  that  was  ninety  years  ago,  but  it  had  always  kept  time,  and  does  now 
just  as  accurately  as  it  did  then.  There  was  some  curiosity  manifested  to  see 
such  a  wonderful  time-piece,  which  was  only  satisfied  when  the  Governor 
held  out  his  old  sun  dial.  Newell  Putnam,  of  Conneaut,  O.,  said,  "  Here  is 
one  that  had  to  be  wound  up  once  in  a  while,  but  it  is  a  hundred  years  old, 
and  keeps  time  yet,"  and  sent  up  a  venerable  silver  watch  for  exhibition. 

Mrs.  A.  C.  Russell,  of  Dunkirk,  then  came  upon  the  stage  in  ancient  costume 
and  sang  a  solo,  which  she  said  Judge  Foote  taught  her  forty-five  years  ago. 
The  bonnet  worn  by  Mrs.  Russell,  was  the  same  that  was  made  in  Fredonia, 
in  1805,  for  Mrs.  Thomas  Fargo. 

The  president,  vice-presidents,  and  all  present  over  80  years  old,  were  then 
invited  to  form  iij  procession  for  dinner ;  and  they  passed  out  of  the  hall  to 
where  the  Stockton  military  band  was  in  waiting  to  escort  them  to  the 
academy,  in  which  the  collation  was  served.  Judge  Foote  and  lady,  though 
yet  under  the  age  of  80,  were  given  a  place  among  those  who  headed  this 
noble  band  of  octogenarians. 

The  meeting,  in  charge  of  Mr.  C.  F.  Matteson,  chairman  of  the  committee 


of  arrangements,  continued  in  session  during  the  absence  of  the  officers. 
Several  letters  responding  to  invitations  to  attend  the  "Old  Settlers'  "  gather- 
ing, some  of  which,  with  an  interesting  paper  written  by  Mr.  Wm.  Risley,  of 
Fredonia,  were  read  by  Judge  Emory  F.  Warren  and  the  chairman. 

Rev.  Dr.  Stillman,  of  Dunkirk,  then  addressed  the  meeting,  giving  his 
recollections  of  coming  to  the  county  in  1830,  when  he  was  32  hours  staging 
and  footing  it  from  Buffalo  to  the  Haskins  tavern  in  Sheridan,  40  miles. 
The  United  States  mail  from  Buffalo  for  all  the  west  was  then  carried  by 
•stage,  usually  in  two  bags ;  one  large  for  the  west  distributing  office ;  one 
small  for  the  way  offices,  both  bags  occupying  only  part  of  the  space  under 
the  driver's  seat.  Now  it  is  no  uncommon  thing,  any  day,  to  see  fifteen 
tons  of  westward  mail  on  the  platform  at  Dunlcirk  for  the  illimitable  west. 
For  several  years  of  his  early  residence  at  Dunkirk,  he  had  authority  from  the 
postmaster  to  bring  down  the  mail  to  that  village  when  it  reached  Fredonia 
behind  time ;  a^  he  had  carried  it  many  a  time  in  his  hat  without  incon- 
venience. Now  a  single  business  house  receives  a  daily  average  of  letters 
the  whole  village  used  to  receive  in  a  week.  Dr.  S.  gave  also  a  list  of  the 
prices  of  the  various  kinds  of  tavern  beverages,  copied  from  M.  W.  &  T.  G. 
Abell's  bar  book,  showing  the  enormous  amounts  paid  by  the  citizens  for 
strong  drink,  but  omitting  the  names  of  the  persons  charged  ;  saying,  how- 
ever :    "  Nearly  every  man  in  town  was  charged  with  grog  on  that  book." 

At  I  o'clock,  the  elder  guests  having  got  through,  their  juniors — between 
70  and  80  years  of  age — formed  in  line  for  the  tables  which  were  reset  for 
them  in  the  academy;  and  the  meeting  adjourned  to  the  Common,  tore- 
assemble  at  3  o'clock.  The  intervening  time  was  spent  in  exhibiting  the 
numerous  relics  which  many  were  impatiently  waiting  for  an  opportunity  to 

After  the  persons  of  70  years  had  dined,  the  tables,  which  accommodated 
about  150  at  once,  were  set  aboilt  twice  more ;  and  victuals  were  also 
passed  round  in  baskets  to  the  crowd  outside,  unable  to  enter,  for  an  hour 
and  a  half  There  had  been  prepared  forty  pans  of  baked  beans,  with  a 
proportionate  quantity  of  meats,  breadstuffs,  pies,  cakes,  etc.  If  any  went 
away  hungry,  it  was  not  from  a  lack  of  provisions,  as  there  were  many  left ; 
nor  from  inattention  on  the  part  of  the  committee  in  charge,  whose  chairman, 
G.  D.Hinkley,  and  secretary,  J.  C.  Mullett,  were  highly  commended  for 
their  skin  as  engineers  of  a  public  collation.  The  committee's  task  was  an 
arduous  one,  but  was  well  performed.  In  addition  to  the  collation,  several 
hundred  persons  were  made  welcome  guests  at  the  homes  of  citizens. 
Probably  considerably  more  than  1,000  persons  were  fed  at  the  academy ; 
and  still  there  were  provisions  left,  many  baskets  fulL  , 

An  old  fashiotud  dinner  was  served  during  the  intermission.  At  about 
2  p.  m..  Gov.  Patterson  and  wife,  Judge  Foote  and  wife.  Judge  Warren  and 
wife,  Sam.  Cleland,  and  the  mother  of  Horace  White,  Oliver  Cleland,  and 
Polly  Wilson  (the  Polly  that  was  hired  girl  for  Zattu  Gushing  when  the  tim- 
ber on  the  land  where  Union  Hall  now  is  was  being  cleared  off),  Mrs.  Judge 


Hazeltine,  seated  themselves  on  such  slab  benches  and  stools  as  some  of 
them  had  sat  upon  in  "  auld  lang  syne  "  at  the  old  Wilson  table  placed  upon  ' 
the  stage  of  Union  Hall.  The  table  was  set  with  the  old  china  and  pewter 
dishes ;  and  the  bill  of  fare  comprised  such  solid  food  as  boiled  pork  (with 
the  fat  in)  and  greens,  Indian  bread  and  pudding,  a  johnny  cake  baked  on  a 
board,  pies  and  cakes  from  the  old  recipes  of  '76,  and  tea  and  coffee — all  of 
which  seemed  to  be  relished.  The  feelings  of  the  guests  were  expressed  by 
Gov.  Patterson  in  the  following  sentiment :  "  The  early  settlers  of  Chautau- 
qua and  their  entertainers  at  Fredonia — may  all  live  and  prosper ;  "  to  which 
Horace  White  responded  :  "  The  venerable  pioneers  of  Chautauqua,  whose 
enterprising,  sterling  virtues  and  industry  have  brought  the  country  from  its 
wilderness  to  be  the  most  flourishing  in  the  state  in  its  agricultural  interests.'' 
A  Silver 'Creek  miss,  dressed  as  Sally  of  yore  might  have  been,  did  the 
serving  satisfactorily. 

Afternoon  Session. — After  music  by  the  two  bands,  President  Patterson 
requested  the  attention  of  the  multitude  reassembled,  when  A.  C.  Cushing, 
Esq.,  offered  a  resolution  to  appoint  a  committee  of  seven,  of  which  the 
president  was  to  be  one,  to  agree  upon  a  permanent  organization,  and  upor 
the  next  place  of  meeting.  The  chair  appointed  E.  F.  Warren,  Alvin  Plumb, 
J.  L.  Bugbee,  Obed  Edson,  Abner  Hazeltine,  and  C.  F.  Matteson.     . 

Gov.  Patterson  here  exhibited  a  revolutionary  soldier's  canteen.  It  is  made 
of  a  section  of  an  ox  horn  made  tight  at  each  end  with  wooden  stoppers. 
He  said  they  could  all  see  by  that  what  the  old  settlers  meant  when  they 
talked  of  taking  a  "  pretty  good  horn."      > 

A  noteworthy  feature  of  this  assemblage  was  the  exhibition  of  relics,  which, 
in  respect  to  their  number,  variety,  rareness,  and  antiquity,  have  probably 
never  been  equaled  on  a  similar  occasion,  in  any  part  of  this  or  in  any  other 
state.  Of  the  oil  portraits  and  photographs,  there  were  about  100.  Of  the 
relics,  the  mention  of  them,  with  the  briefest  description,  occupied  four 
columns  of  a  county  paper,  and  were  several  hundreds  in  number.  Believing 
that  nothing  done  or  exhibited  at  the  meeting  would  be  read  with  deeper 
interest,  it  was  intended  to  select  from  the  long  list  a  considerable  number 
for  insertion  in  the  History;  but  the  difficulty  of  making  a  proper  discrimina- 
tion in  the  selection,  and  the  want  of  space,  forbid  the  carrying  of 'this  in- 
tention into  effect.     A  small  number  only  are  given  :  . 

Two  volumes  of  the  earlier  newspapers  of  the  county,  between  tfe  years 
1 81 7  and  1827  ;  and  several  New  England  papers  of  1780-90 ;  also  a  copy 
of  the  Connecticut  Courant,  of  Oct.  29,  1764,  in  which  is  the  following 
paragraph  : 

"  A  surprising  concatination  of  events  in  one  week.  Published  a  Sunday ; 
married  a  Tuesday;  had  a  child  a  Tuesday;  stole  a  horse  a  Wednesday; 
banished  a  Thursday;  died  a  Friday;  buried  a  Saturday — all  in  one  week." 

An  old  fashioned  side-saddle,  by  Mrs.  Barmore,  the  history  of  which  she 
can  trace  back  130  years.     How  much  older  it  is  she  does  not  know. 

A  chair  by  Buell  ToUes,  of  Sheridan,  brought  into  the  county  by  his  father 


in  1826,  and  over  100  years  old.  Although  old  style,  it  is  very  easy  sitting. 
Also  the  old  fashioned  tinder-box.  The  process  of  striking  fire  with  the  old 
flint  was  many  times  repeated,  to  the  great  curiosity  of  the  young  folks,  while 
the  old  ones  would  exclaim,  "  How  many  times  I  have  done  that."  Also  a 
pewter  platter  over  100  years  old ;  also  the  old  fashioned  foot  stove  that  used 
to  keep  the  church  pews  warm,  nearly  100  years  old. 

The  identical  axe  that  cut  the  first  tree  felled  in  Fredonia,  by  John  Bartoo, 
of  Forestville.  It  was  one  of  the  tools  Col.  Bartoo  used  to  build  a  mill  dam 
and  saw-mill  for  Hezekiah  Barker. 

^  pewter  basin  by  Mrs.  Joy  Handy — part  of  the  outfit  of  the  wedding  of 
the  Major's  grandparents.  When  New  London  was  burned  during  the  Revo- 
lutionary war,  this  basin  was  hid  with  other  valuables  under  a  stone  wall,  and 
thus  saved ;  also  a  chopping  knife  belonging  to  the  same  outfit,  and  a  toilet 
spread  made  by  an  immediate  descendant  of  Pocahontas,  60  years  ago. 

Plated  sugar  tongs,  100  years  old,  by  Miss  Jane  Osborne  ;  also  two  needle- 
books,  150  years  old — regular  "grandma's"  style;  also  Thomas  Osborne's 
(her  father,)  commission  as  captain  in  1806  ;  also  a  summons  to  her  father  to 
attend  the  Great  Wigwam  of  Tammany,  Oct.  12,  1809,  and  the  cockade 
worn  by  him  in  the  war  of  18 12. 

A  canteen  of  the  war  of  1776,  by  Wm.  B.  Griswold;  it  was  carried  by 
Stephen  Bush,  of  Ct.,  afterwards  of  Sheridan,  and  also  in  the  war  of  1812, 
by  Wm.  Griswold  and  Nicholas  Mallett,  both  of  Sheridan. 

The  old  pocket  compass  owned  by  Capt.  Robert  Kidd,  presented  by  Dr. 
L.  Clark,  of  Mayville ;  also  a  razor  owned  by  Jonathan  Clark  in  the  1 7th 
'  century. 

A  splint-bottomed,  high-backed  chair,  100  years  old,  by  Rowland  Porter. 
Another  by  Mrs.  E.  S.  Kellogg — an  arm  chair,  (green,)  a  portion  of  the  first 
parlor  suit  made  in  Oneida  county,  in  1780.  Another  of  18 11,  by  H.  H. 

A  bed  pan  of  Mrs.  Edmund  Day,  of  Dunkirk,  200  years  old ;  it  wis 
brought  here  by  Eli  Drake — one  of  the  first  settlers. 

An  Ulster  Co.  Gazette,  oli  Jan.  4,  1800,  in  mourning  for  George  Washing- 
ton, by  Mrs.  J.  D.  Andrews. 

Mrs.  T.  W.  Stevens  presents  a  needle-book  in  daily  use  60  years  ago  ;  a 
pieca  of  Capt.  Phineas  Stevens'  dressing  gown — Capt.  S.  was  a  surgeon  in 
Burgoyn'e's  army  in  1775  ;  a  wallet  worked  before  1770;  worked  embroidery 
done  before  the  Revolution;  and  patterns  and  bobbins  for  lace  making  in  use 
during  the  Revolution. 

Mrs.  Woodward  Stevens  presented  baby  clothes  made  over  100  years  ago, 
the  mitts  "grandmother"  Durkee  was  baptized  in,  in  July,  1782,  and  a  girl's 
and  boy's  cap. 

A  pardon  aud  amnesty  document,  granted  to  a  Scotch  refugee  by  the  King 
of  France,  July  18,  1619,  number  65,  was  sent  from  Berrien  Springs,  Mich., 
by  Worthy  Putnam.  He  discovered  it  curiously.  There  had  come  to  his 
family  a  Scotch  mirror  of  antique  and  curious  framework,  but  as  it  was 


unfashionable,  as  his  wife  thought,  she  took  a  fancy  to  have  its  heavy  and  fine 
plate  reframed,  and  accordingly  sent  it  to  the  cabinet-maker  for  that  purpose. 
The  workman,  in  taking  off  the  backboard,  found  this  document  neatly 
folded  and  safely  ensconced  between  the  board  and  mirror  plate.  That 
important  state  paper  of  regal  execution  and  authority,  had  safely  rested  in 
its  ingenious  and  unique  hiding  place,  probably  more  than  200  years.  What 
motive  induced  the  holder  of  this  paper  to  conceal  it  so  securely,  is  not  ap- 
parent, but  that  there  was  some  strong  inducement  to  this  end  is  quite  certain. 
The  document  is  written  in  French,  executed  entirely  by  the  pen,  neatly  and 
elegantly,  and  on  paper  of  the  manufacture  of  the  i6th  century,  of  itself 
curious.  It  is  much  discolored  by  time,  and  the  texture  become  fragile,  yet 
the  writing  is  distinct,  and  the  ink  stains  have  a  remarkable  integrity.  This 
relic  of  the  Bourbon  dynasty,  and  the  manner  of  its  concealment  and  pre- 
servation, give  to  this  aged  regal  document  a  curious  interest.  It  was  a  part 
of  an  heirloom  in  the  family  of  Maj.  Samuel  Sinclair,  of  Sinclairville,  until 
1847,  when  it  came  into  the  possession  of  Mr.  Putnam. 

An  Indian  snow  shoe  taken  from  a  Massachusetts  tribe  of  Indians  about 
200  years  ago,  and  kept  in  the  Aldeh  family. 

A  two-gallon  ship  pitcher. 

St.  Jerome's  Translation  of  the  Bible,  printed  in  1501 ;  a  "  Bibliotheca,'' 
1509,  by  Geo.  W.  Lewis,  and  other  old  books  by  Prof  A.  Bradish." 

A  'true  pattern  of  the  "mutton  leg  sleeve,"  as  worn  in  1832,  by  Mrs.  D. 
R.  Barker. 

Aaron  Smith,  of  Stockton,  presented  a  Bible  107  years  old,  that  was  his 
grandfather's,  his  vest  53  years  old,  a  wooden  block  of  12  sides  made  by  ' 
Ebenezer  Smith  85  years  ago,  a  concordance  belonging  to  his  great-grand- 
father 154  years  ago,  the  powder  horn  Rev.  Ebenezer  Smith  carried  in  the 
French  and  Indian  war  the  year  before  Gen.  Wolfe  was  killed. 

A  cannon  ball,  (a  ten-pounder,)  a  relic  of  the  battle  of  Lake  Erie,  picked 
up  from  the  bottom  of  the  lake  in  1834,  by  James  H.  Lake. 

Yam  spun  on  the  first  cotton  spinning  machine  in  the  United  States,  made 
by  S.  Slater,  about  80  years  ago,  at  Pautucket,  R.  I.  It  was  presented  by 
N.  Draper ;  also  a  power-loom  shuttle. 

A  conch  shell  dinner  horn,  150  years  old,  by  A.  Eaton. 

Patterns  for  walking  mud  shoes  brought  here  in  1822 — ^used  before;  pre- 
sented by  Miss  Anna  Jones.  Also  a  Bible  printed  in  the  reign  of  Queen 
Elizabeth,  in  black  letter;  three  Philadelphia  Repositories  of  1801-2-3;  a 
drawing  book  of  1799. 

A  powder  horn  of  1776,  by  Mark  Markham,  of  Villenova,  marked  "Benj. 
Markham — his  horn.'' 

Copy  of  Blue  Laws  of  Connecticut,  by  Mrs.  Eliza  Greene. 

A  very  large  pair  of  shears,  on  which  is  sunk  the  number  1428,  supposed 
to  be  the  year  when  it  was  made ;  presented  by  Willis  Royce,  of  Ripley. 
It  can  be  traced  back  four  or  five  generations.  If  a  genuine  article,  it  must 
be  a  trans-Atlantic  product. 


A  teapot  50  years  old,  by  Mrs.  Timothy  Goulding,  of  Sheridan ;  a  linen 
apron  115  years  old;  also  an  old  fashioned  bonnet — in  fashion  in  1828 — a 
real  curiosity. 

Flax  raised  by  John  Pellett,  in  the  Wyoming  Valley,  Pa.,  1778,  owned  by 
A.  T.  Mead,  of  Portland;  also  cloth,  (silk,)  made  in  England  in  1650  that 
has  been  through  nine  generations.  At  the  time  of  the  Wyoming  massacre 
it  was  buried  and  lay  in  the  ground  five  years. 

The  Evening  Session. — The  tables  of  relics  were  taken  out  of  Union 
Hall  so  as  to  leave  the  whole  space  in  the  evening,  but  every  nook  and  cor- 
ner was  early  filled  with  people;  although  a  large  share  of  the  crowd  had  gone 
home  at  the  close  of  the  afternoon  session,  not  half  of  those  who  remained 
could  gain  admission. 

As  advertised,  the  evening  was  principally  devoted  to  ancient  harmony, 
and  the  Fredonia  Musical  Association,  under  the  lead  of  Prof  Riggs,  made 
it  very  enjoyable.  Montgomery,  Coronation,  New  Jerusalem,  andjhe  other 
old  tunes  were  interspersed  with  remarks  by  various  speakers. 

Hon.  Orson  Stiles,  in  behalf  of  the  committee  of  arrangements,  returned 
thanks  to  all  who  had  aided  in  making  this  reunion  a  great  occasion  they 
would  be  glad  to  remember  all  their  lives.  It  had  cost  the  committee  some 
work  and  more  anxiety,  but  whether  a  success  or  a  failure,  was  then  demon- 
strated. '  He  hoped  that  this  was  but  the  beginning  of  similar  meetings,  and 
continued  eloquently  upon  the  duty  of  recreation,  and  our  glorious  county 
and  country. 

Judge  Hazeltine  gave  a  history  of  his  advent  in  the  county  in  18 15.  Most 
of  the  way  from  Buffalo  was  traveled  on  the  beach  of  the  lake.  When  at 
Cattaraugus  creek,  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Indians,  growing  out  of  a 
trouble  between  Capt.  Mack,  tavern-keeper  at  Irving,  and  one  May  bee, 
nearly  opposite  him,  as  to  which  should  control  the  ferriage.  The  Indians 
sided  with  Maybee.  He  was  finally  ferried  over  by  Capt.  Strong,  father  of 
the  well  known  N.  F.  Strong.  The  next  day  he  arrived  at  Fredonia,  a 
hamlet  of  a  dozen  houses.  But  when  he  inquired  for  Jamestown,  they 
knew  nothing  about  it,  but  had  heard  of  a  place  called  The  Rapids.  After 
two  days  of  severe  travel,  he  found  the  place  by  way  of  Cross  Roads  and 
Mayville.  Now  it  takes  one  or  two  hours.  There  were  then  3,000  or  4,000 
people  scattered  over  the  county ;  and  the  present  village  of  Jamestown  had 
fifteen  families.  The  Judge  continued  for  some  minutes  recounting  the 
noble  traits  of  character  of  the  pioneers  as  he  knew  them — such  men  as 
Thomas  McClintock,  James  Prendergast,  Judge  Cushing,  Dr.  White,  the  two 
Ortons  and  the  Barkers.  It  was  no  occasion  for  wonder  that,  under  a  kind 
Providence,  the  county  had  prospered  after  its  settlement. 

Judge  Hazeltine  then  moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  citizens  of  Fredonia 
for  inaugurating  the  reunion,  and  entertaining  the  guests  so  hospitably ; 
which  was  unanimously  adopted. 

Mr.  A.  C.  Cushing  tendered  the  thanks  of  the  committee  and  citizens  to 
Gov.  Patterson  for  his  very  satisfactory  services  as  presiding  oflicer. 

OLD   settlers'   festivals.  207 

Gov.  Patterson  in  response  gave,  among  some  interesting  reminiscences, 
that  relating  to  the  history  of  the  big  black  walnut  tree  at  Silver  Creek.  [A 
history  of  this  wonderful  tree  had  been  written,  and  is  elsewhere  inserted.] 
In  182 1,  he  took  a  westward  trip  to  Indianapolis.  There  were  but  two  log 
huts  there  then.  For  forty  miles  his  road  was  marked  trees.  There  was  not 
a  post  coach  west  of  Buffalo,  nor  a  mail  carrier  except  on  horseback  or  on 
foot.  This  was  fifty-two  years  ago.  Now  look  at  Ohio.  Railroads  and  tele- 
graphs were  not  known,  and  there  were  no  canals.  But  he  looked  for  greater 
improvement  for  the  fifty  years  to  come.  But  one  thing  we  shall  not  be 
excelled  in — lightning  will  not  carry  their  messages  faster  than  it  does  ours. 
He  again  express.ed  his  pleasure  at  the  success  which  had  crowned  the  efforts 
of  Fredonia  to  inaugurate  this  reunion.  It  was  a  thousand  times  better 
than  the  managers  could  have  expected. 

The  Cornet  Band  then  gave  "  America  "  with  fine  effect,  and  the  meeting 
adjourned  sine  die. 

Reunion  at  Forestville. 

It  was  hardly  to  be  expected,  that,  within  three  months  after  the  great 
gathering  at  Fredonia,  so  large  a  number  of  the  settlers  could  be  collected  in 
a  comer  town,  bounded  on  only  two  sides  by  other  towns  of  the  same  county, 
and  the  other  two  sides  by  other  counties  and  the  lake.  But  the  event 
showed  that  the  spirit  manifested  on  the  first  occasion  had  not  subsided. 
Considering  the  additional  fact  that  it  was  announced  only  as  a  "  Hanover 
Reunion,"  it  exceeded  the  most  sanguine  expectations  of  its  projectors.  The 
number  of  persons  on  the  ground — though  not  all  at  any  one  time — was 
estimated  at  3,000  to  4,000 ;  by  some  at  a  much  higher  number.  The 
reunion  was  held  at  the  Driving  Park,  a  mile  and  a  half  north  firom  Forest- 
ville— a  beautiful  location,  comprising  twenty-four  acres,  half  woods  ;  and  to 
a  large  portion  of  the  trees  were  attached  the  horses  of  those  who  came. 
The  day  was  clear  and  pleasant,  and,  as  will  be  recollected,  was  the  anniver- 
sary of  Commodore  Perry's  victory  over  the  British  fleet  on  the  neighboring 
lake,  just  sixty  years  after  its  occurrence,  September  10,  1813. 

But  few  relics  were  exhibited,  excepting  a  set  of  china,  presented  by 
Nathan  P.  Tanner,  made  to  order  for  his  father  in  Canton,  China,  eighty- 
five  years  ago. 

At  11.30  a.  m..  Dr.  Avery,  from  the  stand,  nominated  Wm.  D.  Talcott,  of 
Silver  Creek,  president  of  the  day ;  and  A.  R.  Avery,  J.  S.  Pattison,  N.  P. 
Tanner,  E.  Jewett,  Uriah  Downer,  Artemas  Clothier,  Benj.  Horton,  and 
Alanson  Tower  were  chosen  vice-presidents ;  and  A.  G.  Parker,  secretary. 

An  appropriate  prayer  was  offered  by  Rev.  A.  Frlnk,  of  Corry,  Pa.,  who 
was  an  early  resident  of  the  town.  His  first  sermon  was  preached  in  the  old 
brick  school-house  in  Forestville,  since  demolished. 

Rev.  H.  P.  Shepard,  brother  of  Mrs.  C.  D.  Angell,  followed  with  the 
reading  of  an  address  of  welcome,  written  by  Mrs.  Angell. 




Fervid  summer  heats  are  over, 
Drouths,  consuming  blade  and  clover — 
All  the  land  its  thirst  is  slaking. 
And  to  beauty  new  awaking. 

Gathered  is  the  harvest  golden, 

Into  garners  new  and  olderi. 

And  the  haymow's  fragi'ant  treasure 

Heaped  and  pressed  in  bounteous  measure. 

Luscious  fruit  in  rare  deposits 
Gleam  in  careful  housewife's  closets  ; 
All  the  summer  sunbeam's  flushes, 
'Prisoned  in  their  ruby  blushes. 

Restful  days  of  rare  September, 
Glowing  like  some  ruddy  ember 
That  on  hearthstone  prostrate  lying, 
Warms  and  brightens  in  its  dying. 

Restful  days!  whose  sunny  gladness 
Takes  no  tinge  of  coming  sadness, 
Days  of  all  the  year  most  fitting 
For  this  welcome  and  this  greeting. 

How  shall  we  our  homage  render? 
How  pay  tribute  true  and  tender 
Unto  those,  who,  long  abiding 
Slow  release,  are  gently  chiding  ? 

Unto  those  who  toy  and  linger 
With  caressing,  patient  finger 
Over  tasks  of  homely  beauty 
Wrought  by  them  in  tireless  duty? 

Long  they  bore  life's  heat  and  burden. 
With  no  meed  of  praise  or  guerdon, 
But  their  souls  in  hope  possessing 
Waited  for  the  promised  blessing. 

While  with  faithful  hands  and  willing 
Their  allotted  tasks  fulfilUng, 
Falt'ring  in  allegiance,  never 
To  their  stem  and  proud  endeavor — 

Forests  felling,  highways  breaking, 
Gardens  from  the  deserts  making, 
Wild  morass  and  swamps  reclaiming. 
All  the  tangled  wildwood  training, 

Rank  and  stubborn  growths  subduing, 
Wells  of  living  water  hewing — 
By  no  pain  or  sickness  daunted. 
By  no  fruitless  visions  haunted, 

By  no  false  ambitions  goaded, 
Nor  by  festering  cares  corroded. 
Strong  in  purpose — pure  in  living, 
All  of  self  to  duty  giving — 

Men  of  grand  heroic  daring, 
Shrinking  from  no  burden-bearing. 
By  their  self-denial  shaming 
All  our  feeble,  shallow  aiming, 

By  their  rigid,  stern  unswerving, 
Us  to  nobler  action  nerving, 

By  their  calm  and  patient  doing 
High  resolves  in  us  renewing, 

Lo !  they  stand  before  the  portal 
Of  the  golden  gate  immortal, 
And  the  fruits  of  toil  and  reaping 
They  bequeath  unto  our  keeping. 

Goodly  acres,  broad  and  teeming. 
Vineyards  on  the  hillside  gleaming. 
Grassy  uplands  gently  swelling, 
Crowned  by  many  a  peaceful  dwelling. 

Tastefiil  homes  and  schools  and  churches, 
Streamlets  spanned  by  graceful  arches. 

Maple  shadowed  drives  enclosing, 

Towns  in  forest  shade  reposing. 

Railroads  Unking  lake  and  ocean, 
Harnessed  lightning's  fiery  motion. 
Docile,  wait  to  do  our  pleasure. 
Bear  our  words  and  bring  our  treasure. 

'Heritors  of  untold  treasure, 
Without  price,  or  stint  or  measure. 
Let  us  show,  by  worthy  living. 
How  we  prize  this  princely  giving. 

Let  this  day  and  place  be  holy. 
Come  with  reverent  hearts  and  lowly. 
Bid  no  thought  unworthy  enter 
Where  our  love  and  duty  center. 

Here  shall  children's  happy  faces. 
Maiden's  sweet  and  tender  graces, 
Manhood's  strength  and  youth's  ambition. 
All  unite  in  loving  mission. 

All  unite  to  crown  with  glory. 
Heads  with  many  winters  hoary, 
Counting  all  our  labor  leisure 
If  it  brings  you  aught  of  pleasure. 

All  with  outstretched  arms  receive  you. 
And  a  thousand  welcomes  give  you  ; 
To  our  hearts  and  homes  we  take  you. 
Proud,  our  honored  guests  to  make  you. 

With  us — aye — but  yet  not  of  us. 

Far  removed,  beyond,  above  us, 

On  the  top  of  Pisgah  standing, 

All  the  "promised  land"  commanding. 

Wiapped  in  beatific  vision, 

Of  those  deathless  fields  Elysian, 

Waiting  for  the  summons  thither. 

What  should  tempt  your  footsteps  hither? 

Ah!  in  guise  of  strangers  hidden. 
Angels  to  our  feast  are  bidden. 
Entertaining  them  beside  us 
Unaware,  they  lead  and  guide  us. 

Low  we  bend  to  take  your  blessing. 
While  our  words  to  you  addressing, 
Lay  your  hands  but  lightly  on  us, 
Let  your  mantle  fall  upon  us. 


Several  letters  from  persons  abroad,  former  residents  of  Hanover,  in  reply 
to  invitations,  were  read.  An  Historical  Address  was  delivered  by  Henry  H. 
Hawkins,  Esq.,  of  Silver  Creek.  It  gave  a  history  of  the  town  from  its  early 
settlement  to  and  including  the  war  of  18 12,  and  evinced  much  study  and 
research  on  the  part  of  the  writer.  It  was  replete  with  entertaining  and 
valuable  facts,  interesting  especially  to  the  citizens  of  Hanover,  and  largely 
so  to  the  people  of  the  county  generally.  It  was  the  intention  of  Mr. 
Hawkins,  if  another  such  occasion  should  occur,  to  bring  the  history 
down  to  the  present  time.  It  is  hoped  that  a  similar  occasion  will  again  be 
presented  ;  and  that,  whether  it  shall  be  or  not,  he  will  proceed  in  preparing 
the  sketch,  for  preservation,  leaving  to  time  and  circumstances  its  future  use 
and  disposal.  Certain  it  is,  there  is  not  another  citizen  in  the  town  who  can 
do  the  subject  better  justice. 

As  there  was  but  a  single  session,  only  a  few  speeches  were  made,  and 
these  by  gentlemen  not  citizens  of  the  county,  though  all  of  them  had  been. 
President  Talcott  introduced,  first,  "  the  venerable  man,  known  to  so  many, 
who  had  taken  so  deep  an  interest  in  the  preservation  of  the  county  history 
— the  Hon.  Elial  T.  Foote."  Judge  Foote  was  greeted  with  three  cheers 
as  he  advanced  to  respond.  He  said  he  was  a  weak,  feeble  old  man.  Dea- 
con Brownell,  the  pioneer  justice,  the  Camps,  Mixers,  and  others  of  the 
earlier  settlers  whom  he  remembered,  had  been  taken  to  the  neighboring 
cemetery.  A  few  like  Capt.  Pattison,  even  older  than  himself,  still  survived. 
Although  reduced  in  flesh  from  250  to  165,  a  mere  skeleton  of  his  former 
self,  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  express  the  pleasure  it  gave  him  to  meet 
them  to-day — the  last  occasion  that  he  expected  to  enjoy  that  happiness. 
He  had  onced  hoped  to  write  a  history  of  the  county,  (too  old  now,)  and 
had  carefully  collected  much  information  which  Mr.  Young  was  using  for  the 
history  now  in  preparation.  He  hoped  all  that  could  would  aid  the  author 
in  making  the  history  what  it  should  be.  He  wanted  the  history  of  the  good 
old  men  who  settled  Hanover  preserved.  The  gathering  further  reminded 
him  of  Perry's  victory  on  Lake  Erie  sixty  years  ago.  God's  providence  was 
in  that  victory  and  the  battle  of  Lake  Erie.  He  also  complimented  Mr. 
Hawkins.  Although  differing  with  him  as  to  the  first  settlement  in  the 
county,  he  was  very  thankful  that  he  had  prepared  that  paper,  which  he 
regarded  as  extremely  valuable. 

A.  W.  Young,  the  writer  of  the  County  History,  and  Dr.  Jeremiah  Ells- 
worth, of  Corry,  Pa.,  followed  Judge  Foote.  As  the  remarks  of  the  former 
were  in  great  part  personal,  and  related  to  his  connection  with  the  work  he 
had  undertaken ;  and  as  the  speech  of  Dr.  Ellsworth,  though  highly  interest- 
ing, was  a  review  of  pioneer  experience  and  mode  of  living,  which,  it  is 
believed,  will  be  found  faithfully  presented  elsewhere  in  this  work ;  and, 
further,  as  the  matter  of  this  volume  has  already  far  exceeded  the  space 
assigned  to  it,  the  remarks  of  both  these  speakers  are  necessarily  omitted. 

The  band  followed  with  "  Old  Hundred,"  and  the  audience  joined  in  sing- 
ing the  old  familiar  words  :  "  Praise  God,  from  whom  all  blessings  flow ;" 


after  which  was  dinner.  Mr.  F.  D.  Ellis  had  the  general  management  of  the 
table  arrangements,  and  succeeded  finely.  After  dinner  the  bands  of  Forest- 
ville  and  Silver  Creek,  who  had  participated  in  the  stand  exercises,  continued 
their  music  for  some  time  ;  the  old  folks  sho.ok  hands  again;  the  young  folks 
drove  on  the  track ;  and  all  went  on  merrily  until  "  milking  time,"  when  the 
grounds  were  speedily  vacated. 

Reunion  at  Jamestown. 

The  second  reunion  of  the  "  Old  Settlers  "  of  Chautauqua  county  was  held 
at  Jamestown  on  the  26th  of  June,  1874.  Great  preparations  had  been 
made  by  the  citizens  to  meet  the  highest  expectations  of  those  who  had  for 
weeks  and  months  been  waiting  for  the  "  good  time  coming."  _  High  arches 
of  evergreen  spanned  several  streets ;  and  the  decorations  upon  the  streets, 
the  Hall,  and  the  Opera  House,  in  which  the  public  exercises  were  chiefly 
held,  were  elaborate  and  in  good  taste.  The  ladies  had  not  been  wanting  in 
efforts  to  assure  success  to  the  reunion.  The  citizens  of  Jamestown  did 
themselves  much  honor  by  the  generous  supply  of  provisions  for  the  table, 
and  their  kind  attentions  to  their  guests. 

That  this  festival,  in  all  its  features,  surpassed  _  that  of  the  preceding  year, 
will  hardly  be  affirmed.  In  numbers  it  far  exceeded  it.  And  a  greater 
number  of  persons  were  fed.  About  four  thousand  people,  it  was  said,  were 
seated  at  the  dinner-tables,  and  the  provisions  that  were  left,  were  estimated 
to  be  sufficient  for  at  least  half  as  many  more.  The  arrangements  for  num- 
bering the  pioneers,  and  taking  their  names,  were  defective  or  not  fully 
carried  out.  Nor  were  they  systematically  classified  in  respect  to  their  ages, 
as  at  the  former  reunion.  No  one  probably  will  say  that,  on  the  whole,  it 
was  not  outdone  by  the  Fredonia  meeting. 

At  the  hour  appointed,  the  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  Col.  Augustus 
F.  Allen,  chairman  of  the  committee  of  arrangements ;  and  by  his  request, 
Hon.  Abner  Hazeltine,  of  Jamestown,  took  place  on  the  stage  as  president  of 
the  meeting,  and  R.  W.  Kennedy,  of  French  Creek ;  Wm.  Blaisdell,  of  Cherry 
Creek ;  and  D.  H.  Waite,  of  EUicott,  as  vice-presidents. 

The  president  then  briefly  addressed  the  meeting,  cordially  welcoming  the 
citizens,  and  especially  the  pioneers  of  the  county  to  the  place  on  this  occa- 
sion. He  drew  an  interesting  contrast  between  the  present,  and  "  sixty 
years  ago,''  when  he  settled  in  Chautauqua  county.  The  whole  region  was 
a  dense  forest,  with  only  here  and  there  a  settler.  Where  there  was  a  heavy 
growth  of  forest  trees,  are  now  rich  fields  and  large  houses,  smrounded 
by  all  the  evidences  of  prosperity.  This  region  was  settled  by  poor  people, 
but  by  their  energy  and  perseverance,  they  have  greatly  advanced  in  wealth, 
and  prosperity.  He  said  :  "We  have  reason  to  thank  them  for  clearing  up 
this  county.  Let  us  not  forget,  in  praising  our  forefathers  and  foremothers, 
to  give  thanks  to  the  Great  God.  I  will  now  ask  the  Rev.  Isaac  Eddy,  of 
New  Jersey,  who  is  the  son  of  the  first  preacher  in  Jamestown,  to  in- 
voke the  Throne  of  Grace." 


After  the  conclusion  of  the  prayer,  and  music  by  the  full  choir  composed 
of  the  several  church  choirs,  who  sang  "  Still  the  Cymbals" 

The  president  introduced  the  Hon.  Richard  P.  Marvin,  who,  as  the  Judge 
announced,  would  preside  during  the  remainder  of  the  reunion  services. 
The  following  is  only  a  part  of  Judge  Marvin's  address  : 

"  We  are  here  in  honor  of  the  '  old  settlers '  of  the  county.  It  is  the 
festival  of  the  reunion  of  those  who  survive,  and  a  day  for  the  commem- 
oration of  the  virtues  of  the  departed.  '  Old  Settlers,'  '  Early  Settlers,'  how 
reduced  your  ranks  !  How  few  of  your  early  companions  are  here  !  You 
have  no  cause  for  mourning,  rather  cause  for  thankfulness  in  the  reflection 
that  they  acted  well  their  part  while  here,  and  that  a  kind  Providence  has 
spared  you  that  you  may  see  this  day — to  meet  here  your  children  and  their 
children,  and  thousands  of  others  to  whose  happiness  your  labors  and  priva- 
tions paved  the  way.  They  meet  you  here  with  greetings,  with  warm  de- 
sires to  contribute  to  your  happiness  while  you  may  remain  with  them. 
They  honor  you,  they  know  something,  they  know  not  very  much,  of  the 
great  battle  you,  the  'old  settlers,'  fought  with  the  difficulties  surrounding 
you.  They,  and  your  descendants  have  a  clear  knowledge,  a  happy  percep- 
tion, of  the  great  victory  you  obtained ;  the  great  conquest  you  made,  for 
they  are  in  the  full  enjoyment  of  the  fruits  of  the  victory.  I  speak  of  your 
encounter  with  difficulties  as  a  battle,  and  your  success  as  a  victory,  and 
well  I  may,  for  to  me  it  has  always  seemed  that  a  courage,  equal  to  that 
which  has  produced  the  ancient  and  modem  heroes  of  Earth,  was  required 
to  influence  you,  in  early  manhood,  with  your  young  bride,  and  those  of 
middle  age  with  their  wives  and  little  ones,  to  leave  their  homes  in  the  old 
settlements  and  come  into  the  wilderness  to  make  for  themselves  and  fami- 
lies a  home.  This  county  was  literally  a  wilderness.  The  land  was  covered 
with  a  dense  forest  of  trees,  tall  and  large,  and  the  axe  was  the  first  and  only 
tool  required. 

"  The  first  labor  was  the  construction  of  the  log  house.  I  shall  not  pause 
to  describe  it  or  its  location  by  the  bubbling  spring.  I  have  no  time  to  speak 
of  the  absence  of  roads  and  mills.  Let  us  enter  at  once,  as  they  did,  upon 
the  campaign  and  begin  the  battle.  The  '  old  settler,'  then  a  sturdy  youth, 
armed  for  combat  with  a  single  weapon,  the  axe,  more  useful  and  more  effec- 
tive than  the  battle  axe  of  the  knights  and  warriors  of  other  times.  He 
takes  a  view  of  the  field  of  battle,  as  did  Napoleon  the  field  of  Waterloo. 
The  enemy  to  be  slain  may  be  numbered  by  thousands. ,  He  approaches 
one  of  them,  a  majestic  oak,  elm  or  maple,  observes  its  tall  and  beautiful 
form,  walks  around  it,  measuring  with  his  eye  its  circumference,  takes  notice 
of  its  inclinations,  and  decides  where  to  lay  it  upon  the  earth.  He  is  stripped 
for  the  combat,  he  is  ready  to  begin,  and  he  delivers  the  first  blow.  The 
wound  is  scarcely  skin  deep,  and  could  the  oak  think  and  laugh,  well  might 
he  do  so  in  derision  of  his  puny  assailant.  But  blow  follows  blow.  The 
weapon  is  wielded  with  skill  and  a  will,  and  in  time  his  majesty  comes  crash- 
ing to  the  ground.  Another,  another  and  another  is  in  the  same  way  at- 
tacked and  subdued,  and  the  sun  smiles  upon  the  earth  and  the  labors  of  the 
puissant  warrior.  The  battle  is  continued  for  days,  weeks,  months,  years,  and 
embraces  many  other  phases  before  tlfe  earth  is  prepared  for  the  uses  of  man. 

"  I  now  ask  the  young  man  of  the  present  day  to  go  where  he  can  find  ten 
acres  of  the  original  forest  in  the  county,  and  say  whether  he  has  courage  to 
make  the  attack,  single  handed  and  alone.     Young  men,  I  do  not  question 


your  general  courage ;  many  of  you  have  proved  it  on  the  battle-field  in 
presence  of  the  cannon's  mouth  ;  but  how  many  of  you  will,  for  a  liberal  re- 
ward, undertake  the  conquest  of  ten  acres  of  dense  forest  ?  I  venture  to 
answer,  very  few  of  you.  Your  courage  would  fail.  How  many  of  our  young 
women  would  be  willing  to  accompany  their  husbands  into  such  a  wilderness, 
and  submit  to  the  hardships  incident  to  such  a  settlement  ?  I  will  not  press 
the  question ;  but  I  recommend  that  you  cultivate  the  acquaintance  of  the 
aged  mothers — early  settlers  still  with  us,  and  learn  their  story.  You  will 
find  it  quite  as  interesting  and  far  more  valuable  than  any  of  the  dozen 
novels  you  have  been  reading  during  the  last  six  months.  They  will  tell  you 
of  the  big  and  little  wheel,  and  the  loom,  very  interesting  and  useful  furniture 
in  the  house,  for  which  you  have  substituted  the  piano  and  the  harp.  They 
will  tell  you  about  their  comfortabfc  apparel,  provided  at  home  by  their  own 
labor,  their  calico  dresses  of  the  newest  style  requiring  six  yards,  and  how 
happy  they  felt  in  them.  You  still  wear  calico,  and  really  appear  very  pretty 
in  them,  but  tell  the  old  ladies  that  the  patterns  used  for  a  dress  are  from 
twelve  to  sixteen  yards.  Tell  them  also  that  you  do  not  feel  quite  comfort- 
able and  happy  unless  you  are  dressed  in  silks,  the  pattern  for  a  dress  being 
from  twenty  to  thirty  yards,  and  the  good  old  ladies  may  open  wide  their 
eyes,  and  exclaim,  '  What  is  the  world  coming  to !'  How  can  the  young  men 
ever  think  of  marriage.  But,  young  ladies,  let  me  whisper  in  your  ear  the 
answer  to  be  given.  It  is  that  since  the  early  days  of  these,  now  ancient  and 
worthy  dames,  the  steam  engine  has  been  invented  by  which,  supplied  with 
water  that  costs  nothing,  heated  to  a  temperature  producing  steam,  the  work 
of  a  thousand  men  and  women  is  performed,  and  that  this  engine,  made  of 
iron,  has  actually  driven  from  the  field  all  the  big  and  little  wheels  and  do- 
mestic looms,  and  so  greatly  reduced  the  hard  labor  of  men  and  women,  that 
your  husbands  of  the  present  day  are  able  to  provide  for  you  more  dresses  of 
greatly  enlarged  patterns,  and  by  the  steam  engine  argument,  you  may,  in  a 
measure,  allay  their  fears,  and  the  apprehensions  of  the  young  men,  if  they 
are  apprehensive,  which  I  doubt. 

"Though  the  early  settlers  labored  hard,  and  suffered  many  privations,  it 
would  be  an  error  to  say  that  they  were  not  happy — husbands,  wives  and 
children.  Ask  any  of  the  aged  survivors,  and  they  will  say,  with  probably  a 
few  exceptions,  that  they  were  happy.  Happiness  does  not  so  much  depend 
upon  what  we  have,  as  upon  what  we  expect  to  have.  They  were  satisfied, 
contented,  not  impatient.  They  mingled  amusement  with  profit.  Most  of 
them  took  with  them  into  the  wilderness  a  rifle,  and  they  knew  how  to  use 
it,  and  the  boys  all  learned  the  art.  Game  was  plenty,  and  the  good  house- 
wife knew  how  to  make  a  savory  pottage  fit  for  a  king.  Why  say  king  ? 
Much  better  to  have  said  her  husband,  herself,  her  children,  and  a  neigh- 
bor who  should  happen  in,  at  the  right  time.  The  streams  were  alive 
with  the  speckled  trout,  the  same  for  which  the  epicures  of  the  present  day 
pay  a  dollar  a  pound,  (though  their  creditors,  sometimes,  go  unpaid.)  The 
boys  knew  how  to  angle  for,  and  take  these  spry,  shy  inhabitants  of  the  rapid 
brooks,  though  I  wUl  venture  the  opinion  that  not  one  of  them  had  ever  read 
or  seen,  or  heard  of  the  book  of  the  celebrated  philosopher,  Sir  Izaak 
Walton,  upon  the  piscatory  art 

"  In  this  county  there  was,  and  is,  i  large  and  beautiful  lake,  and  several 
smaller  lakes,  all  peopled  with  fish  of  the  most  delicious  species.  The  early 
settlers  resorted  to  them  for  recreation  and  for  food.  We  might  make  a  long 
catalogue  of  the  pleasures  and  amusements  of  the  men  and  boys ;  but  the 


women  must  not  be  neglected.  They  participated  in  all  the  happiness 
resulting  from  the  success  and  prosperity  of  their  husbands,  and  they  knew 
all  that  their  husbands  knew,  and  they  were  constantly  consulted.  No  good 
husband  in  those  days  ever  thought  of  concealing  anything  from  his  better- 
half.  It  would,  I  fancy,  have  hardly  been  safe  for  him  to  attempt  conceal- 
ment, and  if  he  had  he  would  have  failed.  She  was  his  companion, 
counselor,  help-meet.  The  women  had  their  visitings,  their  tea  parties,  in 
a  neighborhood  of  ample  extent,  say  a  dozen  or  more  miles.  They  gossiped, 
told  each  other  the  news  as  they  do  now,  and  everjiave,  and  ever  will,  and 
woe  be  to  the  scurvy  cynic  who  ever  has  attempted  or  shall  attempt  to  deny 
or  abridge  this  happy  privilege.  The  young  folks  had  their  pleasures,  and  as 
the  settlements  thickened  up,  they  had  their  balls,  as  they  were  then  called, 
though  I  believe  there  are  half  a  dozen  names  for  the  same  thing  now-a- 
days.  And  I  will  hazard  the  opinion  that  the  net  results  of  these  gatherings, 
and  convivial  feasts,  were  quite  as  great  as  those  of  the  present  day,  to  wit,  a 
certain  number  of  weddings. 

"  The  early  settlers  confided  in  each  other.  There  were  probably  not  a 
dozen  padlocks  in  the  county  when  the  population  was  ten  thousand.  The 
doors  of  the  houses,  barns  and  granaries  were  left  unfastened  at  night. 
Their  natures  were  not  poisoned  by  the  evil  passions  which  now  produce  so 
much  unhappiness ;  envy  was  unknown.  All  rejoiced  in  the  success  and 
prosperity  of  their  neighbors.  All  were  ready  to  lend  a  helping  hand  to  all. 
If  a  family  was  burned  out,  the  neighbors  met,  and  in  two  or  three  days  a 
new  house  made  its  appearance.  It  was  soon  furnished,  largely  by  contribu- 
tions, and  the  family  were  soon  again  comfortably  settled. 

"  Some  of  the  boys,  whose  fathers  were  in  better  circumstances  than  their 
neighbors,  being  owners  of  the  only  horse  in  the  neighborhood,  spent  a  large 
portion  of  their  time  in  taking  to  the  mill,  a  distance  of  many  miles,  all  the 
grists  of  all  the  neighborhood,  and  the  rule  was  that  the  owner  of  the  grist 
should  labor  for  the  owner  of  the  horse  and  the  father  of  the  boy  during  the 
absence  of  the  horse,  and  this  was  generally  about  two  days,  as  the  boy 
spent  one  night  at  the  mill,  the  kind  miller  furnishing  for  him  a  bed  com- 
posed of  the  grists  at  the  mill,  and  the  boy  took  with  him  his  own  lunch. 
The  load  for  the  horse  was  two  bushels,  surmounted  by  the  boy.  One  of 
these  boys  is  now  a  wealthy  citizen  of  Jamestown. 

"  But  to  conclude  this  address  already  too  much  extended.  The  first  set- 
tlers entered  this  county  then  a  wilderness,  without  roads,  without  anything 
which  lab'or  and  civiUzation  produce.  By  their  labor  and  enterprise,  and 
the  labor  and  enterprise  of  those  who  came  after  them,  the  county  has 
become  a  land  flowing  with  milk,  if  not  with  honey,  and  its  butter  and  cheese 
are  certainly  more  valuable  than  the  honey  of  the  Land  of  Canaan.  If 
those  in  middle  life  and  younger,  now  in  the  county,  shall  acquit  themselves 
and  perform  all  their  duties,  and  with  the  like  integrity,  as  faithfully  as  the 
early  settlers  have,  then  the  reputation  of  the  county  will  be  maintained, 
otherwise  not." 

At  the  close  of  the  exercises  in  Institute  Hall  at  nobn,  the  Old  Settlers  in 
attendance  formed  themselves  in  an  immense  procession,  and,  headed  by  the 
band,  marched  to  the  Opera  House,  where  everything  was  in  readiness  to 
receive  them.  Since  morning,  matrons  of  the  tables,  with  their  busy  assist- 
ants, had  been  at  work  fiimishing  and  decorating  their  tables,  and,  when 
completed,  they  presented  a  sight  such  as  never  was  seen  in  Jamestown 


before,  and  probably  never  will  be  again.  Twelve  tables,  40  feet  long,  ex- 
tended the  entire  width  of  the  building,  and  groaned  under  their  weight  of 
crockery,  provisions  and  beautiful  flowers,  which  the  skillful  hands  of  the 
ladies  had  artistically  arranged.  Around  each  table  stood  ten  young  ladies 
ready  to  attend  to  the  wants  of  all  who  should  be  so  fortunate  as  to  obtain 
seats  at  their  tables.  Each  set  of  waiters  had  some  distinguishing  feature  in 
her  dress ;  some  wearing  jaunty  little  caps,  and  others  with  different  colored 
ribbons  arranged  upon  tbeir  persons.  The  ante-rooms,  where  the  food  was 
stored,  and  the  rooms  in  which  tea,  coffee  and  chocolate  were  made,  pre- 
sented sights  that  were  wonderful.  Bread,  cakes,  pie,  etc.,  were  stored, 
layer  upon  layer,  and  heap  upon  heap.  Never  did  our  people  see  as  much 
food  as  this  together  at  one  time.  Tea  and  coffee  were  prepared  in  huge 
caldrons,  and  its  quality  was  of  the  best,  causing  many  an  old  lady's  eye  to 
sparkle  with  delight,  as  she  put  in  their  cups  the  favorite  beverage,  prepared, 
as  she  expressed  it,  "jest  right." 

Dinner  time  came;  and  the  old  settlers  poured  into  the  house,  and  were 
quickly  seated  at  the  tables.  Hundreds  of  old  men  and  women  were  there 
with  gray  heads ;  many  of  them  white  as  snow.  Though  stooping  under  the 
weight  of  years,  a  merry,  pleasant  expression  was  upon  every  face.  When 
the  seats  at  the  tables  were  all  filled.  Rev.  Mr.  Robinson,  at  the  request  of 
the  president,  invoked  the  Throne  of  Grace.  Then  six  hundred  mouths  were 
opened,  and  the  old  people,  with  a  will,  fell  to  dispatching  the  good  things 
set  before  them  by  the  nimble  waiters.  How  many  times  the  seats  at  the 
table  were  filled  can  not  be  told,  as  the  people  were  constantly  coming  and 
going  ;  but  it  is  believed  that  more  than  three  thousand  were  fed. 

The  oldest  settlers'  table  was  indeed  a  curiosity.  It  was  reserved  for  the 
most  aged  people  present,  set  with  old  fashioned  dishes,  with  old  fashioned 
food  cooked  in  an  old  fashioned  manner,  and  waited  upon  by  young  people 
dressed  in  the  costumes  of  the  olden  time,  and  direct  descendants  of  the  first 
settlers  of  Chautauqua  county.  This  table  was  under  the  supervision  of 
Mrs.  O.  E.  Jones.  One  noteworthy  feature  of  the  food  was  a  cake  made  by 
an  old  lady  one  hundred  years  old. 

Dinner  over,  the  old  people  adjourned  to  Institute  Hall,  to  spe^k  to  their 
former  comrades,  and  relate  reminiscences  of  early  times.  They  were  briefly 
addressed  by  Mr.  Cleland,  of  Charlotte,  and  Mr.  Fay,  of  Portland. 

The  rostrum  was  then  cleared,  and  Miss  Calista  Jones  introduced  her  old 
fashioned  school.  Old  fashioned  desks  were  placed  upon  the  stage,  and  at 
the  raps  of  the  long,  wicked  looking  ruler  in  the  hands  of  Miss  Jones,  who 
was  dressed  in  ancient  costume ;  a  troop  of  ragged,  mischievous  children 
trooped  up  on  the  stage,  and  took  their  seats  in  that  manner  so  peculiar  to 
the  district  school  of  years  ago.  Classes  in  "  readin,'  spellin'  and  'rithmetic  " 
were  called  up  to  recite,  and  stood  there  in  a  row ;  the  great  over-grown 
"booby,"  the  sore  toed  one,  the  smart  girl  and  dull  one,  all  were  there  and 
in  a  manner  that  recalled  vividly  to  the  minds  of  many  their  own  school 
days  in  the  little  red  house,  where  the  rudiments  were  instilled  into  their 


minds,  and  where  the  happiest  days  of  their  existence  were  passed.  Miss 
Jones  has  been  a  teacher  for  over  thirty  consecutive  years;  and  there  is 
scarcely  a  man  or  woman  whose  childhood  was  passed  in  this  place,  who  has 
not,  at  one  time  or  another,  been  under  her  tuition.  She  is  now  a  teacher  in 
the  Jamestown  Union  School  and  Collegiate  Institute. 

Rev.  Mr.  Frink  was  called  for,  and  responded  with  a  fife  in  his  hand, 
which  his  father  had  played  on  through  the  Revolutionary  war  ;  and  though 
advanced  in  years,  with  fingers  stiflF,  breath  short,  and  lips  that  sometimes 
failed  to  do  their  office,  he  played  one  or  two  airs  that  he  learned  when  a 
boy.     They  were  received  with  applause. 

After  remarks  by  Rev.  Mr.  Stillman,  old  "  New  Jerusalem"  was  sung  by 
the  choir,  the  audience  standing  and  joining  with  the  choir. 

The  singing  was  followed  by  brief  speeches  from  Dr.  Ellsworth,  of  Corry ; 
Hon.  Alvin  Plumb,  and  a  Mr.  Taylor,  a  school  teacher  in  Jamestown  forty- 
five  years  ago.  And  after  singing  "  Coronation,"  in  response  to  a  call  from 
Judge  Foote,  further  speaking  was  done  by  Oliver  Pier,  the  "  Leather  Stock- 
ing" of  Chautauqua  county,  Judge  Edson,  and  Rev.  Mr.  Kent.  The  re- 
marks of  all  were  interesting  ;  but  the  want  of  room  forbids  their  insertion. 

One  fact,  however,  stated  by  Mr.  Plumb,  should  not  be  omitted.  In  the 
account  of  the  receptions  of  Gen.  La  Fayette  in  this  county,  given  in  pre- 
ceding pages,  no  mention  was  made  of  the  fact,  that  Congress  voted  him, 
for  his  services  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  $200,000,  and  a  township  of  land. 

Mr.  Pier,  it  may  be  added,  in  relating  his  early  hunting  feats,  said  he  had 
killed  1,322  deer  with  one  gun,  which  had  required,  during  its  use,  three  new 
stocks  and  hammers. 

On  motion,  it  was  resolved,  that  thanks  be  tendered  to  the  officers  of  the 
meeting ;  also  to  the  people  who  had  so  generally  contributed  to  the  success 
of  the  enterprise,  especially  to  the  ladies,  for  the  excellent  preparations  they 
had  made.  The  audience  then  joined  in  singing  "  America,"  and  then  the 
meeting  adjourned  to  meet  at  the  Opera  House  in  the  evening.  The 
adjournment  gave  all  opportunity  tg^witness  the  grand  parade  of  the  fire 
department,  at  six  o'clock,  when  the  entire  department,  with  bands  of  music, 
formed  into  order  on  East  Fourth  street,  and  took  up  the  line  of  march  pre- 
viously laid  out.  Of  this  we  can  only  say,  that  it  was  an  elegant  display ; 
and  that  Jamestown  may  be  justly  proud  of  her  fire  department. 

The  evening  exercises  at  the  Opera  House  were  well  attended.  By  eight 
o'clock  the  house  was  well  filled.  A  large  number  of  the  older  people 
present,  took  their  seats  on  the  stage.  A  great  part  of  the  evening  exercises 
was  the  reading  of  letters  from  persons  invited  who  were  unable  to  be  pres- 
ent. After  a  song,  Mr.  Cleland,  one  of  the  four  brothers,  took  the  stand, 
and  related  many  pleasing  reminiscences  of  early  life  in  the  county.  In 
response  to  repeated  calls.  Rev.  Hiram  Eddy,  formerly  of  Jamestown,  took 
the  stand,  and  delivered  an  interesting  address.  Jamestown  had  given  him 
a  start  in  the  world ;  and  he  would  ever  regard  his  mother  town  with  love 
and  reverence.     Mr.  Eddy  said  he  and  an  older  brother  cut  the  first  tree  that 


was  ever  felled  on  "  English  Hill,"  and  built  a  cabin.  Among  the  reminis- 
cences of  his  early  life  in  that  town,  was  his  having  worked  in  the  old  woolen 
factory,  with  the  now  Hon.  T.  R.  Hazard,  for  twenty-five  cents  a  day.  After 
some  well  chosen  remarks  by  Judge  Marvin,  Davis  H.  Waite,  editor  of  the 
Jour7ial,  read  a  valuable  paper,  giving  a  history  of  James  Prendergast. 
Deacon  Higby  Danforth  recounted  some  incidents  in  the  early  history  of 
Busti.  Judge  Marvin  then  arose,  and  said  that,  by  request,  the  audience 
would  sing  "  Auld  Lang  Syne,"  when  the  meeting  would  be  adjourned.  At 
the  close  of  the  singing,  Corydon  Hitchcock  called  for  three  hearty  cheers. 
With  these,  the  second  reunion  of  the  old  settlers  of  Chautauqua  county  was 

A  large  collection  of  relics  was  placed  for  exhibition  in  the  Union  School 
building,  which  attracted  the  attention  of  a  great  portion  of  the  people 
present.     A  few  only  of  the  relics  can  be  mentioned  : 

Portrait  of  Deacon  Samuel  Foote,  father  of  E.  T.  Foote.  Born  in  New 
Haven,  Conn.,  1770.  Settled  in  Sherburne,  N.  Y.,  1798.  Came  to  Ellicott 
in  1826,  and  died  January  25th,  1848,  aged  78  years.  Portrait  of  Anna 
Cheney,  first  wife  of  E.  T.  Foote,  and  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Methodist 
church  of  Jamestown.  Born  in  Dover,  Vt.  Came  to  Ellicott  in  i8r2. 
Married  in  Jamestown,  1817,  and  died  in  Jamestown,  1840,  aged  40  years. 
Portrait  of  first  wife  of  Hon.  E.  T.  Foote,  painted  in  1836.  Exhibited  by 
Mrs.  Palmiter.  A  portrait  of  Ruby,  wife  of  Wm.  Sears,  and  daughter  of 
Ebenezer  Cheney,  bom  in  Dover,  Vt.,  1787,  removed  to  Pomfret  in  1811. 
On  the  death  of  Mr.  Sears,  she  was  married  to  Charles  Arnold ;  died  in 
Hartfield,  1858,  aged  71  years. 

From  Mrs.  C.  Jones — Pocket  handkerchief  over  one  hundred  years  old. 
From  Mrs.  Job  Davis — Snuff  handkerchief  over  fifty  years  old ;  muslin  cap 
over  one  hundred  years  old ;  also  mits  over  one  hundred  years  old,  and  vest 
over  fifty  years  old.  From  Miss  Belle  Marvin — A  quilt  designed  and  quilted 
by  Mrs.  David  Newland  in  i82r.  Also  a  quilt  pieced  by  Miss  McHarg  in 
i8r2,  the  calico  costing  from  cents  to  one  dollar  per  yard  ;  also 
baby  dress  sixty  years  old.  One  muslin  and  one  cambric  dress,  handsomely 
embroidered,  made  in  18 10.  D.  H.  Marvin's  baby  cloak;  .landscape  and  a 
fruit  piece  done  in  fancy  work  sixty  years  ago. 

From  Gideon  Sherman — Corset  over  one  hundred  years  old ;  also  a 
sword  picked  up  in  Rhode  Island  after  the  British  were  driven  out.  From 
Hon.  R.  P.  Marvin — Laws  of  England,  published  in  1642,  and  a  law  book 
in  1746.  From  Mrs.  H.  P.  Buck — Sugar  bowl  two  hundred  years  old. 
From  L.  L.  Mason — Original  warrant  for  hanging  witches  in  Massachusetts, 
1692.  From  Levant  Mason — Shoe  buckle,  hour  glass  and  spectacles  over 
one  hundred  and  fifty  years  old.  From  Vernon  Morley — Bake  kettle  used 
in  1800  for  johnny  cakes  ;  horn  spoon. 

From  Mrs.  A.  F.  Allen — A  chest  which  was  filled  with  valuables  and 
hidden  in  the  woods  for  three  months  to  prevent  its  being  confiscated  by 
tories.     From  Hiram  Thayer — Plow  brought  into  this  county  fifty-two  years 


ago  by  Isaac  Eames ;  has  been  used  on  Mr.  Thayer's  farm  every  year  since. 
From  R.  P.  Marvin — Tea-table  one  hundred  years  old;  silver,  china  and 
glass  ware  used  by  Mrs.  Newland,  of  Albany,  sixty  years  ago.  From  Miss 
Belle  Marvin — Horn  spoon  and  ladle,  over  one  hundred  years  old. 

From  C.  L.  Bishop — An  account  book  of  John  Bishop,  one  hundred  and 
sixteen  years  old ;  a  singing  book  over  one  hundred  years  old ;  several 
school  books  over  fifty  years  old ;  a  piece  of  shew  bread  from  the  Jewish 
Synagogue  of  Poughkeepsie ;  a  piece  of  a  gun  barrel  used  in  the  Revolu- 
tion;  a  poisoned  dagger  brought  from  Borneo,  in  1 816,  by  the  American 
consul ;  several  relics  of  the  Boston  and  Chicago  fires ;  two  pictures  of 
Jamestown  before  the  fire  in  186 1  ;  a  ring  and  staple  from  Libby  prison, 
used  during  the  war ;  a  tooth  of  a  mastodon  found  over  thirty  feet  under  the 
ground  ;  three  specimens  of  Continental  currency;  a  collection  of  old  coins, 
all  of  them  used  six  hundred  years  B.  C. ;  the  only  remaining  pieces  of  an 
American  flag,  the  first  one  captured  by  the  rebels  at  Fort  Sumter ;  a  smok- 
ing pouch,  pipe,  two  arrows  of  Wahassett,  chief  of  the  Sioux  tribe  of  Texas  ; 
a  copy  of  the  Ulster  County  Gazette  in  mourning  for  General  Washington, 
January  4,  1800. 

From  Ezekiel  Gould — A  pewter  basin  brought  from  England  one  hundred 
and  twenty  years  ago.  From  Chas.  Mitchel,  of  Auburn  prison — Three  pic- 
ture frames,  two  containing  5,000  and  one  2,456  pieces  ;  a  work-box  contain- 
ing 13,287  pieces. 

From  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alex.  T.  Prendergast — Case  of  coins  in  circulation  in 
Jamesto^vn  from  1812  to  1835;  cane  with  carved  horn  handle  made  and 
presented  to  Judge  James  Prendergast  by  an  Indian  chief  60  years  ago ;  early 
settler's  cane  ;  a  pair  of  tongs  been  in  use  over  a  century  ;  first  dinner  kettle 
brought  to  Jamestown  ;  pocketbooks  brought  from  Scotland  over  125  years 
ago  ;  a  very  old  mahogany  table  imported  from  France  by  Captain  Norton ; 
cane  made  from  a  deck  plank  of  Perry's  flag  ship  Lawrence;  sun  dial  from 
Scotland  over  125  years  old  ;  an  almanac  of  1794 ;  an  old  watch  brought  to 
Jamestown  in  18 10;  a  cravat,  diamond  pin  and  brooch  and  cue  worn  by 
Judge  James  Prendergast  at  one  of  Washington's  receptions  in  New  York 
city ;  cherry  stand,  the  first  article  of  furniture  manufactured  in  Jamestown, 
made  for  Judge  Prendergast  by  Captain  Phineas  Palmeter ;  portraits  of  Judge 
Martin  Prendergast,  Judge  Matthew  Prendergast,  Judge  James  Prendergast, 
Hon.  Jediah  Prendergast  and  Hon.  John  J.  Prendergast;  infant  dress  of 
Alex.  T.  Prendergast,  65  years  old;  wedding  bonnet  27  years  old;  old  style 
cap ;  old  fashioned  pocket ;  old  style  bonnets ;  Spanish  lace  veil'wom  by 
Mrs.  Judge  Prendergast ;  log  cabin  campaign  handkerchief  and  badge. 

From  Martin  Prendergast — Shawl  worn  by  Mrs.  Dr.  Wm.  Prendergast  in 
1815  ;  dress  waist  worn  by  Mrs.  E.  Prendergast  before  1805  ;  Mrs.  Dr.  Wm. 
Prendergast's  dress  waist  made  in  181 7;  sword  and  uniform  wosn  by  Col. 
Wm.  Prendergast  in  the  war  of  18 12. 

From  Mrs.  A.  Hazeltine — A  plate  imported  for  a  marriage  outfit  in  1760 
by  Caleb  Hayward,  Mrs.  Hazeltine's  grandfather.     From  Col.  A.  F.  Allen — 


Hand  sword  taken  from  the  hand  of  a  dead  rebel  after  the  battle  of  Cairo, 
evidently  very  old,  sent  to  Col.  Allen  as  a  tooth-pick.  From  unknown  par- 
ties— First  seat  of  the  old  Pine  street  school  house,  where  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
A.  F.  Allen  first  met.  From  Mrs.  Seymour — Tea-cups  and  saucers  of  three 
generations,  1773,  1804  and  1823.  Leaf  from  the  cypress  tree  under  which 
Lord  Packenham  died,  1830.  Punch  bowl  used  at  a  Congregational  church 
raising  in  Jaflfrey,  N.  H.,  on  the  day  of  the  battle  at  Bunker  Hill. 


This  remarkable  phenomenon  occurred  in  1806,  when  there  were  but  few 
settlers  in  this  county.  And  of  the  large  number  who  witnessed  it  before 
coming,  there  are  few  now  living  who  can  give  a  minute  and  correct  descrip- 
tion of  it.  Nor  will  its  like  again  occur  in  the  United  States,  during  the 
life-time  of  the  youngest  person  now  living. 

The  eclipse  was  calculated  to  be  total  in  such  parts  of  New  York,  New 
England,  Pennsylvania,  and  Ohio,  as  were  situated  between  41  deg.  35  min., 
and  43  deg.  5  min.  north  latitude.  Gen.  Simeon  De  Witt,  of  Albany,  in 
giving  an  account  of  the  eclipse,  observed  :  "  Fortunately,  on  the  morning  of 
that  day,  [June  r6th,]  the  atmosphere  was  very  clear.  The  eclipse  began  at 
9  h.  5  min.  t2  sec,  a.  m. ;  the  beginning  of  total  obscuration  was  11  h.  8  m. 
6  s. ;  the  end  of  total  darkness,  11  h.  12  m.  6  s. ;  and  of  the  eclipse,  12  h. 
33  min.  8  s. ;  end  of  total  eclipse,  4  m.  5  s." 

At  Cooperstown,  N.  Y.,  the  following  description  of  this  sublime  phe- 
nomenon was  given  : 

"  The  atmosphere  at  this  place,  on  Monday  last,  was  serene  and  pure.  The 
sun  was  majestically  bright,  until  50  minutes  past  g  o'clock,  a.  m.,  when  a 
little  dark  spot  was  visible  about  forty-five  degrees  to  the  right  of  the  zenith. 
The  shade  increased  until  rg  minutes  past  10,  when  stars  began  to  appear, 
and  the  atmosphere  exhibited  a  gloomy  shade.  At  12  minutes  past  11 
o'clock,  the  sun  was  wholly  obscured,  exhibiting  the  appearance  of  a  black 
globe,  or  screen,  with  light  behind  it,  the  rays  only  of  which  were  visible, 
and  which  were  too  feeble  to  occasion  sufficient  light  to  form  a  shade.  Many 
stars  now  appeared,  although  less  numerous  than  are  usually  seen  in  clear 
evenings.  TTiere  was  now  "  darkness  visible  " — a  sort  of  blackish,  unnatural 
twilight.  The  fowls  retired  to  their  roosts,  and  the  "doves  to  their  windows." 
The  birds  were  mute,  except  the  whip-poor-will,  whose  notes  partially  cheered 
the  gloom.  The  dew  descended,  and  nature  seemed  clad  in  a  sad,  somber, 
and  something  like  a  sable  livery. 

"At  14  minutes  past  ii,  a  little  bright  point  appeared  to  the  left  of  the 
sun's  nadir,  similar  to  the  focus  of  a  glass  when  refracting  the  rays  of  the 
sun.  Sudtienly  a  segment  of  the  circle  of  that  glorious  orb  emerged,  and 
seemed  to  say,  '  sit  lux,'  and  was  instantly  obeyed,  '  lux  fuit,'  as  quick  as 
thought  A  small  pin  could  be  discovered  on  the  ground.  A  more  wonderful 
and  pleasing  phenomenon  can  hardly  be  conceived.     The  doves  left  their 

THE  GREAT   ECLIPSE.  -  219 

retirement ;  the  whip-poor-will's  melody  ceased  ;  and  the  face  of  nature  again 
smiled.  But  some  stars  were  still  visible,  and  Venus  displayed  her  beauty 
until  1 2  o'clock.  At  40  minutes  past  1 2,  the  sun  shone  in  full  splendor,  and 
in  turn  eclipsed  the  moon  and  all  other  heavenly  luminaries  by  its  glorious 

Rev.  Dr.  Nott,  President  of  Union  College,  in  his  account  of  the  eclipse, 
says : 

"At  the  instant  the  last  ray  was  intercepted,  and  the  obscuration  became 
total,  a  tremulous,  undulating  shadow,  a  kind  of  indescribable,  alternate 
prevalence  and  intermixture  of  light  and  shade,  struck  the  earth,  and  played 
on  its  surface,  which  gave  to  the  most  stable  objects  the  semblance  of  agita- 
tion. It  appeared  as  though  the  moon  rode  unsteadily  in  her  orbit ;  and  the 
earth  seemed  to  tremble  on  its  axis.  The  deception  was  so  complete,  that  I 
felt  instinctively,  and  in  spite  of  the  instincts  of  my  reason  to  the  contrary, 
a  tottering  motion.  Some  who  were  present,  I  observed,  took  hold  of  what- 
ever was  near  them  for  support,  while  others  leaned  forward,  and  insensibly 
flung  themselves  into  an  attitude  which  indicated  that  they  found  it  difficult 
to  stand.     *     *     * 

"  The  scenes  described  at  the  commencement  of  the  total  obscuration 
reappeared  when  the  first  rays  of  the  sun  were  reappearing ;  the  same  ap- 
parent agitation  of  the  surface  of  the  earth  ;  the  same  apparent  struggle 
between  light  and  darkness;  the  same  separation  between  light  and  shade 
into  distinct  and  alternate  arches,  and  the  same  motion  reversed ;  for  now 
the  arches  of  light  seemed  to  crowd  those  of  shade  inward ;  and  the  whole 
movement  was  from  the  horizon  towards  the  center,  which  continued  about 
the  same  time,  and  disappeared  in  the  same  manner,  as  above  described." 

In  the  city  of  New  York,  a  sudden  and  dismal  gloom  overspread  the  face 
of  nature  ;  the  thermometer  indicated  a  fall  of  the  quicksilver  18  degrees, 
and  the  atmosphere  was  sensibly  cooler.     Not  a  cloud  was  to  be  seen. 



For  convenience  of  reference  and  for  other  purposes,  separate  historical 
sketches  of  the  several  towns  are  given,  alphabetically  arranged. 

In  collecting  the  materials  for  this  history,  it  was  found  that  many  of  the 
present  settlers  were  desirous  to  know  the  dates  of  settlement  of  their  ances- 
tors and  certain  other  old  settlers.  But  on  inquiry  it  was  found,  that  the 
oldest  remaining  settlers  differed  much  in  their  recollections  ;  and  that  their 
statements  were  not  reliable.  It  was  then  concluded  to  refer  to  the  books  of 
the  Holland  Land  Company,  in  which  is  found  the  precise  date  of  the  article 
of  every  original  purchaser  who  bought  his  land  on  credit.  The  record  of 
original  purchasers  by  deed  prior  to  the  destruction  of  the  land-office  at  May- 
ville  in  1836,  is  not  to  be  found,  the  books  having  been  destroyed. 

But  it  is  to  be  observed,  that  the  date  of  contract  does  not  in  all  cases 
determine  the  date  of  settlement.  Some  settled  on  their  lands  by  permission 
of  the  agent  of  the  Land  Company,  a  year  or  two  years  before  their  articles 
were  executed,  or  before  the  townships  were  surveyed  into  lots.  And  there 
were  others  who  took  their  articles  a  year  or  two  years  before  they  settled  on 
their  lands.  Hence,  the  time  of  settlement  of  a  considerable  portion  of 
those  whose  names  are  found  in  the  lists,  must  remain  in  doubt.  A  majority 
of  them,  however,  it  is  presumed,  entered  upon  their  lands  as  soon  as  they 
could  erect  their  cabins  and  bring  on  their  families. 


Arkwright  was  formed  from  Pomfiret  and  Villenova,  April  30,  1829.  A 
part  of  Pomfret  was  annexed  in  1830.  It  comprises  the  territory  of  township 
5,  range  11,  according  to  EUicott's  survey  of  the  Holland  Purchase.  Its  sur- 
face has  been  described  as  an  elevated  upland,  broken  and  hilly  in  the  south- 
west, and  rolling  in  the  north-east.  Its  highest  summit — near  the  center — is 
said  to  be  1,000  to  1,200  feet  above  Lake  Erie,  and  is  probably  the  highest 
land  in  the  county.  It  is  watered  chiefly  by  the  tributaries  or  head  waters 
of  the  Canadaway  creek,  which  crosses  the  west  line  of  the  town  into  Pom- 
fret  nearly  three  miles  north  from  its  south-west  corner,  and  the  head  waters 
or  branches  of  the  Walnut  creek,  which  leaves  the  town  about  one  mile  west 
of  its  north-east  corner.  On  its  east  border  is  Mud  lake,  which  covers  about 
10  acres.  The  soil  is  a  clay  and  gravelly  loam.  On  Canadaway  creek,  in 
the  south-west  part,  is  a  cascade  with  a  perpendicular  fall  of  2  2  feet. 


Original  Purchases  in  Township  j,  Range  ii. 
1807.     November,  Zattu  Gushing,  63  ;  [articled  to  Uriah  L.  Johnson.] 

1809.  June,  Benj.  Sprague,  56.  August,  Augustus  Bumham,  60.  Ed- 
ward McGregor,  62.  September,  Oliver  Taylor,  55.  October,  Aaron  Wil- 
cox, 56.     November,  Nathan  Eaton,  64.     Benj.  Perry,  64. 

1810.  January,  Horace  Clough,  42.     May,  Augustus  Bumham,  56. 
181 2.     March,  Robert  Cowden,  54. 

1814.  October,  Moses  Tucker,  62.     November,  Daniel  Harris,  53. 

181 5.  October,  Robert  W.  Seaver,  37. 

1816.  February,  Abiram  Orton,  55.     December,  Thaddeus  Barnard,  16. 

181 7.  March,  Robert  Cowden,  53.     April,  Jabez  Harrington,  39. 

18 1 8.  March,  Silas  Matteson,  8. 

1821.  July,  Isaiah  Martin,  3.  October,  Bela  Kingsley,  13.  Hiram 
Kinsley,  13. 

1822.  March,  Simeon  Smith,  Jr.,  39.  Caleb  Weaver,  Jr.,  39.  April, 
David  Weaver,  31.  John  Weaver,  32.  Bethnel  Harvey,  12.  Oct.,  Ashbel 
Scott,  10.     Nov.,  Asahel  Bumham,  26,  27.     Moses  and  Aaron  Luce,  18. 

1823.  July,  Sylvester  Gould,  42.  August,  Stephen  Chase,  2.  Novem- 
ber, Orestes  Thatcher,  18. 

1824.  September,  Simeon  Clinton,  21.  October,  Benjamin  White,  28. 
Arna  Wood,  51. 

1825.  Sept.,  Shephen  Chase,  2d,  9.     Oct.,  Ellsworth  Griswold,  25. 

1826.  January,  Andrus  M.  Huyck,  16.  July,  Wm.  F.  Peebles,  Jr.,  33. 
October,  Zephaniah  Briggs,  42.     Abijah  Mason,  8. 

1828.     January,  Benjamin  Perry,  47. 

The  first  settlement  in  Arkwright,  according  to  the  State  Gazetteer,  was 
made  in  the  north-west  part  of  the  town  in  1807,  by  Abiram  Orton,  Benjamin 
Perry  and  Augustus  Bumham,  from  the  eastern  part  of  the  state.  From  the 
Holland  Company's  land-office  books  it  appears,  that  the  lands  of  these  set- 
tlers were  not  articled  until  1809.  They  were,  however,  probably  contracted 
for  and  settled  in  the  year  first  mentioned.  Aaron  Wilcox  is  said  to  have 
settled  in  1809,  and  Nathan  Eaton  in  1810,  though  the  articles  of  both  are 
dated  in  1809.  Uriah  L.  Johnson,  Benjamin  Sprague,  and  Jonathan 
Sprague,  are  said  to  have  settled  at  the  center  of  the  town  in  181 1.  Johnson 
and  B.  Sprague  first  bought,  and,  it  is  believed,  occupied,  lands  in  the  north- 
west part  of  the  town,  but  afterwards,  probably  in  18 11,  settled  permanently 
near  the  center. 

Abiram  Orton  came  from  Oneida  county,  and  settled  in  the  north-west 
part  of  the  town,  probably  on  lot  64,  near  Pomfret.  He  was  for  several  years 
an  associate  judge  of  the  county.  He  was  twice  married,  and  died  in  1837, 
having  had  no  children.  His  widow  resides  on  the  fann.  Aaron  Wilcox,  a 
native  of  Conn.,  removed  with  his  family  from  Madison  Co.,  N.  Y.,  to  Chau- 
tauqua, 1809  ;  and,  after  a  year's  residence  at  Fredonia,  settled  in  the  town 
of  Arkwright,  on  lot  56,  which  he  bought  in  October,  1809,  and  on  which  he 
resided  until  his  death,  in  1833.  His  children  were  William,  Azariah, 
Betsey,  Oliver  C,  Lydia  G.,  Ursula,  Thomas  R.,  and  Harvey  R. 

Nathan  Eaton,  also  probably  from  Oneida  or  Madison  county,  bought  on 
lot  64.     A  daughter  of  his  married  Asahel  Bumham,  whose  son  Asahel 


resides  at  Sinclairville ;  and  another  son,  Eaton,  lives  in  Arkwright.  Benj. 
Perry,  before  mentioned,  was  a  lieutenant  in  the  war  of  1812  ;  afterwards  a 
colonel  of  the  militia.     Of  his  three  sons,  George  W.  resides  in  Ripley. 

Daniel  Saunders  was  an  early  settler  on  lot  56,  though  he  was  not  an 
original  purchaser ;  he  still  resides  there.  He  had  no  sons,  but  6  daughters  : 
Lois  Ann,  wife  of  Marshal  Parsons ;  Mariett,  wife  of  Silas  Matteson,  of  Dun- 
kirk; Clarissa,  unmarried;  Jane,  wife  of  Morgan  Rice;  Amarett,  wife  of  L. 
Courtney  Baldwin ;  and  Hope,  unmarried.  Robert  Cowden  settled  on  lot 
54,  articled  in  1812.  A  son,  Alia,  lives  in  Harbor  Creek,  Pa. ;  Levi,  on  the 
homestead.  Moses  Tucker  settled  on  lot  62,  bought  in  1814.  His  son 
Chauncey  was  a  lawyer  in  Fredonia,  since  at  Buffalo,  and  is  deceased. 

Alia  and  Zebina  Willson,  and  Robert  Cowden,  who  married  their  sister, 
came  from  Madison  Co.,  and  settled  in  18 11,  on  lots  53  and  54^  and  their 
father,  Reuben  Willson,  about  181 7,  settled  near  them.  He  had  thirteen 
children,  all  of  whom  are  dead  except  Adine,  who  lives  on  a  part  of  his 
father's  homestead,  and  Mrs.  Cowden,  who  resides  with  her  son,  Levi  Cow- 
den, on  the  old  homestead  where  they  first  settled. 

In  the  south-east  part  of  the  town,  James  Black,  from  Wayne  county,  at 
the  age  of  19  or  20,  bought  a  part  of  lot  10,  adjoining  a  piece  previously 
taken  up  by  Wm.  Scott.  Each  built  a  cabin*  in  the  usual  pioneer  style ;  the 
doors  being  made  of  a  board  brought  by  Mr.  Scott  two  miles  on  his  back. 
They  married  two  sisters,  daughters  of  Elder  Dibble.  They  were  surround- 
ed by  forest,  infested  with  wolves  and  bears,  sometimes  approaching  too  near 
their  cabins  for  the  safety  of  their  children  when  out  at  play.  By  persevering 
industry  they  have  secured  to  themselves  good  farms  and  an  ample  com- 
petence. James  T.  Black,  a  son  of  James,  is  married,  and  lives  on  a  farm 
adjoining  his  father's.  Charles  S.,  another  son,  lives  at  home  with  his 
parents.  Mr.  Scott  died  in  1866,  leaving  a  daughter  and  two  sons  :  Warren, 
who  resides  in  the  east  part  of  the  town,  and  David,  who  lately  lived  on  the 

Isaiah  Martin,  from  Broome  Co.,  settled  first  in  the  south  part  of  the 
county,  at  an  early  day.  He  soon  removed  to  Pomfret,  and  commenced  the 
erection  of  a  cotton  factory  on  the  Canadaway  creek,  near  where  Scotrs 
tavern  now  is,  but  gave  up  the  enterprise,  and  bought  in  1821,  in  the  south- 
east part  of  this  town,  in  the  wilderness ;  built  a  cabin  and  cleared  a  farm ; 
built  a  good  house,  and  for  many  years  kept  a  tavern  and  a  store,  with 
asheries.  He  had  seven  sons,  none  remaining  in  the  town,  except  George 
W.,  who  resides  on  the  old  place. 

The  first  dirt/i  in  this  town  is  said-  to  have  been  that  of  Horatio  N.  John- 
son, son  of  Uriah  L.  Johnson,  May  11,  181 1;  the  first  marriage,  that  of 
Asahel  Bumham  and  Luania  Eaton,  May  11,  1815 ;  and  the  first  death,  that 
of  Augustus  Burnham,  in  1813.  [A  marriage  is  thought  by  some  to  have 
occurred  earlier  than  1815.] 

The  first  school,  says  the  Gazetteer,  was  taught  by  Lucy  Dewey,  near  the 
center,  in  the  summer  of  1813.     A  reliable  old  settler  is  confident  that  a 


school  was  taught  by  Horace  Clough  in  the  winter  of  1811-12 ;  and  that  the 
same  school  was  taught  by  Parthenia  Baldwin  in  the  summer  of  181 2. 

The  first  imi  was  kept  by  Simeon  Clinton,  in  181 7,  at  the  center,  so  called, 
though  about  a  mile  north  of  the  geographical  center;  subsequently  kept  by 
J.  Bartholomew,  who  also  kept  a  post-office ;  both  of  which  have  been  discon- 
tinued there.  Aaron  Town's  inn  and  Arkwright  post-office  are  kept  about 
2  miles  south-east  from  the  former  place. 

The  first  saw  mill  was  built  in  18 18,  by  Abiram  Ortott  and  Benjamin 
Perry,  on  Orton's  land,  near  the  town  line,  near  the  north-west  corner  of  the 
town,  on  a  small  branch  of  the  Canadaway  creek.  A  saw-mill  and  an  oil- 
mill  on  Walnut  creek,  in  the  north-east  part  of  the  town,  was  owned  by 
Andrus  M.  Huyck,  and  perhaps  built  by  him.  It  came  into  the  hands  of 
Edward  B.  Kingsley,  who  has  kept  a  saw-mill  in  operation  there  until  the 
present  time.  Two  other  saw-mills,  one  or  two  miles  above,  on  the  same 
stream,  are  yet  standing,  one  of  which,  at  least,  is  kept  running  a  part  of  the 
time.     Asahel  Burnham  pretty  early  built  a  saw-mill  in  the  south  part  of  the 

town.     A  mill  is  still  run  there  by Thayer.     Another  built  by  S.  A. 

Stoddard,  half  a  mile  above,  has  been  discontinued.  A  mill  was  also  built 
by  Joel  White,  south  of  the  center;  no  longer  in  use.  K  steam  saw-mill 
built  by  Marvin  Snow,  at  the  old  center,  five  or  six  years  since,  was  removed 
by  him,  a  year  or  two  ago,  a  few  rods  down  the  stream,  and  rebuilt.  Ezra 
Scott  built  a  steam  saw-mill,  three  or  four  years  ago,  which  is  still  in 
operation.  A  grist  mill,  the  only  one,  it  is  believed,  built  in  this  town,  was 
near  the  west  line  of  the  town  of  Pomfret.     Scarce  a  trace  of  it  remains. 

An  oil-mill  was  built  in  the  abbey  by  Wm.  Mason  and  Leonard  Love, 
about  thirty-five  years  ago.  It  soon  passed  into  the  hands  of  Andrus  M. 
Huyck,  who  ran  it  successfully  for  a  number  of  years. 

In  the  soutli.  part  of  the  town,  Horace  Clough  settled  on  lot  42,  bought  in 
1810.  He  married  Polly  Crouch  (?),  and  had  2  sons,  Horace  P.  and  Mellin 
H,  who  reside  in  Pennsylvania.  He  married,  second,  Parthena  Baldwin, 
by  whom  he  had  3  sons,  Barclay  and  Luther,  in  California,  and  Casper, 
deceased ;  and  4  daughters,  Esther,  Lucy,  Mariett,  and  Helen,  the  last 
deceased.  [Mr.  Clough,  it  is  said,  subsequendy  removed,  and  settled  near 
the  north  line,  in  or  near  the  town  of  Sheridan.] 

Jesse  Reed,  from  Windsor  Co.,  Vt.,  came  with  his  wife  to  Arkwright,  and 
settled  on  lot  43,  cutting  his  way  three  miles  through  the  woods.  His  cabin 
was  one  of  the  rudest  of  the  rude ;  and  his  pioneer  experience  was  of  the 
rougher  kind.  He  had  2  children  :  Euphame,  who  is  married,  and  went  to 
Michigan ;  and  Stephen  W.,  married,  and  lives  on  the  homestead. 

In  the  south-east  part  of  the  town,  David  Abbey  settled  early  on  lot  3, 
where  he  still  resides,  with  his  son,  Chauncey.  His  sons  were  James  P., 
Chauncey,  and  David.  James  P.  resides  on  lot  12,  where  he  has  resided 
many  years.  Chauncey  is  an  extensive  and  a  successful  farmer ;  and  he  has, 
for  many  years,  been  an  extensive  dealer  in  cattle.  He  has  acquired  an 
ample  fortune.     He  was  elected  eight  times  to  the  office  of  supervisor. 


Leonard  Sessions,  from  Broome  county,  came  to  Arkwright  in  1828,  and 
settled  on  lot  4,  where  he  now  resides.  A  son,  Holland,  is  on  the  farm ; 
Henry,  in  VUlenova,  whose  son  Lawrence  is  a  merchant  at  Hamlet.     He 

h?d  4  daughters  :  Esther,  Cordelia,  J ,  and  Lydia,  deceased.     None  of 

them  reside  in  town. 

In  the  north-east  part  of  the  town,  Silas  Matteson  settled  on  lot  8,  bought 
March,  1818.  A  son,  SUas,  is  a  detective  at  Dunkirk.  Harvey  Baldwin 
settled  on  a  part  of  the  same  lot,  about  1834,  whence  he  removed,  in  1872, 
to  Sheridan  Center.  He  had  several  children,  of  whom  two  sons  only  are 
living :  Albert,  who  removed  to  the  West ;  and  Horace,  who  lives  with  his 
father  in  Sheridan. 

Bela  Kingsley,  from  Onondaga  Co.,  in  the  spring  of  1822,  settled  on  lot 
13.  He  opened  a  road  for  his  team  of  two  yoke  of  oxen,  and  built  a  log 
cabin,  and  covered  it  with  hollowed  basswood  logs,  leaving  a  hole  for  the 
escape  of  the  smoke.  He  had  a  wife  and  several  sons,  Edward,  the  oldest, 
being  about  r4  years  old.  Though  far  from  an  inhabitant,  they  were  not 
long  at  a  time  alone.  Almost  every  night,  their  cabin  floor  of  split  logs  was 
covered  with  weary  travelers  looking  for  lands.  Mr.  Kingsley  soon  enlarged 
his  house  with  similar  material.  Three  years  after,  he  built  a  small  frame 
house  and  commenced  innkeeping.  On  the  4th  of  July,  the  young  people, 
with  ox-teams,  on  foot,  and  otherwise,  collected  there  for  an  "  Independence 
ball,"  the  house  having  but  one  room.  He  kept  tavern,  cleared  and  cultiva- 
ted his  farm,  and  enjoyed  his  home,  until  the  New  York  &  Erie  Railroad 
was  run  through  it.  He  then  sold  out,  and  removed  to  Laona,  where  he 
soon  died.  Edward  B.  remained  in  the  town,  purchased  a  place  in  the 
"  Abbey,"  near  Mr.  Huyck's,  where  he  still  resides,  having  been  to\vTi  collec- 
tor 5  years,  clerk  i  year,  justice  4  years,  and  assessor  13  years.  He  was 
about  15  years  of  age  when  he  came  in  with  his  father,  and  soon  began  to 
assist  in  chopping  and  clearing.  This  labor  he  continued  until  he  had  be- 
come a  professional  chopper.  About  the  time  he  became  of  age,  he  chopped 
thirteen  months  continuously.  The  day  after  he  reached  his  majority,  he 
commenced  chopping  for  himself;  and  in  just  two  weeks,  (12  working  days,) 
he  chopped  3  acres,  the  timber  all  in  good  order  for  logging.  His  common 
average  was  an  acre  in  four  days.  He  also  gained  notoriety  as  a  marksman. 
More  bears  than  one  that  had  fled  for  safety  to  the  highest  branches  of  a  tall 
tree,  he  brought  down  dead  with  a  musket  ball,  after  others  had  fired  repeat- 
edly without  effect. 

He  relates  the  following  bear  story  :  Two  young  men,  [Perley  and  Hiram 
KinsTey,]  settled  on  a  part  of  the  lot  [13]  on  which  Bela  Kingsley  settled,  and 
about^ the  same  time.  They  kept  "  bachelor's  hall."  Perley,  returning  from 
a  tramp  one  afternoon  through  the  woods,  espied  a  bear  and  two  cubs  playing 
in  the  road  a  few  rods  before  him.  He  seized  a  club,  and  got  near  them 
before  they  discovered  him.  The  cubs  fled  and  ascended  a  large  hemlock 
Jto  the  top ;  the  old  bear  ran  into  a  swamp,  out  of  sight.  He  hallooed,  and 
ffeljought  to  his  assistance  a  man  from  the  other  side  of  the  swamp,  who  kept 


;  •  f 

^  ^cllc^  M'n^ 

KWRIGHT.  \  225 

watch  until  Perley  had  rallied  the  Heighbois,  who  came  with  dogs  ana  mvis- 
.  kets,  Edward  B.  Kingsley,  then  about  i§  years  old,  among  ftem.  Some  ha^"^ 
fired  when  he  arrived,  the  two  young  b^rs  still  sitting  undisturbed  in  the  top 
of  the  tree.  Kingsley  charged  his  musket,  aj^,  at  the  first  fire,  brought  onie  < 
bear  down,  dead.  While  he  was  re-loadinjBthers  were  firing,  but,  as  be- 
fore, without  effect.  '^Re  fired  agafti,  and  brofight  the  other  cub  down, 
wounded,  but  not  dead.  The  dogs,  ho#ever,  soon  dispatched  him  j  and  the 
boy  went  home  the  hero  of  the  day.  ''   '     W  ^ 

In  the  easi  part  of  the  town,  Aaron  Town,  from  Genesee  Co.,  settled  in 
1826  on  lot  12,  and  subsequently  purchased  the  tavern  stand  at  the  Summit, 
"which  he  kept  for  many  years,  and  which  is  now  kept  by  his  son  Oliver  M. 
He  has  raised  5  sons  and  3  daughters,  all  living  and  having  families.  Martin 
H.,  the  second  son,  resides  at  the  Summit;  is  a  justice  of  the  peace^j^Myhich 
office  he  has  held  for  nearly  four  fiiH- teniSsij  fed  has  been  postmaster  fopf 
eighteen  years,  to  the  pi^ent  time.  Benjamin  Jones,  in  1832,  settled  tem- 
porarily on  lot  23,  and  went  thence  to  the  center  of  the  town,  where  he  re- 
sides with  his  daughters.  He  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  1 2  years,  and  town 
clerk  nearly  21  years. 

At  the  first  town  meeting,  held  in  the  house  of  Simeon  Clinton,  May  2, 
1830,  the  following  named  officers  were  chosen  : 

Supervisor- — William  Wilcox.  Town  C/b-A-r-Aa^pn -Foster.  Assessors — 
Andnis  M.  Huyck,  pairiel  Harrington,  \^if^^^^txy\  Gpmmissioners,  of 
Highways — Isaac  ITiompson,  Jod  White,"  ^1AiJ8i>n  Viii  "Vliet.'  Collector — 
Daniel  Weaver.-  Overseers  of  the  Poor — Silas  Ma^  Charles  Crawford.  Com- 
missioners of  Schools-^— Isaac  Bumpus,  Ira  Whife,'  IjCwis  K  Danforth.  In- 
spectors of  Schools — Andrus  M.  Huyck,  Tiniofliy  Cole,  James  Sprague. 
Constables — Edw.  B.  Kingsley,  David; Weaver.'  JtisSies  (^  the  Feace-^lsaac 
Bumpus,  John  G.  Cuttis,  LeWis  E.Dafjforth.  "^  .'  ;  - 
Supervisors  from, 18 30  to^'t^jgi. " 

William  Wilcox,  1830  to  1,836,  and  1844  to  *^2^^  years.  Levi  Bald- 
win, 1837  to  1840,  '42,  '53,  '54,  '57 — 8  years.  Lie^^^^Miforth,  1841,  '43. 
Chauncey  Abbey,  1855,  '56,  '58,  '59,  and  1862  tcrS§^-8  years.  John  C. 
Griswold,  i860,  '61,  '(i&,  '68.  .  Delos  J.  Rider,  1867.  Oscar  H^,  fltoUck,^ 
i86g.  L.  Courtney  Baldwin,  1870.  Leander  S.  Phelps,  1871, '72.  George 
W.  Briggs,  1873,  '7^  '75. 

B10GRAPHICAL  AND  Genealogical 
Levi  Baldwin,  son  of  Isaac  and  Parthena  Baldwin,  was'  bom  in  Pawlet,. 
Vt.,  Jan.  26,  1802.  He  came  with  his  father  to  Sheridan  in  1812,  and 
resided  there  until  after  his  marriage". .  He  was  marded  Oct  23,  1831,  to 
Eliza  Ann  Putnam,  and  settled  iii  ArkWrighjfjbn  lot  55,  near  where  he  npw 
resides.  His  wife  died  Nov.  10,  yf^Z-  Ete  ^aarried  for  a  second  wife  Mrs. 
Eleanor  B.  Phelps,  March  26,  i8fi6.  He  h^  held  the  office  of  supprvisor  8- . 
years,  and  been  a  justice  of  the  peace  fof  Several  terms,  add  town  superin- 
tendent of  schools ;  and  has  held  various  other  offices^  the  duties  of  all  of 


which  he  has  discharged  faithfully  and  to  the  satisfaction  of  his  fellow-citi- 
zens. He  had  three  children  by  his  first  wife,  all  sons.,  i.  Oliver  T.,  who 
went  to  California  in  his  twentieth  year,  where  he  married  Nancy  Wright,  and 
settled  finally  in  San  Francisco^  where  he  now  resides.  2.  Z.  Courtney,  who 
married  Amoret  Saunders,  and 'settled  on  the  south  part  of  lot  55,  adjoining 
his  father's,  where  he  now  resides.  3.  Orville  £>.,  who  married  Eglantine 
Dawley,  and  is  a  druggist  in  Fredonia. 

Simeon  Clinton,  born  in  Saratoga  Co.,  Feb.  3,  1779,  removed  from 
Otsego  Co.  to  Arkwright,  near  the  center,  on  lot  37,  in  18 13.  He  attained  to 
considerable  prominence,  and  took  an  active  part  in  getting  the  town  set  off. 
He  was  a  surveyor.  About  50  years  ago,  he  is  said  to  have  made  the  first 
survey  and  plot  of  the  village  of  Dunkirk,  and  afterward  of  Sinclairville.  He 
kept  the  first  tavern  in  town.  He  was  the  first  postmaster,  and  held  the 
office  for  20  years ;  and  was  town  clerk  and  justice  for  a  number  of  years. 
He  was  killed  by  lightning  while  in  the  act  of  closing  a  stable  door.  A  son 
of  Mr.  C.  was  prostrated  by  the  stroke,  but  soon  recovered.  The  house  also 
was  struck,  but  without  much  damage.  He  had  a  son  and  5  daughters,  the 
three  youngest  being  triplets i  only  one  of  them  living,  who  is  the  wife  of 
Milton  Cole,  of  this  town,  whose  son,  Charles  Cole,  is  the  present  town 
clerk,  [Feb.,  1875.]     Mr.  Clinton  was  nearly  80  years  of  age. 

Samuel  Davis,  from  Madison  Co.,  came  to  Chautauqua  Co.  as  teamster 
for  Zattu  Cushing,  in  February,  1805,  and  was  one  of  the  number  coming 
from  Buffalo  on  the  ice,  who  narrowly  escaped  being  drowned  by  the  break- 
ing away  of  the  ice,  as  related  by  O.  W.  Johnson,  Esq.,  in  his  "  Memoir  of 
Judge  Zattu  Cushing."  [See  Historical  Sketch  of  Pomfret.]  After  their  ar- 
rival at  Fredonia,  Davis  took  a  job  of  clearing  ten  acres  for  Cushing,  for  the 
performance  of  which  he  received  the  lot  of  land  where  Linus  Sage  now  lives. 
He  built  a  small  log  house,  and  the  next  spring  brought  in  his  family. 

Andrus  M.  Huyck  settled  early  on  lot  16,  bought  in  1826.  In  the 
spring  of  1827,  he  built  a  log  house,  into  which  he  moved  his  family,  consist- 
ing of  a  wife  and  two  sons,  Shadrach  and  Oscar.  There  was  no  settler  near 
him;  but  so  rapidly  did  new  settlers  come  in,  that  they  put  up  a  small  log 
school-house  in  season  for  a  school  the  next  winter ;  and  in  a  few  years  a 
commodious  frame  house  was  erected.  The  school  prospered,  and  took  the 
name  of  the  "  Abbey  School."  It  became  quite  a  popular  institution,  having 
fiimished  many  good  and  successful  teachers.  Mr.  Ht^ck  was  himself  a 
successful  teacher,  and  exerted  a  favorable  inftuence  in  the  cause  of  education, 
as  well  as  in  the  community  and  in  the  church.  He  was  for  several  years  a 
commissioner  or  inspector  of  schools,  and  for  two  or  three  terms  a  justice  of 
the  peace.  Mr.  Huyck  Xia^  4  sons,  Shadrach,  Oscar  H.,  Elijah  and  Avery ; 
and  2  daughters,  Tamar-' and.  Hester;  all  of  whom  have  families — three 
living  in  the  Abbey  dbtrict,  and  three  in  the  West.  Oscar  H.  is  a  justice, 
having  held  the  office  several  terms  ;  and  has  served  one  term  as  supervisor. 
Avery,  the  youngest  son,  now  living  with  his  father,  was  for  three  years  in 
the  Union  army,  and  in  several  battles,  without  receiving  personal  injury. 


BUSTI.  227 

William  Wilcox,  son  of  Aaron,  elsewhere  mentioned,  was  bom  in  Sims- 
bury,  Conn.,  May  i,  1790.  He  came  with  his  father  to  this  county  in  1809, 
and  subsequently  purchased  a  part  of  lot  48,  on  the  north  line  of  the  town. 
He  was  married,  in  18 17,  to  Esther  S.  Cole,  who  came  from  Vermont  in 
1815.  He  felled  the  first  tree  on  his  land,  which  he  improved  and  occupied 
57  years.  As  a  citizen,  he  enjoyed  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  the  com- 
munity. He  was  elected,  in  1830,  the  first  year  after  the  formation  of  the 
town,  as  its  supervisor,  and  held  the  office  by  reelection  until  1836,  and  from 
1844  to  1852 — in  all,  for  16  years.  He  was  also  a  member  of  assembly,  in 
1837,  with  Alvin  Plumb  and  Calvin  Rumsey.  [Family  sketch  not  received 
in  season  for  insertion  here.] 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church. — A  class  was  formed  in  the  "  Abbey,"  by 
Elder  David  Preston,  in  June,  r830.  It  consisted  of  8  members  :  Ira 
and  Elizabeth  Richardson,  John  Franklin,  Reuben  and  Fanny  Howe,  Caleb 
Weaver,  John  Lafferty,  and  Isaac  Bumpus."  Of  those  who  joined  soon  after, 
were  :  Andrus  M.  Huyck,  Wright  Lewis,  Hiram  Lewis,  Wm.  McClanathan, 
R.  McClanathan,  Caleb  Weaver,  and  probably  the  wives  of  some  of  them. 
A  portion  of  its  members  were  from  the  adjacent  towns  of  Sheridan,  Han- 
over, and  Arkwright.  Mr.  Huyck  has  been  a  class  leader  most  of  the  time 
since  its  organization.  The  class  increased  to  the  number  of  60  the  first 
year.  Although  it  has  continued  to  prosper,  no  church  edifice  has  been 
built ;  meetings  having  been  generally  held  in  the  district  school-house,  the 
present  house  having  been,  in  its  construction,  designed  partly  for  that 

A  Christian  Church  was  formed  in  the  south-west  part  of  the  town ;  but 
the  date  of  its  organization  has  not  been  ascertained. 


BusTi,  named  from  Paul  Busti,  general  agent  of  the  Holland  Land  Com- 
pany, was  formed  from  EUicott  and  Harmony,  April  16,  1823.  It  comprises 
the  west  half  of  township  i ,  range  1 1 ,  excepting  the  four  north  lots  which 
were  in  1845  annexed  to  Ellicott ;  and  three-fourths,  or  six  tiers  of  lots,  firom 
tp.  I,  r.  12  ;  together  with  that  portion  of  tp.  2  lying  south  of  the  lake,  and 
between  Ellicott  and  Harmony.  It  contains  an  area  of  29,152  acres,  or 
about  45^  square  miles.  It  is  drained  by  several  small  streams  which  flow 
into  the  lake,  and  by  the  branches  of  the  Stillwater,  which  passes  through 
Kiantone  into  the  Connewango. 

Original  Purchases  in  Township  r,  Range  12. 

1810.  April,  Samuel  Griffith,  4.  May,  Tho.  Bemus,  r2.  December, 
Jonas  Lamphear,  48. 

181 1.  March,  Wm.  Matteson,  Jr.,  40,  [Ellicott.]  May,  Jedediah  Chapin, 
4.     Palmer  Phillips,  11.     October,  Nathaniel  Fanner,  15. 


1 812.  February,  Joseph  Phillips,  11.  March,  Anthony  Fenner,  6. 
Thomas  Fenner,  Jr.,  15.  April,  Theron  Plumb,  7.  August,  Barnabas  Well- 
man,  Jr.,  38.     Reuben  Landon,  7. 

[814.  May,  Arba  Blodgett,  25.  Elisha  Devereaux,  i.  July,  Asa  Smith, 
2.     October,  William  Bullock,  17. 

1815.  April,  Peter  Frank,  5,  6.  June,  Josiah  Thompson,  28.  Cyrenus 
Blodgett,  33.     Ford  Wellman,  47.     November,  Josiah  Palmeter,  15. 

1 816.  April,  Harris  Terry,  63.     October,  Harris  Terry,  47. 

1817.  September,  Nicholas  Sherman,  16.     Lyman  Crane,  8. 

1818.  September,  William  Gifford.     October,  Samuel  Hart,  8. 

1822.  September,  Ransom  Curtis,  39.  November,  Peleg  Trask,  17. 
Jared  Famam,  Jr.,  34. 

1823.  June,  Joseph  Taylor,  39.  October,  Ethan  Allen,  45.  Silas  C. 
Carpenter,  Isaac  Foster,  54. 

1824.  February,  John  Badgley,  43.  March,  Ford  Wellman,  54,  [Har- 
mon}'.] July,  Elijah  B.  Burt,  37.  October,  Barnabas  Wellman,  31.  No- 
vember, John  Kent,  30.     December,  Samuel  Darling,  35. 

1825.  January,  John  Buck,  Jr.,  20.  February,  Xavier  Abbott,  10. 
March,  Jairus  Buck,  19.  June,  David  Hatch,  7.  August,  Wm.  Nichols,  38. 
George  Martin,  13. 

1826.  November,  Benjamin  A.  Slayton,  43. 
r82  7.     September,  Alexander  Young,  24. 

The  State  Gazetteer  names  John  L.  Frank  as  the  first  settler  in  Busti,  on 
lot  61,  1810,  and  Lawrence  Frank  as  settling  the  same  year  on  lot  62  ;  and 
Heman  Bush  and  John  Frank,  from  Herkimer  county,  and  Theron  Plumb, 
from  Mass.,  on  lot  60,  in  18 £i.  The  land  records,  however,  show  as  pur- 
chasers, Russell  Dyer,  of  lot  47,  tp.  i,  r.  11,  and  James  Slade  and  Hezekiah 
Seymour,  of  lot  38 — all  as  early  as  September,  1808  ;  and  Laban  Case,  of 
lot  36,  in  June,  1809.  Aaron  Martin  purchased  lot  44,  in  April,  1810  ; 
Lawrence  Frank,  lots  62  and  63,  and  Heman  Bush  60,  in  181 1.  The  only 
other  Frank  who  appears  on  the  Company's  books  as  an  original  purchaser 
in  range  11,  is  John  Frank,  Jr.,  who  bought  a  part  of  61,  and  who,  in'  his 
own  handwriting,  states  that  he  came  to  Busti,  Feb.  i,  181 2  ;  that  his 
brother  Nicholas  came  in  181 6,  and  that  his  brother  Stephen  left  Busti  in 
1817,  and  died  at  Fort  Pekin,  Tennessee,  on  the  Mississippi  river,  on  his 
return  from  New  Orleans;  his  family  then  residing  near  Vincennes,  Ind. 
John  L.  Frank,  yet  living,  [1874,]  and  other  early  settlers,  concur  in  the  fact 
of  his  having  settled  in  Busti  in  1811.  Hence  there  is  some  doubt  as  to  who 
was  the  first  settler  in  Busti,  and  as  to  the  date  or  year  of  his  settlement. 
[See  sketches  of  Frank  families.] 

In  the  south-east  part  of  the  town,  Wm.  Steams  settled  on  lot  35,  which, 
after  his  death,  was  owned  by  his  son,  John  R.,who  also  is  dead.  It  is  now 
owned  by  John  Barlow.  James  Davidson,  a  son-in-law  of  Wm.  Steams,  is  on 
land  adjoining,  on  the  south.  Timothy  Tuttle  was  an  early  settler  on  lot  50 ; 
the  farm  now  owned  by  his  son  Edwin.  Wm.  Northrop  and  his  sons  Joseph, 
John  and  William,  from  England,  settled  south  of  Busti  Comers,  on  lot  57, 
on  which  the  father  and  two  of  the  sons,  Joseph  and  John  reside.  William, 
Jr.,  owns  a  farm  on  lot  58,  and  lives  at  the  Comers. 

BUSTI.  229 

In  the  north  part  of  the  town  Xjmg  in  township  2,  range  12,  Gideon 
Gifford  early  bought  parts  of  lots  i  and  2,  where  he  resided  till  his  death, 
March  19,  1856.  His  sons,  Walter  C,  Matthew  C.,  and  Daniel,  inherited 
the  estate.  Matthew  is  not  living.  Uriah  Bentley  settled,  in  1810,  onlot  16. 
[See  Biographical  and  Genealogical  Sketches.]  Daniel  Shearman  settled  on 
16,  and  died  on  the  farm  on  which  he  first  settled.  [See  Family  Sketch.] 
George  Stoneman  settled  early  on  lot  16,  and  held  for  several  years  the  office 
of  justice  of  the  peace.  He  had  sons  :  George,  a  graduate  of  the  military 
academy  at  West  Point,  and  a  general  in  the  regular  U.  S.  army,  who  was 
in  actual  service  in  the  late  war ;  Richard,  dead ;  Byron ;  and  one  in  the 
West.  Jeremiah  Giflford,  a  cousin  of  Gideon  Gifford,  from  Washington  Co., 
settled  on  lot  23,  where  now  his  son  John  lives.  Other  sons,  William  and 
Henry,  reside  at  Mayville ;  Horace,  son  of  William,  lives  at  Jamestown. 
Abraham  Sherman  settled  on  lot  23.  His  sons,  Abraham  and  Merritt,  reside 
on  the  farm.  A.  Phelps,  an  early  settler  on  lot  41,  died  at  Ashville.  Thomp- 
son Cowan  was  an  early  settler  on  lot  8,  where  Charles  Douglas  lives.  He 
died  leaving  six  sons,  John,  Charles,  Samuel,  Ransom  J.,  Fortes,  and  James, 
all  of  whom  reside  in  Busti.  Samuel  Smiley,  on  lot  16,  where  his  son  Madi- 
son lives.  He  had  a  large  family.  Of  his  sons,  William,  John  and  Samuel 
reside  in  town. 

In  the  north-east  part  of  the  town,  range  11,  Zadoc  Root  settled  on  lot  47, 
and  lived  there  until  his  death.  He  had  sons,  Zadoc  and  Philander,  both 
deceased,  and  William,  who  resides  on  lot  55.  Ephraim  Wilcox  settled  early 
on  lot  63,  on  which  he  still  resides.  Of  his  sons,  Francis  S.  lives  in  Elli- 
cott ;  Amos  P.,  on  the  homestead  ;  Leander  and  Abraham,  at  Busti  Comers. 
Solomon  Hastings  settled  early  on  lot  38.  A  son  is  with  him  on  the  farm  ; 
a  daughter  is  the  wife  of  Dr.  A.  Ward,  of  Jamestown.  Harlo  Mitchell  set- 
tled on  lot  45,  near  where  he  now  resides.  David  Boyd,  where  his  son 
Martin  lately  resided.  Aaron  Martin  settled  on  lot  44,  where  he  died,  and 
where  his  grandson  Lorenzo  lives.  He  had  sons :  Capt.  William,  in  Kian- 
tone ;  George,  who  settled  on  lot  13,  r.  J2;  was  a  justice  of  the  peace  for 
two  or  three  terms.     He  had  several  daughters,  none  now  residing  in  town. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Busti  Corners,  Heman  Bush,  from  Litchfield,  N.  Y., 
came  to  Busti  in  June,  r8i2,  having  previously,  [1810,]  bought  a  part  of  lot 
60;  April,  181 1,  lot  61,  on  which  he  settled;  and  in  October,  18 12,  lot  59. 
He  kept  a  tavern,  and  conducted  a  store  and  an  ashery  for  many  years,  and 
died.  May,  1839,  aged  62.  His  widow,  whose  maiden  name  was  Abigail 
Frost,  died  in  1872,  aged  about  90.  His  sons  were  Heman  C.,  Selden  F., 
Hiram,  Solon,  Solomon,  and  Stephen.  Heman,  Solomon,  and  Stephen 
removed  to  California ;  Hiram  died  in  Busti ;  Selden  is  in  Iowa ;  and  Solon 
at  Busti  Corners.  A  daughter  married  John  Campbell,  who  resides  on  the 
farm  of  her  father.  They  had  a  son  Heman,  deceased ;  and  Woodley,  a 
Baptist  missionary  in  Hindpostan.  Aaron  Bush  settled  early  on  lot  53. 
He  had  a  large  family.  Of  his  sons,  Moses,  the  only  one  living,  resides  in 
Ellicott.    Asahel  Andrews  settled  on  lot  60,  and  died  there.     His  sons  were : 


Enos,  who  removed  West,  and  is  dead  ;  D^los,  who  resides  a  mile  north-east 
from  Busti  Comers;  Charles,  deceased;  Merrills,  removed  West;  and 
George,  who  lives  at  Busti  Corners.  David  Hatch  early  purchased  a  large 
tract,  and  settled  on  lot  6i.  The  land  is  still  owned  by  his  heirs.  A  son, 
Solomon  G.,  lives  in  Ellery.  Lorenzo  Matthews  first  settled  on  lot  S,  tp.  i, 
r.  12;  removed  to  lot  62,  r.  11,  where  he  died.  His  sons  were:  John, 
deceased;  David,  who  resides  in  town  ;  and  Jonathan  P.,  in  Kansas.  Hen- 
drick  Matteson  settled  on  lot  62,  r.  11,  and  died  in  Herkimer  county.  A 
son,  Albert,  resides  in  Sugar  Grove ;  and  Philo  and  Monroe  reside  in  Busti. 
His  widow  lives  with  Philo. 

In  the  north  part  of  township  I,  Stephen  A.  Douglas  was  an  early  settler 
on  lot  15,  where  he  now  resides.  His  sons  are  :  Stephen,  deceased  ;  Charles  ; 
Silas,  a  lawyer  in  Buffalo  ;  Lathan,  on  the  farm  with  his  father.  James  Cale, 
from  Sugar  Grove,  in  1817  or  1818,  resided  on  lot  7,  and  in  other  places,  and 
died  in  town.  His  sons,  Jesse,  James,  and  Harry,  reside  in  town ;  and 
Stephen,  in  Penn.  Amariah  Carrier,  on  lot  15,  and  died  in  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y. 
His  sons  were  :  Jesse  and  David,  both  dead;  Robert  is  in  Iowa ;  Henry,  dead; 
Amariah,  in  Jamestown ;  Edwin  Douglas  now  owns  the  farm. 

In  the  north  part  of  toumship  i,  range  12,  Jonathan  Palmer  settled  early 
on  lot  8,  previously  owned  by  Reuben  Landon.  Whitman  and  Amos,  twin 
sons,  reside  in  town ;  Whitman  on  the  home  farm.  Jonathan,  the  eldest  son, 
and  Henry,  are  dead ;  and  Denison  lives  in  Pennsylvania.  Nicholas  Sher- 
man settled  on  lot  16,  where  he  died.  His  sons,  Winslow  and  Daniel,  reside 
in  town;  the  latter  on  the  homestead.  Alexander  Young,  in  1826,  on  lot  24, 
where  he  died.  His  sons  were  :  James,  deceased ;  Jonathan,  who  resides  in 
EUicott ;  and  Ira,  on  the  farm  owned  by  his  father.  Obed  G.  Chase  on  lot 
24  ;  removed  a  few  years  ago  to  the  Corners,  where  he  now  resides.  He  has 
2  daughters :  Elizabeth,  wife  of  John  Hatch,  of  Portland ;  and  Adelia,  wife 
of  Charles  Moore,  of  Jamestown.  Joseph  Sherman,  on  lot  32  ;  the  land 
previously  owned  by  John  Deming.  He  died  on  the  farm,  which  is  owned 
by  his  son  Joseph  Sherman.  Benj.  Cook  came  to  Busti,  in  183 1,  on  lot  40, 
where  he  died.  He  was  the  father  of  Judge  Orsell  Cook,  of  Jamestown,  who 
is  the  present  owner  of  the  farm.  Jonas  Lamphear  on  lot  48,  bought  in 
1810  ;  the  land  now  owned  by  John  Boomer,  previously  owned  by  John 
Kent,  son-in-law  of  Lamphear.     John  Stow  was  an  early  settler  on  lot  17, 

where  Broughton  W.  Green  resides.     Wemple  came  early  on  lot  47,  where 

now  his  sons  Peter  C.  and  Rial  C.  reside.  Wm.  Nichols  settled  on  lot  38, 
bought  in  1825,  where  he  still  resides;  had  2  sons:  Lyman,  deceased;  and 
Levant,  who  is  with  his  father  on  the  farm.  Barnabas  Wellman,  a  native  of 
Conn.,  moved  with  his  family  to  Busti  in  i8ri,  and  settled  in  the  north-west 
part  of  the  town,  on  lot  38.  He  had  5  sons  :  James,  Homer,  Barnabas, 
Ford,  and  Leander  C,  who  settled  in  the  neighborhood ;  all  of  whom  died 
leaving  families.  Homer  had  4  sons  :  Homer  H. ;  Orrin  O.,  who  died  in 
Busti ;  Dewitt  C. ;  and  Ardillo,  who  lives  at  Ashville. 

In  the  south  part  of  the  town,  Daniel  Hazeltine  settled  early  on  lot  3,  the 

BUSTI.  231 

land  since  owned  by  S.  &  W.  Gates,  now  by  Horton  White.  His  sons  were  : 
Abner,   Laban,   Daniel,  Abraham,  Edwin,  Pardon,  and  Hardin.      Laban, 

Daniel,  and  Abraham  died  at  Jamestown ;  Pardon  in .     Ezra,  a  son  of 

Edwin,  resides  in  Warren,  Penn.  Asa  Smith  settled  on  lot  2,  which  he 
bought  in  18 14.  His  sons  were:  Ammi,  who  resides  in  Penn.;  Albert  M., 
deceased ;  Aaron  J.,  Jasper,  Lewelljoi  J.,  and  Edgar,  in  Busti.  Clark 
Smith,  a  brother  of  Asa,  came  in  1816,  and  settled  on  lot  2.  His  wife  was 
Rhoda  Allen.  His  sons  were  :  Oliver,  Ransom  J.,  Ezra,  Sheldon,  Harvey  A., 
deceased;  and  Julius  C,  hardware  merchant  and  postmaster  at  Busti.  Of 
the  others,  only  Ransom  resides  in  town.  John  Broadhead  on  lot  18.  He 
was  a  Methodist  preacher.  He  removed  to  the  West,  and  after  a  few  years 
returned,  and  lives  with  his  son-in-law,  Nathan  Breed.  His  sons  are  :  Jabez, 
Fletcher,  Jonathan,  and  James ;  the  last  only  resides  in  Busti ;  the  others 
gone  west.  Hiram  E.  Knapp  settled  on  the  farm  originally  bought  by  Palmer 
Phillips,  lot  II.  He  has  two  sons,  Edwin  and  Lafayette.  John  Gill,  on  lot 
3,  and  died  on  the  farm  on  which  Mark  Jones  resides.  Gill  has  a  son,  Giles 
T.,  in  the  West.  Levi  Jones  on  lot  12,  where  he  died.  A  son,  Edward, 
lives  in  EUicott.  Zenas  K.  Fox,  on  lot  11,  where  he  still  lives.  He  has  3 
sons :  Almon,  a  Congregational  minister,  in  the  West ;  Alfred,  who  resides 
on  a  part  of  his  father's  farm,  a  Methodist  preacher ;  and  Albion,  in  Ten- 

In  the  south-west  part  of  township  i,  Arthur  P.  Nichols  settled  on  lot  44, 
where  he  now  lives.  He  has  a  number  of  sons,  some  of  whom  reside  in  the 
town.  Hiram  L.  Barton,  about  1823,  on  lot  34,  where  he  died.  His  sons 
are  :  Livingston,  on  the  old  farm  ;  Allen,  near  the  same ;  De  Warren,  not  in 
Busti.  W.  Seabury  settled  early  on  lot  33,  where  he  died,  and  where  his 
sons  Pliny  and  Newell  reside.  Jeremiah  Woodin,  on  the  north  part  of  lot 
41;  died  in  Harmony.  His  sons  were  :  Abraham,  who  died  in  Mich.;  Isaac, 
who  resides  in  Ellicott ;  Samuel  P.  and  Hiram  J.,  both  of  whom  died  in 
Busti ;  and  John  P.,  who  lives  in  Indianapolis,  Ind.  Arba  Blodgett  settled 
on  lot  25,  bought  in  1814,  and  died  on  the  farm,  leaving  two  sons,  Loren, 
now  in  Washington,  D.  C;  and  William,  who  died  in  Sugar  Grove.  Cyrenus 
Blodgett,  in  1815,  bought  on  lot  33,  and  settled  on  25  ;  removed  to  Sugar 
Grove,  where  he  died.  He  had  2  sons  :  Alanson,  a  physician  in  Penn.;  and 
Alden,  who  died  at  Sugar  Grove.  Wm.  Bullock,  in  1814,  purchased  on  lot 
14.  His  wife  is  a  sister  of  Palmer  Phillips.  They  had  four  sons  :  Irvin,  not 
in  the  town  ;  Alvin,  in  town  ;  Arba,  in  Sugar  Grove  ;  Chester,  in  Meadville. 
The  father  served  in  the  war  of  18 12,  and  is  a  pensioner.  A  daughter  is 
the  wife  of  David  Albro. 

In  the  west  part  of  the  town,  Jesse  Foster  early  resided  where  his  son 
Jacob  now  lives,  and  died  on  lot  29,  where  his  widow  resides. 

In  the  central -gaiX.  of  the  town,  Nehemiah  Mead  settled  on  lot  21,  where 
he  died  many  years  ago.  He  had  4  sons  :  William,  who  removed  to  Minn.; 
Ira  G.,  and  Thompson  G.,  on  the  homestead  ;  and  Francis,  in  Minn.  Joseph 
Ayres,  on  lot  30  ;  was  a  justice  of  the  peace.     His  sons  are:  Charles  ;  Alfred; 


Conway,  who  served  in  the  late  war,  as  lieutenant  and  captain  of  the  gth 
cavalry,  and  was  killed ;  and  Sereno,  now  in  New  York.  William  Robbins 
was  an  early  purchaser  on  lot  29,  where  he  died,  and  where  his  youngest  son 
Orrin  resides.  Other  sons,  John  and  Ira,  live  in  town.  David  Palmeter, 
on  lot  14,  in  1814.  Sons  :  Orlando,  in  Ohio  ;  Dewitt  C,  dead  ;  Preston,  in 
Union,  Penn.;  Josiah,  in  Ohio.  The  father  is  dead.  Josiah  Palmeter,  on 
the  same  lot  in  1811 ;  was  a  justice,  and  lives  in  Minn.  A  son,  Theron,  is 
also  in  Miim;  Washington,  in  Ellicott. 

A  tannery  was  built  by  John  Frank  in  181 2.  The  first  vats  were  troughs 
made  of  logs.  It  was  burned,  and  rebuilt,  and  continued  until  about  ten  or 
twelve  years  ago.     No  other  tannery,  it  is  believed,  was  ever  in  this  town. 

A  last  factory  was  established  by  Mr.  Frank,  which  was  destroyed  by  fire, 
and  not  rel^uilt.  A  trip-hammer  was  built  by  Giles  Chipman  and  Lyman 
Fargo,  and  continued  several  years. 

Uriah  Hawks,  a  little  later,  built  a  chair  and  spinning-wheel  factory  at  the 
same  place,  which  also  was  discontinued,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  in  main- 
taining dams  on  the  stream. 

The  first  blacksmith  in  town  is  said  to  have  been  Patrick  Camel,  at  the  tan- 
nery. Next,  Chipman  Sc  Fargo  commenced  business  near  Camel's,  and  after- 
wards removed  their  business  60  rods  south,  and  added  to  it  the  manufacture 
of  edge  tools  with  a  trip-hammer.  Present  blacksmiths  are  Walter  Stevens 
and  Wm.  Howe. 

The  first  store  at  the  Comers  was  kept  by  Van  Velzer,  about  1830.  The 
next,  by  Ransom  L.  Blackmer ;  and  next  by  Valentine  C.  Clark  &  Co. 
Present  merchants — Adelbert  P.  Simmons,  Exiwin  Davis  &  Co.,  and  Andrew 
F.  Husband  &  Co.  Grocers — Martin  F.  Flagg  &  Co.  Hardware — Julius 
C.  Smith.  Boot  and  shoe-makers — Michael  C.  Frank,  Davis  Frank,  Frank- 
lin Hosford.  Carriage-makers — Wm.  Jones,  Eli  Whiting,  Wm.  Peckham. 
Early  carriage-makers  were  Giles  T.  Gill  and Haskell. 

Stephen  J.  Brown,  probably  the  first  physician  who  settled  at  Busti,  came 
about  the  year  1837,  and  practiced  there  about  20  years.  Before  his  death 
Dr.  Beimett  came  and  practiced  a  few  years.  Dr.  Martin  came  in  18 — ,  and 
is  the  present  physician.  Since  he  came,  Drs.  Alex.  Boyd  and  John  Lord 
were  here  several  years. 

The  first  saw-mill  at  the  Comers  was  built  by  Heman  Bush,  where  a  mill 
is  now  owned  by  Alonzo  C.  Pickard.  A  clock  factory  was  built  at  the  same 
place  about  1830,  by  Samuel  Chappell  and  James  Sartwell,  who  continued 
the  manufacture  for  several  years.  After  its  discontinuance,  a  grist-mill  was 
built  on  the  same  site  by  Heman  Bush ;  and  another  afterwards  by  Francis 
Soule.  Both  are  now  owned  by  Alonzo  C.  Pickard  and  Mark  Jones.  A 
saw-mill  was  built  near  the  south  line  of  the  town,  by  Elisha  Devereaux, 
where  a  mill  is  still  in  operation,  on  Stillwater  creek.  Another  was  built 
near  the  east  line  of  the  town,  by  Samuel  Hall,  on  the  farm  now  owned  by 
his  son  John  A.  Hall.  Another  was  built  by  George  Stoneman,  at  the  lake, 
where  a  mill  is  still  mnning.     Orrin  Stoddard  erected  a  steam  saw-mill  at  the 


>-/<v^^        J '4  c^-Sr(jLyy 


BUSTI.  233 

Comers  about  15  years  ago,  which  is  now  owned  by  Reuben  Green.  A 
planing-mill  was  attached,  but  soon  discontinued  ;  and  a  basket-factory  and  a 
shingle  machine  have  taken  its  place. 

The  first  town  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  Heman  Bush,  Tuesday, 
March  2,  1824,  and  the  following  named  persons  were  elected  town  officers  : 

Supervisor — Daniel  Shearman.  Town  Clerk — Emory  Davis.  Assessors — 
David  Hatch,  Homer  Wellman,  Samuel  Garfield.  Commissioners  of  High- 
ways— Thomas  Danforth,  David  Boyd,  John  Deming.  Overseers  of  the 
Poor — Heman  Bush,  John  Gill.  Commissioners  of  Schools — David  Hatch, 
Daniel  Shearman,  Clark  Smith. 

Names  of  Supervisors  from  1824  to  1875. 
Daniel  Shearman,  1824  to  '28,  and  1833 — 6  years.  Emri  Davis,  1829  to 
'32,  and  '34,  '35,  '40,  '47 — 8  years.  Pardon  Hazeltine,  1836  to  '39 — 4  years. 
Henry  C.  Shearman,  1841,  '42,  '44,  '45.  Lorenzo  Matthews,  1843,  '48,  '49, 
'5°;  '53-  Stephen  J.  Brown,  1846.  Theron  Palmeter,  1851,  '52,  '54.  John 
B.  Babcock,  1855.  Emri  Davis,  Jr.,  1856  to  '58,  and  '61,  '62 — 5  years. 
John  A.  Hall,  1859,  '60,  '71.  John  R.  Robertson,  1861,  '63,  '64,  '68 — ^4 
years.  Elias  H.  Jenner,  1865,  '72.  Wm.  B.  Martin,  1866,  '67.  Harmon 
G.  Mitchell.  1869,  '70.     Alonzo  C.  Pickard,  1873,  '74,  '75. 

Biographical  and  Genealogical. 

Uriah  Bentley,  from  Rensselaer  county,  came  to  Chautauqua  county  in 
May,  1810,  and  settled  on  lot  9,  township  2,  range  12,  now  in  the  north  part 
of  the  town  of  Busti.  He  cleared  a  small  piece  of  land,  which  he  planted 
with  potatoes,  and  buUt  a  small  house  after  the  common  pioneer  pattern. 
In  the  ensuing  fall  he  returned  for  his  family,  and  moved  to  his  new  home 
with  a  horse  team,  by  way  of  Mayville,  where  he  arrived  the  last  day  of  No- 
vember, 1 8 10.  There  being  no  road  on  the  west  side  of  the  lake,  he 
shipped  his  family  and  goods  down  the  lake  in  a  long  canoe,  reaching  his 
home  at  midnight.  Uriah  Bentley  was  a  son  of  Caleb  Bentley,  and  was  bom 
in  Berlin,  Rensselaer  Co.,  June  21,  1779,  and  was  married,  December  28, 
1800,  to  Nancy  Sweet,  who  was  bom  May  7,  1779.  Of  Mr.  Bentley  it  is 
perhaps  sufficient  to  say,  that  he  passed  through  the  common  experience  of 
the  industrious  pioneer,  and,  like  most  of  the  early  settlers,  reared  a  goodly 
number  of  worthy  sons  and  daughters.  They  were :  i.  Nancy,  who  mar- 
ried, first,  Nicholas  Frank,  who  died  in  the  South,  while  on  a  lumbering  tour, 
soon  after  marriage  ;  second,  Dan  Higley.  They  have  several  children,  and 
reside  in  Iowa.  2.  Polly,  wife  of  Charles  W.  Sammis,  who  died  in  1849. 
She  resides  in  Polo,  111.,  and  has  8  children.  3.  Uriah  S.,  who  married 
Almira  Daniels,  and  is  deceased.  She  married,  second,  Clark  Sweet,  and 
resides  in  Harmony.  4.  Sidy  I  £.,  wife  of  Isaac  Noble ;  she  had  a  daughter, 
Minerva,  and  is  deceased.  Mr.  N.  has  a  second  wife,  and  lives  at  Fluvanna. 
5.  Hiram,  who  died  at  about  60,  unmarried.  6.  Simeon  G.,  who  married 
Alice,  daughter  of  Gideon  Gifford,  and  has  no  children.  7.  Alexander, 
who  married  Lavantia  Norton,  resides  at  Fluvanna,  and  has  4  sons  :  Sardius ; 


Gustavns  A.,  who  married  Sarah  WilUams;  Charles  M.,  and  Uriah.  8.  Gus- 
tavus  A,,  who  married  CorneUa,  daughter  of  John  Steward,  Sr.,  and  had 
two  daughters:  Marian,  who  died  at  17,  and  Frances  C,  wife  of  John  S. 
Briggs,  of  Russelburg,  Pa.,  and  a  son,  Fred  A.  9.  Ulrica  C,  wife  of 
Theron  E.  Palnieter,  Clear  Lake,  Cerro  Gordo  Co.,  la. ;  has  three  children. 
10.  il/i>z^rwa,  who  married  Alfred  W.  Steward,  and  is  deceased;  he  resides 
in  Clymer. 

Asa  Bly,  from  Vermont  to  Otsego  Co.,  N.  Y. ;  removed  thence  to 
Chautauqua  Co.,  in  18 — ,  And  bought  on  lot  47,  tp.  2,  r.  12,  the  land  on 
which  his  sons  Myron  and  Theron  settled ;  the  former  in  1809,  the  latter  in 
18 10.  Myron  moved  down  the  Ohio  river,  and  died  in  Kentucky  ;  and  his 
family  returned.     His  son  Myron,  Jr.,  now  resides  in  Ashville. 

Theron  Ely,  son  of  Asa  Bly,  was  born  in  Bennington,  Vt.,  July  31,  1786, 
and  removed,  in  1810,  from  Otsego  Co.,  N.  Y.,  to  Harmony,  on  lot  47,  near 
the  lake.  He  married,  in  1805,  Phebe  Bemus.  His  children  were  :  Theron 
S.  ;  Harvey,  who  married  Julia  Ann  Stoneman  ;  Desire,  wife  of  Henry  Love- 
joy  ;  Henry  Harrison,  who  lives  on  the  homestead  ;  Sally,  deceased  ;  Perry, 
who  married  Esther  Lovejoy,  and  served  in  the  late  war,  and  was  killed  in 
the  battle  of  the  Wilderness  ;  and  William,  who  died  at  about  1 7.  Theron 
Bly  was  a  member  of  assembly  in  the  year  1832,  associated  with  Dr.  Squire 
White,  of  Fredonia.  He  died  in  March,  1850,  aged  nearly  64  years. 
,  Theron  S.  Bly,  son  of  Theron  Bly,  was  born  in  Edmeston,  Otsego  Co., 
Jan  29,  1806,  and  came,  when  4  years  old,  with  his  father  to  Harmony.  In 
1830,  at  the  age  of  24,  he  was  elected  a  justice  of  the  peace,  and  reelected 
for  a  second  term  of  4  years.  He  was  for  many  years  engaged  in  the  mer- 
cantile, milling  and  grain  business,  at  Ashville.  He  was  county  clerk  from 
Jan.,  1859,  for  a  full  term  of  three  years.  In  1862,  he  removed  to  James- 
town, where  he  has  been  a  justice  of  the  peace  from  1864  to  the  present 
time  ;  having  served  in  that  office  in  both  towns  for  about  20  years.  He 
was  married,  in  1830,  to  Mary  Bly,  of  Madison  Co.,  who  died  in  March, 
1850.  His  children  were  :  i.  ^«ri7/a _/.,  wife  of  Dr.  Marvin  Bemus,  who  re- 
moved to  Wisconsin,  enlisted  in  the  late  war,  and,  on  his  way  to  the  army, 
was  killed  by  a  raib-oad  accident  near  Chicago.  2.  Mary  E.,  wife  of  Edson 
E.  Boyd,  a  physician  at  Ashville,  3.  Cordelia,  who  married  Dwight  Snow ; 
they  reside  at  Cohoes,  Albany  Co.  4.  Ellen,  deceased.  5.  Webster  W., 
who  is  married,  and  lives  at  Cohoes.  In  1854,  Mr.  Bly  married  for  a  second 
wife,  Sarah  A.  Carpenter,  who  is  still  living. 

Dea.  Richard  Butler,  a  native  of  Wethersfield,  Conn.,  removed  from 
Hamilton,  N.  Y.,  to  Ellicott,  now  comer  of  Busti,  with  his  sons  Solomon  and 
Harlow,  and  purchased  the  farms  of  Wm.  Deland  and  John  Numan,  on 
which  farms  the  three  families  settled.  All  united  with  the  Congregational 
church,  of  which  the  father  was  chosen  a  deacon.  He  died  in  June,  1839, 
aged  78.     His  widow  died  at  the  old  homestead,  March,  1852. 

Emri  Davis,  bom  in  Wardsborough,  Vt.,  Oct.  20,  1794,  came  to  Ellicott 
with  his  brother  Ebenezer,  July  3,  i8iz.    They  were  traveling  from  Vermont 

BUSTI.  235 

on  foot ;  and  between  Buffalo  and  Cattaraugus  creek,  they  he^rd  of  the 
declaration  of  war  against  Great  Britain.  There  was  a  general  alarm.  Many 
fled  with  their  families  to  the  East,  having  sold  their  crops  and  improvements 
for  little  more  than  enough  to  pay  the  expenses  of  their  removal.  Timid 
ones  generally  believed  the  Indians  would  soon  murder  those  who  remained. 
Emri  Davis  married  Amy,  daughter  of  Joseph  Akin,  and  soon  after  settled 
in  the  Frank  settlement,  now  Busti.  He  was  eight  times  elected  supervisor 
of  the  town.  He  had  3  sons :  Lafayette,  Emri,  and  Adams,  the  last  of  whom 
removed  to  Crawford  Co.,  Pa.  All  had  families.  Emri  Davis  died  Jan.  23, 
i860,  aged  68. 

Frank  Families. — Henry  Frank  and  his  brother  Christopher  emigrated 
from  Germany  to  America  before  the  "  old  French  war.''  They  landed  at 
Philadelphia,  and  remained  in  the  state  of  Pennsylvania  for  a  number  of 
years,  and  removed  to  this  state,  and  settled  on  the  Mohawk  river,  at  Frank- 
fort, Herkimer  Co.  Henry  Frank's  sons  were  Henry,  Lawrence,  and  Jacob, 
who  was  killed  in  the  Revolutionary  war.  His  daughters  were  Eve,  Mary 
and  Margaret.  Eve  and  Mary  were  twins ;  the  former  became  the  wife  of 
John  Frank,  Sr.,  of  another  Frank  family  noticed  on  a  succeeding  page;  the 
latter,  the  wife  of  the  father  of  John  Myers,  an  early  settler  in  Carroll.  The 
wife  and  children  of  Henry  Frank  were  captured  by  the  Indians,  in  the  time 
of  the  French  war.  In  an  account  of  their  captivity,  John  Frank,  a  son  of 
John  Frank,  Sr.,  says,  in  substance,  as  follows  :  His  mother,  at  the  age  of  ten 
years,  was  taken  by  the  Indians,  and  kept  among  them  three  years ;  and  her 
twin  sister,  John  Myers'  mother,  was  taken  at  the  same  time,  and  was  kept 
a  year  longer,  as  she  had  the  small-pox  when  her  sister  was  exchanged  for. 
And  he  says,  his  mother's  mother,  five  daughters,  and  a  son  eighteen  mon^s 
old,  were  taken  to  near  Montreal — all  at  the  same  time.  The  mother  had 
to  ca'rry  the  boy  and  keep  up  with  the  rest,  or  have  him  tomahawked.  [The 
above  account  leaves  us  without  information  respecting  the  term  of  the 
captivity  and  the  release  of  the  mother  and  the  children,  other  than  the  twin 

Lawrence  Frank,  son  of  Henry  Frank,  above  mentioned,  was  born  in 
Frankfort,  Oct.,  1749.  In  1777,  he  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  Indians  and 
tories,  carried  to  Quebec,  and  kept  in  captivity  3  years  and  3  months.  He 
was  married  in  Frankfort  to  Mary  Myers,  who  was  bom  in  Germany,  in  1753, 
and  came,  when  young,  with  her  parents  to  Frankfort.  Lawrence  Frank  died 
in  Busti,  April  13,  1813;  his  widow,  Dec,  1831.  Their  children  were : 
Lawrence,  Jr.,  Margaret,  Elizabeth,  Peter,  Henry  L.,  John  L.,  Michael, 
Joseph,  and  Matthew.  Lawrence,  Jr.,  died  in  Herkimer  Co.;  Margaret, 
wife  of  Stephen  Frank,  died  in  Ohio  ;  Elizabeth  never  came  to  this  county; 
Peter  died  in  Ohio.  Henry  L.  married  Margaret  Damoot  and  moved  to 
Kirtland,  Ohio,  where  both  died. 

John  L.  Frank,  son  of  Lawrence,  Sr.,  was  born  at  Frankfort,  Nov.  29, 
1786,  and  was  married  to  Lucretia  Chapman.  In  181 1,  he  removed  to 
Busti,  on  lot  d2,  tp.   i,  r.  11,  and  subsequently  to  lot  6,  r.  12,  where  Mrs. 


Frank  died,  March  14,  1874.  Mr.  F.  lately  died  at  Busti  Comers.  He 
had  14  children,  of  whom  4  daughters  died  in  infancy.  The  others  were  : 
I.  Michael  C.,  who  married  Sally  Sherwin,  whose  children  were  John  S., 
Harriet  E.,  Mary  Jane,  Matthew,  Alice,  Electa,  and  Addie.  2.  Almira,  the 
wife  of  Ransom  Burrows;  both  deceased.  3.  Charles,  who  married  Mary 
Woodin,  and  has  3  sons:  Warren  A.,  George  D.,  and  John  J.  4.  Alonzo, 
who  married  Jane  Woodin,  and  lives  at  Blockville.  His  children  are  Levant 
C,  Harriet  M.,  Jane,  Opheha.  5.  Mary  Jane,  who  married  Jacob  Cham- 
bers;  and  is  dead.  He  resides  at  Pine  Grove,  Pa.  6.  Harriet  M.,  who 
married  Denison  Palmer,  and  is  dead.  He  lives  in  Pennsylvania.  7.  Lorenzo, 
who  married  Melissa  Hames,  and  whose  children  are  West,  Sidney,  and 
Clara.  8.  Davis,  who  married,  first,  Alvira  Brown,  second,  Elizabeth 
Brown,  and  whose  children  are  Theodore,  George,  D  wight,  Laverne,  Duane, 
DeEtta,  and  Earl.  9.  Marietta,  who  married  Samuel  Smith,  whose  children 
are  Levant  and  Frank.  10.  Ariel,  who  married  Margaret  Steward,  and  has 
two  sons,  Emmet  and  Fred. 

Joseph  Frank,  son  of  Lawrence,  was  born  Oct.  3,  1796,  and  came  with 
his  parents  to  Busti  in  1811.  He  was  a  volunteer  in  the  war  of  1812,  and 
killed  in  the  Buffalo  battle,  Dec.  31,  181 3.  He  was  shot  through  the  head, 
and  scalped  by  the  Indians ;  and  his  body  was  buried  in  a  common  grave 
with  other  killed,  and  never  brought  home.     He  was  unmarried. 

Stephen  Frank  emigrated  from  Germany  to  this  country  about  the  mid- 
dle of  the  last  century,  with  his  son  John  Frank,  then  about  7  years  old. 
The  place  of  his  first  settlement  is  not  ascertained ;  but  it  is  supposed  to 
have  been  in  Pennsylvania.  John,  the  son,  was  married  to  Eve  Frank,  whose 
father  was  also  from  Germany,  and  settled  in  that  state.  It  is  not  known 
that  this  Frank  family  was  akin  to  Henry  Frank  and  his  descendants,  or  that 
there  was  any  connection  prior  to  the  marriage  just  mentioned.  All  of 
them,  however,  removed  to  Frankfort  from  Pennsylvania  before  the  Revolu- 
tionary war. 

John  Frank,  Sr.,  son  of  Stephen,  above  mentioned,  was  born  in  Ger- 
many about  the  year  1743,  and  settled  at  Frankfort,  Herkimer  Co.,  N.  Y., 
f'where  he  was  married  to  Eve  Frank,  and  whence  he  removed  to  Busti  in 
181 1,  where  he  died,  Nov.  5,  1833.  He,  with  Lawrence,  son  of  Henry 
Frank,  before  mentioned,  and  two  girls.  Eve  and  Mary  Frank,  of  the  Stephen 
Frank  family,  were  captured,  in  the  "  old  French  war,''  by  the  French  and 
Indians,  on  the  Mohawk,  and  taken  as  prisoners  to  Canada,  where  they  were 
kept  several  years  among  the  Indians  before  they  were  ransomed.  John 
Frank  was  again  taken  prisoner  in  the  Revojutionary  war.  At  Oneida  lake, 
the  first  night  after  his  capture,  he  escapecE&om  his  captors,  and  by  the  aid 
of  friendly  Indians  among  the  Oneidas,  safely  reached  his  home  at  German 
Flats.  In  181 7,  Stephen,  son  of  John  Frank,  Sr.,  with  his  family  and  his 
parents,  and  his  mother's  maiden  sister,  moved  down  the  Ohio  river,  and 
stopped  at  Gallipolis,  Ohio,  where  the  father,  John  Frank,  Sr.,  died.  The 
others  proceeded  to  Columbus,  Ind.,  where  the  maiden  aunt  died.     Stephen, 

eJLcy^<}^  27?-rt^>^. 

BUSTI.  237 

with  two  of  his  sons,  went  with  a  flat  bottomed  boat  and  produce  to  New 
Orleans ;  and  on  his  return  he  died  on  the  Mississippi,  and  was  buried  on 
the  shore.  His  brother,  John  Frank,  Jr.,  went  to  Indiana  and  brought  his 
mother  back,,  who  died  at  his  house  some  years  after,  at  an  advanced  age. 
His  mother's  maiden  sister,  on  her  return  from  her  captivity  among  the  In- 
dians, had  forgotten  her  mother  tongue,  and  was  taken  from  the  Indians 
against  her  will,  having  been  kept  from  her  relatives,  and  forgotten  them. 
The  Franks  suffered  much  from  the  Indians  on  the  Mohawk. 

John  Frank  had  three  sons  :  i.  Stephen,  who  married  Margaret,  daughter 
of  Lawrence  Frank  the  elder.  Their  children  were :  Nicholas,  Matthew,  Polly, 
wife  of  Jacob  Loy,  Stephen  Denus,  Hiram,  Eye,  Solomon,  Elizabeth,  and 
Jacob  and  Joseph,  twins  ;  the  last  three  of  whom  were  bom  after  the  removal 
of  the  family  south.  2.  Nicholas,  who  married  Thankful  Landon,  and  had  5 
children  :  William,  Andrew,  Stephen,  David  and  Mary.  William  was  mar- 
ried, first,  to  Ursula  Bushnell,  whose  children  were  :  Darius  ;  Emma,  wife  of 
Sylvester  Abbott ;  and  Nicholas,  who  died  at  1 7.  He  married,  second, 
Christiana  Diefendorf,  and  had  by  her  a  son,  John  D.,  now  on  the  homestead 
of  his  father.  Andrew  was  a  shoemaker  and  tanner,  having  served  under  his 
uncle,  John,  Jr.  He  was  twice  married  ;  first,  to  Sibyl  Ames,  who  had  a  son, 
Whitney,  a  daughter,  Mrs.  Fisher,  of  Randolph,  and  one  or  more  dead ; 
married,  second,  the  widow  of  Pearl  Johnson,  and  removed  to  Wisconsin, 
where  he  died.  Stephen  married  Amanda  Watkins,  and  after  her  death,  a 
second  wife,  moved  west,  and  died  there.  David  married,  first,  Laura  Ben- 
nett, and  after  her  death,  her  sister.  His  widow  and  family  are  in  Minnesota. 
Mary  Ann  married,  first,  Samuel  Bowdish;  second,  John  Ellsworth,  and 
has  several  children  living.  3.  John,  Jr.,  the  third  son  of  John,  Sr.,  married 
Elizabeth  Diefendorf,  of  German  Flats,  N.  Y.,  and  removed  to  Frank's  set- 
tlement, Feb.,  1812.  His  children  were  :  Abram,  John  D.,  who  died  at  14, 
Margaret,  Harriet,  Perry,  Christiana,  and  Elizabeth,  all  bom  here.  Abraham 
married  Fidelia  Dexter,  and  had  3  children,  Dwight,  Gertrude,  and  Augusta. 
Margaret  married  Darius  M.  Davis,  whose  children  are  :  Adelaide,  wife  of 
Frank  Bartlett ;  Harriet,  wife  of  Abraham  Hazeltine,  cashier  of  the  Savings 
Bank,  Warren,  Pa.;  Albert,  who  married  Bell  Porter,  and  lives  in  Warren  ; 
Hila,  who  married  Ella  Stoddard,  and  is  in  Warren ;  Walter,  and  Dora,  both 
unmarried.  Perry,  son  of  John,  Jr.,  resides  in  Iowa ;  Christiana  married 
Francis  Kidder,  Jamestown,  and  has  a  daughter,  Ada.  Elizabeth  married 
Wm.  Hicks,  and  is  not  living.  All  of  the  children  of  John  Frank,  Jr.,  were 
in  the  settlement  in  1859. 

Michael  Frank,  son  of  Lawrence  Frank,  was  bom  at  Frankfort,  Herki- 
mer Co.,  Dec.  18,  1788,  and  removed  to  Busti  in  1811,  and  settled  on  lot 
63,  tp.  I,  r.  II,  where  he  died  May  9,  1869.  He  was  married  in  Frankfort 
to  Elizabeth  Steward,'and  had  10  children  :  i.  Steward,  who  married  Polly 
A.  Edmunds,  and  had  5  children  who  attained  to  majority :  Lucy  A.,  who 
married  Galusha  M.  Davis,  and  is  deceased,  leaving  two  children ;  Elizabeth 
M.,  who  married  Charles  Ellis,  and  died  in  Pennsylvania,  and  left  4  children; 


he  resides  in  Michigan ;  Mary,  who  became  second  wife  of  Galusha  M. 
Davis,  and  has  two  children  ;  Joanna  and  Martha  J.,  both  unmarried.  2. 
Stephen,  who  married  Abigail  Hewitt  in  Mich.,  where  they  reside  ;  they  have 
6  children.  3.  Lewis,  who  married  Sophrona  Perkins.  He  i^  deceased  ; 
she  lives  in  Broome  Co.  4.  Lucy  Ann,  who  died  in  infancy.  5.  Horace, 
who  married  Adelia  Stevens,  and  has  a  son  and  3  daughters.  They  live  on 
the  old  homestead.  6.  Eunice,  who  married,  first,  Sylvester  Babcock,  and 
had  two  daughters,  both  married.  After  the  death  of  Mr.  Babcock  she  mar- 
ried Miles  Lewis,  of  Harmony,  and  has  two  daughters.  7.  Jason  M.,  who 
married  Maria  Palmer,  and  lives  in  Sugar  Grove,  Pa.,  and  has  2  children 
living.  8.  John  N.,  who  married,  first,  Aurilla  A.  Palmeter,  and  had  3 
daughters;  second,  Mrs.  Cynthia  Homer.  They  live  in  Jamestown.  9. 
Emeline,  wife  of  James  D.  Stearns,  now  of  Jamestown.  Their  children  living 
are:  Frank,  who  married  Maria  Pierce,  and  lives  with  his  father;  and  Ella  M. 
James  D.  Stearns  served  three  years  in  the  late  war,  in  a  company  of  sharp- 
shooters, and  was  in  the  battles  of  Suffolk,  Va.,  Mine  Run,  in  the  Wilderness 
campaign,  etc.     lo:  Elizabeth  Mercy,  unmarried,  residing  in  Jamestown. 

Joseph  Garfield  was  born  in  Worcester  Co.,  Mass.,  April  17,  1780; 
removed  with  his  father  to  Stratton,  Vt.;  and  in  r8o3  was  married  to  Lydia 
Steams.  In  1816,  he  settled  in  Pine  Grove,  Pa.;  and  about  1820  in  Busti, 
lot  39,  where  his  son  Joseph  resides.  His  father,  Eliakim,  was  a  soldier  of 
the  Revolution.  His  son  Joseph  was  a  captain  in  the  war  of  1812;  and 
served  two  terras  as  justice  of  the  peace  in  Busti.  He  was  an  early  member 
of  the  Congregational  church,  and  was  such  at  the  time  of  his  death,  Dec.  9, 
1862.  Mrs.  G.  died  Sept.  15,  1852.  Their  children  were  :  i.  Hannah,  v/\it 
of  Richard  Killer,  of  Carroll,  where  she  died.  They  had  10  children,  of 
whom  Jediah,  John,  Martha  Jane,  Eliza,  Cynthia,  Alexander,  and  Nicholas 
are  living :  all  reside  in  Carroll.  2.  Eliakim,  who  married  Priscilla  Root, 
and  has  6  children,  Horace,  Richard,  Otis,  Sarah,  Mary,  Jennie  :  all  in  the 
county  but  Mary.  3.  Anna,  wife  of  Horace  Bacon,  both  deceased.  Their 
children  are:  Mary  Ann,  OUve,  Hannah,  Joseph,  Lydia,  in  Pa.,  and  Priscilla. 
4.  'Samuel,  in  Carroll,  who  married,  successively,  Susan  Eastman,  Elizabeth 
Emery,  and  another.  Children  by  the  first  wife,  Anna  and  Susan ;  by  the 
second,  Morris  Russell,  Lydia  and  Lucy.  5.  Lydia,  wife  of  Martin  Grout, 
of  Poland  (?).  Children  living  are :  William,  James,  Martin,  Lucy,  and 
Lydia.  6.  Joseph,  who  married  Lucy  Ann  Palmer,  and  lives  in  Kiantone. 
Children  :  Martin,  Eliakim,  Samuel,  and  Joseph. 

Aaron  Martin,  a  native  of  Dutchess  Co.,  settled,  in  1813,  in  the  east 
part  of  Busti,  on  lot  44,  tp.  i,  r.  11,  on  Stillwater  creek.  He  was  a  tanner, 
and  commenced  tanning  on  a  small  scale,  but  soon  relinquished  it,  and  at- 
tended exclusively  to  farming.  His  tannery  was  the  first  in  the  south  part 
of  the  county,  except  that  of  John  A.  Pierce,  at  Fluvanna,  which  also  was 
abandoned  in  a  few  years.  His  children  were  :  Wilham  ;  Isaac,  who  was  in 
the  war  of  1812,  and  died  in  Tennessee  ;  George,  who  was  a  justice  in  Kian- 
tone; James,  who  removed  to  Kentucky;  Maria,  and  Jane. 

BUSTI.  239 

Palmer  Phillips  settled  on  lot  11,  tp.  i,  r.  iz,  which  he  bought  in  1811. 
He  was  a  prominent  citizen.  He  was  elected,  in  i8i6,  supervisor  of  Har- 
mony, then  including  Busti,  and  held  the  oflBce  by  reelection  until  the  town  of 
Busti  was  formed,  in  1823,  and  including  that  year.  He  was  the  leader  of 
the  first  Methodist  class  formed  within  the  limits  of  the  town.  It  was  formed 
by  Elder  John  Lewis ;  and  its  original  members  were  Palmer  Phillips  and 
Asa  Smith,  and  their  wives,  John  Whittam,  and  Joseph  and  Daniel  Phillips 
sons  of  Palmer.  Daniel  became  a  preacher,  and  died  at  Sug&r  Grove,  Pa., 
in  1851. 

Levi  Pier  came  from  Oxford,  N.  Y.,  to  Busti,  in  1814,  and  bought  on 
lot  — ,  r.  II.  After  the  death  of  his  wife,  which  occurred  about  two  years 
after,  he  returned  to  Chenango  Co. ;  and  after  two  or  three  years  he  came 
back,  and  settled  permanently,  where  he  remained  until  his  death.  He  had 
12  children  :  Elijah,  Lois,  Namah,  Amasa,  Sally,  Silas,  Abraham,  Reuben, 
Oliver,  Lovisa,  Roxa,  David.  Of  these  the  following  came  to  this  county: 
Sally,  who  married  Aaron  Root,  who  settled  in  Busti ;  Reuben,  who  married 
Margaret  Acker,  Harmony ;  Oliver,  who  married  Betsey  Carpenter,  and  lives 
at  Corry;  Lovisa,  wife  of  Horace  Blanchar,  both  deceased;  Roxa,  wife  of 
Wm.  Martin,  of  Kiantone ;  and  David,  who  married  Esther  Pierce,  both 
deceased.     Mr.  Levi  Pier  died  in  March,  1826. 

Abraham  Pier,  son  of  Levi  Pier,  was  bom  in  Great  Barrington,  Mass., 
April  30,  1789.  He  came  from  Oxford,  N.  Y.,  to  Busti,  and  purchased  the 
land  in  181 2,  where  he  now  resides,  ij^  m.  south-west  from  Jamestown.  In 
March,  18 14,  he  moved  with  his  father's  family  from  Oxford.  A  year  or 
two  after  their  arrival,  Mrs.  Levi  Pier  died ;  and  Mr.  Pier  returned  to 
Chenango  ;  and  after  two  or  three  years  he  came  back  and  settled  here  per- 
manently one  mile  west  from  Abraham's,  where  he  died.  Abraham  Pier  was 
married  to  Olive  Marsh,  Dec.  17,  1815,  and  had  by  her  5  children,  of  whom 
only  two  survived  the  period  of  infancy :  Elvira,  wife  of  Dr.  Sherman  Gar- 
field, who  died  on  his  way  to  the  South  for  the  benefit  of  his  health ;  and 
Lovisa  E.,  wife  of  Elias  H.  Jenner,  who  resides  with  his  father-in-law,  in  the 
same  house,  but  owning  and  occupying  an  adjoining  farm.  After  the  death 
of  his  first  wife,  Abraham  Pier  married  Mary  Ann  Simmons,  his  present  wife. 

Theron  Plumb,  a  native  of  Berkshire  Co.,  Mass.,  is  said  to  have  settled, 
in  the  winter  of  1811-12,  on  lot  60,  tp. 'i,  r.  11,  then  in  the  town  of  Ellicott, 
which,  however,  was  not  formed  until  June  following.  He  appears  as  an 
original  ■pwTcha.seT  only  as  purchasing  lot  7,  tp.  i,  r.  12,  which  was  never  in 
Ellicott.  He  must,  however,  have  settled  in  Ellicott,  as  he  was  early  a 
prominent  citizen  of  that  town,  having  been  elected  to  many  offices  in  it,  and 
was  in  1815  appointed,  by  the  council  of  appointment,  a  justice  of  the  peace, 
and  held  the  office  for  several  years,  and  was  an  efficient  magistrate.  He  re- 
moved to  Ohio  in  1820,  where  he  buried  his  wife  in  1835.  He  returned  to 
Busti  in  1839.     Late  in  life  he  removed  to  Iowa,  where  he  died. 

JuDSON  Southland  was  bom  in  Mendon,  Mass.,  April  i,  1793.  His 
father,  born  in  New  Jersey,  was  an  iron  forger  by  trade,  and  soon  after  his 


marriage  enlisted  in  the  Revolutionary  war,  and  was  at  the  battles  of  Bunker 
Hill,  Monmouth,  and  several  others.  Judson  was  the  youngest  of  nine 
children.  In  18 18,  he,  with  others,  started  from  Massachusetts,  and  arrived 
at  Mayville  the  ist  day  of  March,  having  made  the  journey  by  sleighing.  He 
taught  school  during  the  summer,  and  returned  in  the  fall  on  horseback, 
making  the  journey  in  three  weeks.  In  May,  18 19,  he  married  Rhoda  For- 
bush,  of  Grafton,  Mass. ;  and  in  the  ensuing  fall  they  removed  to  Chautauqua 
Co.,  with  a  three-horse  team,  and,  after  a  tedious,  journey  of  five  weeks,  arrived 
at  Jamestown,  and  made  a  short  stop  with  Elisha  Allen,  then  keeping  a  hotel 
at  the  south-east  comer  of  Main  and  Third  streets.  In  the  spring  of  1820, 
he  built  a  plank  house  on  the  top  of  what  was  called  English  Hill,  2  y^  miles 
from  Jamestown,  and  conveyed  his  wife,  one  child,  and  a  hired  girl,  on  an 
ox-sled,  through  the  woods,  by  marked  trees,  to  their  new  home.  In  1825, 
he  moved  to  Jamestown,  where  he  kept  the  Allen  House  one  year.  He  then 
built  a  house  on  the  north-west  comer  of  Fourth  and  Pine  streets,  where  F.  A. 
Fuller  now  resides.  He  served  nine  years  as  deputy  sheriff  under  sheriffs 
Daniel  Sherman,  Benj.  Douglass,  and  Wm.  Sexton,  and  as  sheriff  from  Jan. 
I,  1838,  for  the  full  term  of  three  years.  In  1841,  he  purchased  the  farm 
where  he  now  resides,  on  the  lake  road  in  Busti.  His  wife  died  in  Galena, 
111.,  Sept.  I,  1853.  In  1856,  he  married  Martha  P.  Holbrook,  of  Grafton, 
Mass.  Mr.  Southland  had  7  children — all  bom  at  Jamestown  :  1 .  Caroline 
M.,  who  married  Rev.  Asahel  Chapin ;  residing  now  in  Vinton,  Iowa.  They 
have  four  sons  :  Judson  S.,  Asahel,  Edward  S.,  and  William  Fisk.  2.  Silas 
E.,  who  married  Caroline  E.  R.  Aldrich,  of  Mendon,  Mass.  ;  residing  now 
in  Busti.  3.  William  J.,  who  married  Marian  E.  Hastings,  of  Jamestown, 
and  died  in  Busti,  Dec.  28,  1853.  Widow  and  one  daughter  reside  in  Kent, 
Ohio.  4.  Jonathan  F.,  who  married  Jane  E.  Barnes  in  Grafton,  Mass. ;  re- 
side in  Ellicott.  They  have  two  sons,  Martin  Henry  and  Charles  William. 
5.  John  Clark,  who  died  in  infancy.  6.  Edward  H.,  who  married  Caroline  E. 
Randolph,  of  Panama ;  reside  now  in  Jamestown.  7.  Caroline  M.,  who  mar- 
ried J.  T.  Stoneman,  of  Busti ;  have  one  daughter,  Carrie,  and  reside  in  Iowa. 
Ira  C.  Stoddard,  bom  at  Brattleboro',  Vt.,  was  married  to  Charlotte 
Joy,  and  removed  with  his  family,  in  1819,  to  Eden,  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y.,  where 
he  was  pastor  of  the  Baptist  church  12  years.  He -subsequently  ministered 
to  the  church  of  Busti  4  years;  to  thfe  church  at  Ripley  5  years;  and  to  the 
church  at  Mayville  i  year.  After  closing  his  pastoral  labors,  he  returned  to 
Busti,  where  he  has  since  resided.  Of  his  9  children,  all  but  one  attained 
maturity:  Jacob;  Ira  J.;  Ansel;  Charlotte,  [deceased,]  wife  of  George  An- 
drews; Mary  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Perry  Frank,  Iowa  ;  Lucy  V.,  wife  of  James 
H.  Wood,  Frewsburgh;  Orlando  J.,  and  Hiram  D.  Jacob  served  in  the  late 
war.  Hiram  enlisted  during  the  late  war,  and  was  in  the  battles  of  Malvern 
Hill,  Fair  Oaks,  Gettysburg,  in  the  Wilderness,  etc.,  and  was  taken  prisoner 
and  confined  in  Libby  prison.  Ira  J.  went  as  a  missionary  to  Hindoostan 
in  1847;  and,  after  9  years'  labor  there,  returned.  After  three  years  he  went 
to  the  same  field;  returned  to  America  in  1873  ;  and  now  resides  in  Iowa. 


CARROLL.  241 

Stephen  Wilcox,  Sr.,  born  in  R.  I.,  August  8,  1762,  was  a  soldier  in  the 
Revolution,  moved  to  this  county  in  1815,  and  his  family,  with  Ephraim,  in 
18 16,  and  settled  on  lot  65,  tp.  i,  r.  11,  where  his  son  Ephraim  still  resides. 
He  died  in  1846,  aged  84  years.  His  wife  died  in  1849,  aged  85.  Their 
children  w^ere:  Stephen;  Eunice,  wife  of  John  Steward,  Sr.;  Ephraim;  Abel; 
Lury,  wife  of  Edward  Akin;  Alfred,  and  Roxana,  wife  of  Adin  RusseU. 
Stephen,  Jr.,  bought,  in  181 2,  a  part  of  lot  55,  tp.  i,  r.  11,  and  is  said  to 
have  come  to  Busti  with  Cyrus  Fish  in  1813. 

The  Baptist  Church  of  Busti  was  organized  August  30,  18 19,  by  a  council 
consisting  of  Elders  Ebenezer  Smith,  Paul  Davis,  and  Jonathan  Wilson. 
Members  uniting  at  the  time  of  the  organization,  were  Daniel  Sartwell, 
Enoch  Alden,  Ebenezer  Davis,  Benjamin  Covel ;  and,  it  is  believed,  Henry 
L.  Frank,  John  L.  Frank,  John  Frank,  Jr.,  and  Elijah  Devereaux,  also  were 
first  members.  A  few  days  after,  William  Frank  and  Mary  Ann  Shepard 
were  admitted.  The  first  church  edifice  was  erected  in  1836 ;  the  present 
one  in  1853.     The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  Paul  Davis. 

The  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  of  Busti  Corners  was  organized  in  18 19, 
with  sixty  members,  by  Rev.  Alvin  Burgess,  the  first  pastor.  The  church 
edifice  was  built  the  same  year. 


Carroll  was  formed  from  EUicott  in  1825.  It  was  named  in  honor  of 
Charles  Carroll  of  Carrollton,  Md.,  one  of  the  signers  of  the  declaration  of 
independence.  Kiantone  was  taken  off  in  1853.  Its  surface  is.  broken  and 
hilly  in  the  north-east  and  east  parts,  and  rolling  in  the  south  and  south-west. 
The  highest  summits  are  said  to  be  about  900  feet  above  Lake  Erie.  The 
soil  is  a  clay  loam  in  the  north  and  east,  and  a  gravelly  loam  in  the  south 
and  west  parts.  The  Connewango  creek,  the  principal  stream,  enters  the 
town  on  its  north  line,  on  lot  48,  about  2)^  miles  east  of  the  north-west 
comer,  and,  taking  a  winding,  south-westerly  course,  makes  a  small  curve 
into  Kiantone ;  then,  after  meandering  southward  along  the  west  line  of  the 
town,  leaves  the  township  line,  and  thence,  running  in  an  easterly  and  a 
south-easterly  direction,  forms  the  town  boundary  between  Carroll  and  Kian- 
tone to  the  Pennsylvania  line.  Frewsburgh,  a  post  village  in  the  north-west 
part,  contained,  in  1870,  a  population  of  379.  Fenton\alle,  in  the  south-west 
comer  of  the  town,  has  a  post-office  and  a  population  of  82. 

Original  Purchases  in  Township  i,  Range  10. 

1808.  July,  Joel  Tyler,  51.     George  Sloan,  59;  [now  Kiantone.] 

1809.  March,  Samuel  Anderson,  57;   [now  Kiantone.]    June,  Charles. 
Boyles,  42.     Isaac  Walton,  41. 

1 8 10.  March,  George  W.  Fenton,  52. 


i8ii.  October,  Matthew  Turner,  53.  November,  Ebenezer  Cheney,  54. 
Matthew  Turner,  54. 

181 2.  January,  John  Frew,  61. 

181 3.  September,  Robert  Russell,  57;  [lot  now  in  Kiantone.]  Decem- 
ber, Amasa  Littlefield,  36. 

1814.  March,  Ebenezer  Cheney,  36.  May,  Ebenezer  Cheney,  46,47, 
54,  55.  Ebenezer  Davis,  37.  Benj.  Jones,  23,  28.  Levi  Jones,  24,  28. 
Elijah  Braley,  43.  Horatio  Dix,  28.  July,  James  Hall,  54.  September, 
Aaron  Forbes,  64.     November,  Robert  Russell,  57 ;  [now  in  Kiantone.] 

1815.  March,  Josiah  H.  Wheeler,  46.  Wheeler  and  Hall,  32,  40.  Wm. 
Sears,  31. 

1816.  May,  Jonathan  Covell,  43.     Eli  Fames,  38. 

1817.  May,  Benjamin  Russell,  30. 

1 8 18.  May,  Aaron  Forbes,  64.     November,  Levi  Jones,  23. 

1819.  January,  Josiah  H.  Wheeler,  39. 

1820.  June,  John  Frew,  62. 

1821.  November,  John  Myers,  [lot  not  given.] 

1822.  September,  Isaac  Eames,  39. 

1823.  October,  James  Hall,  15. 

1824.  January,  John  and  James  Frew,  20.  Feb.,  John  Myers,  20.  April, 
John  Frew,  27.     Sept.,  Daniel  Wheeler,  27.     Oct.,  Truman  Comstock,  31. 

1826.  May,  Hiram  Covey,  14.  James  Covey,  14.  Jonah  R.  Covey,  14. 
June,  Taylor  Aldrich,  28. 

1827.  June,  Wm.  Haines,  26.  John  F.  Bragg,  48.  October,  Robert 
Russell,  49. 

A  correct  and  reliable  sketch  of  the  earliest  settlement  in  Carroll  is  not 
easily  obtained.  The  State  Gazetteer  says  Joseph  Akin,  from  Rensselaer  Co., 
was  the  first  settler  in  town,  located  on  lot  29,  in  Jan.,  r8o7  ;  and  gives  the 
names  of  several  other  early  settlers  in  that  town,  none  of  whom  ever  resided 
therein  ;  but  settled  on  and  near  Stillwater  creek  in  the  town  of  Kiantone. 
The  County  Gazetteer  and  Directory  of  1873  substantially  adopts  the  mistake  ; 
and,  in  its  sketch  of  Kiantone,  gives  the  names  of  the  same  persons  as  first 
settlers  of  that  town  also.  And  accuracy  is  the  more  difficult  from  the  fact, 
that  the  names  of  the  first  settlers  and  dates  of  purchase  do  not  appear  on 
the  Company's  book.  Judge  Foote  says  :  "  From  1798,  [when  the  range  and 
township  lines  were  run,]  to  1807,  no  further  surveys  were  made  in  Ellicott ; 
[meaning  the  four  townships  embraced  in  that  town  when  formed.]  During 
this  interval,  a  few  persons  settled  on  lands  not  yet  surveyed  into  lots." 

It  is  presumed  that  the  earliest  settler  within  the  present  bounds  of  Carroll 
was  one  of  the  three  who  took  up  their  lands  in  1809.  They  were  :  Isaac 
Walton,  lot  41,  June  29,  and  Joel  Tyler  and  Charles  Boyles,  July  28.  Tyler 
is  known  to  have  been  on  his  land  a  month  or  longer,  prior  to  the  date  of  his 
article.     Geo.  W.  Fenton  came  the  next  year  ;  and  John  Frew,  early  in  1812. 

John  Russell,  residing  on  the  Mahoning,  in  Pennsylvania,  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  the  Frew  family,  came  out  to  Connewango  in  1800,  to  explore  the 
country  in  Western  Pennsylvania.  He  located  a  lot  of  land,  and  returned 
with  a  good  report  of  the  country  about  Connewango,  by  which  many  were 
induced  to  emigrate  with  him.     Russell  being  a  carpenter,  he  made  a  boat 

CARROLL.  243 

in  two  parts,  which  could  be  put  together  and  taken  apart  at  pleasure.  It 
was  calculated  for  a  light  draught  of  water,  to  go  up  the  Susquehanna,  Sine- 
mahoning,  etc.,  to  take  the  goods  of  the  emigrating  company,  comprising 
John  Russell  and  his  family,  including  his  sons  Robert,  John,  and  Thomas, 
Mr.  Hood,  Lapsley,  John  Bar,  Hunter,  and  others.  Also  David  and  James 
Brown,  [John  came  afterwards,]  young  men  and  single,  from  Belfast,  Ireland. 
Hugh  Frew  and  his  sons  started  with  the  company.  Frew  and  Russell  had 
each  a  yoke  of  oxen  and  some  cows.  The  journey  up  the  streams,  with  the 
teams  through  the  woods,  was  slow  and  tedious.  They  came  up  the  Sine- 
mahoning,  and  across  portage,  with  boat,  to  drift  wood,  and  took  the  boat 
apart,  and  brought  it  on  wagon  wheels  to  canoe  place  on  Allegany  river  ;  put 
the  boat  together  again,  calked  and  pitched  it,  and  came  down  the  Allegany 
to  the  Connewango,  and  up  that  stream  to  a  little  above  where  Russellburg 
now  is ;  thence  to  "  Beech  Woods,"  so  called,  now  Sugar  Grove.  Hugh 
Marsh,  from  New  Jersey,  Robert  Miles,  father  of  Frederic,  Robert,  and  John, 
and  Stephen  Ross,  father  of  Benjamin,  had  got  in  befpre  them.  At  Warren 
there  was  no  building-  except  the  Holland  Land  Company's  store-house,  in 
which  resided  a  family  who  had  charge  of  the  Holland  Company's  stores  sent 
thither  to  sell  to  the  settlers.  Daniel  Jackson  had  a  small  mill,  (the  bolt 
turned  by  hand,)  at  the  mouth  of  Winters'  or  Jackson's  run,  above  Warren. 

When  the  emigrants  arrived  at  Beech  Woods,  they  had  no  beds  except  the 
ticks,  which,  for  the  want  of  straw,  they  filled  with  leaves  scraped  from  the 
ground.  Their  clothes  were  of  home-made  linen  and  woolen  cloth.  They 
had  no  money  to  buy  more ;  and  they  had  to  wear  mostly  linen  and  tow, 
summer  and  winter,  because  flax  they  could  raise.  The  woods  abounded 
with  wolves  to  kill  sheep,  and  bears  to  kill  hogs.  Deer  were  plenty,  but  the 
settlers  had  no  guns.  After  a  while,  they  procured  guns  and  supplied  them- 
selves with  venison.  The  Indians,  who  hunted  in  the  fall  and  winter,  would 
sell  venison  and  moccasins  ;  but  they  would  take  in  payment  only  silver, 
salt,  or  flour,  of  which  the  settlers  had  none  to  spare.  They  soon  learned  to 
make  good  moccasins  and  other  articles  of  clothing.  They  tanned  their  deer 
skins  with  deer's  brains  and  smoke,  as  the  Indians  did.  In  the  winter  they 
found  a  plenty  of  bee  trees,  as  the  bees  would  come  out  in  warm,  thawing 
days,  and  fall  upon  the  snow.  They  would  then  mark  the  trees,  and  cut 
them  the  next  summer  or  fall.  The  farm  in  Pennsylvania,  on  which  John 
Russell  settled  in  1800,  joined  the  state  line.  John  and  his  sister  Molly, 
wife  of  Jesse  Northrup,  were  the  only  children  of  John  Russell,  Sr.,  living  in 
1866.  John  Russell  died  at  his  old  homestead  in  February,  1818.  His 
widow  survived  him  about  10  years. 

Thomas  Russell,  son  of  John,  was  married  to  Polly,  daughter  of  Judge 
Jonathan  Thompson,  July  12,  1815.  They  removed  to  their  new  mill  on 
Cassadaga  creek  in  August,  and  lived  in  a  log  house.  They  had  1 1  children, 
9  of  whom  were  living  in  1866.  Thomas  Russell  was  born  in  Ireland  in 
1783,  and  was  about  5  years  old  when  the  family  came  over  the  ocean.  He 
died  in  Jamestown,  where  he  was  residing,  Sept.  11,  1865,  aged  82. 


John  Owen  was  a  native  of  Windsor,  Conn.,  and  was  a  soldier  in  the  old 
French  war,  and  in  the  war  of  the  Revolution.  He  came  with  his  family 
from  the  Susquehanna  river  to  Warren,  Pa.,  about  the  year  1806,  and  up  the 
Connewango  in  1808.  After  several  removals,  he  settled  on  lot  41,  east  side 
of  the  Connewango,  adjoining  the  state  line,  where  he  resided  25  or  30 
years,  and  kept  a  tavern,  or  house  of  entertainment,  more  especially  for 
lumbermen  in  rafting  times,  during  spring  and  fall  floods,  and  for  travelers 
on  the  state  road  that  crossed  the  Connewango  at  the  state  line.  He  kept 
also  a  private  ferry  for  those  wishing  to  cross  that  stream  previously  to  the 
building  of  the  bridge.  He  is  said  to  have  been,  one  of  the  most  keen, 
joking,  story-telling,  good-natured  men.  Many  a  man  has  laughed  at  the  old 
man's  stories  and  jokes  till  his  sides  were  sore.  He  had  a  singular  impedi- 
ment in  his  speech,  a  kind  of  stutter,  which  seemed  to  add  to  the  interest 
and  point  of  his  stories  and  jokes.  Many  a  night,  when  his  floors  were 
covered  with  weary  raftsmen  for  want  of  sufficient  beds  to  hold  them  all,  they 
were  kept  awake  till  a  late  hour  by  his  queer  and  witty  stories.  He  was  a 
stranger  to  sickness ;  and  it  might  be  truly  said  that  he  "  died  of  old  age." 
He  was  with  the  English  army  in  the  attack  on  Quebec  in  the  old  French 
war,  and  was  a  pensioner  for  services  in  the  American  army  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary war.  He  died  in  Carroll,  Feb.  6,  1843,  aged  107  years,  according  to 
the  records  of  Windsor,  Conn.,  his  native  town.  Ira  Owen,  a  son  of  John 
Owen,  by  his  third  wife,  came  with  his  father  to  Connewango,  and  settled  on 
land  east  of  his  father,  where  he  lived  till  he  left  the  country.  He  was  with 
the  Chautauqua  militia  at  the  Buffalo  battle,  and  had  the  reputation  of  a 
brave  soldier,  and  an  excellent  marksman.  In  the  presence  of  a  number  of 
his  fellow-soldiers,  he  took  deliberate  aim  with  his  rifle,  and  killed  a  pursuing 
Indian,  while  our  militia  were  retreating  from  Black  Rock.  -Reuben,  the 
youngest  son,  lived  with  his  father  till  his  father's  death,  and  continued  to 
live  on  the  old  homestead. 

In  the  vicinity  of  Frewsburgh,  John  Myers,  from  Herkimer  Co.,  settled 
early  on  the  Connewango,  where  he  kept  a  hotel,  and  where  he  still  resides, 
at  an  advanced  age  (?).  Of  his  8  sons,  Peter,  the  eldest,  is  not  living ;  John, 
Jacob,  Robert,  Lyman,  James,  and  William,  reside  in  the  town ;  Charles,  in 
the  West.  Of  the  5  daughters,  Betsey,  wife  of  Jacob  Sternberg,  resides  in 
town ;  Mary  married  George  Budlong,  removed  West,  and  is  deceased ;  Re- 
becca is  the  wife  of  James  R.  Frew,  and  is  not  living ;  Adaline  married 
Orson  Annis,  and  removed  West ;  and  Jane  married  William  Hunt,  and 
lives  in  Jamestown. 

Horatio  N.  Thornton,  bom  in  Otsego  Co.,  N.  Y.,  removed  with  his  father 
to  Ripley  in  1816.  In  1828  he  settled  in  Kiantone,  and  in  1831  was  married 
to  Eunice  N.  Greene;  and  removed  in  1837  to  where  he  now  resides,  i  m. 
north-east  from  Frewsburgh.  His  children  were  :  Helen  R.,  who  married 
Joseph  Bamsdall,  and  resides  at  Titusville,  Pa.;  Harriet  B.,  who  married 
Joseph  B.  FoUett,  and  resides  at  Kansas  City,  Missouri ;  Horatio  N.,  who 
died  in  infancy;  Rufus  G.,  who  died  at  23  ;  and  Horatio  K. 

CARROLL.  245 

Otis  Moore  settled  early  on  lot  45,  and  owned  the  saw-mill  i  m.  east  of 
Frewsburgh,  which  he  subsequently  rebuilt,  and  which  is  now  owned  by  his 
son  Otis.  His  children  are :  Mahala,  wife  of  Dwight  Keet,  Fentonville  ; 
Minerva,  wife  of  HoUis  Boyd,  gone  West ;  Persis,  who  married  Reuel  Jones, 
Frewsburgh ;  Isabel,  wife  of  Asa  Tinkcom,  Frewsburgh.  Sons :  E.  G.,  who 
married  Minerva  Boyd ;  Otis,  who  married  Maria  Moore,  and  lives  on  the 
farm  of  his  father ;  George,  who  married  Deborah,  daughter  of  W.  H.  Har- 
rison Fenton,  at  Fentonville ;  Leverett,  married,  and  lives  at  Frewsburgh. 

Luther  Howard  settled  in  Frewsburgh  and  purchased  where  his  son  Dyer 
Howard  now  lives.  Another  son,  Leland,  was  killed  by  being  thrown  from 
a  horse.  Mitta  is  the  wife  of  Geo.  W.  Fenton,  Jr.  Sarah  was  married  to 
James  Parker,  who  died  in  1863.  Eliza  Ann  is  the  wife  of  David  Frew,  of 
Frewsburgh.  Maria  married  Washington  Young,  and  after  his  death,  Charles 
Howard,  who  resides  in  the  village. 

In  the  south  part  of  the  town,  Edmund  White  settled  early  on  lot  27,  and 
subsequently  removed  to  Fluvanna.  His  sons,  James,  Wesley  and  Silas, 
reside  in  the  village ;  Warner,  in  Penn.  A  daughter,  Isabel,  married  Eli 
Davis,  and  lives  on  the  old  White  place ;  Agnes  married  Rev.  Emerson 
Mills,  now  of  Forestville;  Cynthia  married  Charles  Ward,  and  lives  in 
Frewsburgh ;  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Warner  Bush,  a  Methodist  preacher,  resides 
in  California. 

In  the  south-west  part  of  the  town,  Otis  Alvord  was  an  early  settler  at 
Fentonville,  and  died  there.  Francis,  a  son,  is  a  preacher  of  the  Universal- 
ist  faith ;  another  son,  Frederick,  is  proprietor  of  the  Weeks  House,  James- 
town. Luther  Forbish,  from  Massachusetts,  came  to  Carroll  about  the  year 
1830,  and  settled  on  lot  34,  where  he  resided  until  his  death,  in  1863.  He 
had  12  children,  6  sons  and  6  daughters.  Of  the  sons,  Daniel,. Corydon, 
Luther  A.,  and  Joel,  reside  in  Carroll ;  Marion  is  in  Sheffield,  Pa. ;  Henry- 
died  at  about  22.  Of  the  daughters,  Eliza  Ann  is  the  wife  of  John  H.  ^^^lt- 
sie ;  and  Mary,  wife  of  Dyer  Howard ;  both  in  town ;  Lucy  and  Sarah,  mar- 
ried, are  in  Iowa ;  Melvina,  married,  is  in  Warren,  Pa. ;  Nancy,  deceased, 
was  the  wife  of  Samuel  Rice. 

Dorastus  Johnson,  from  Cattaraugus  Co.,  about  1845,  settled  at  Fenton- 
ville, lot  33,  where  he  now  resides.  He  had  6  sons  and  a  daughter.  Ira, 
one  of  the  sons,  died  in  the  late  war,  in  the  battle  0/  Fredericksburg ; 
Calvin,  another  son,  served  in  the  war,  and  died  of  disease  contracted  in 
the  army. 

Jacob  Adams,  from  Massachusetts,  about  1845,  settled  on  lot  42.  His 
wife  was  a  sister  of  Luther  Forbish.  Their  sons  were :  Hiram  and  Joseph, 
who  live  in  town ;  Cyrus,  who  died  in  the  late  war ;  and  Ira,  who  died  a  few 
years  ago  in  Carroll. 

In  the  north  part  of  the  town,  Moses  Taft,  from  New  England,  settled  in 
Carroll  on  Case  creek,  and  was  one  of  a  company  owning  a  mill,  the  lowest 
erected  on  that  stream.  He  afterwards  removed  to  Michigan.  Case  creek 
derived  its  name  from Case,  a  pioneer  on  the  east  side  of  the  Conne- 


wango,  and  a  brother  of  Laban  Case.  He  built  a  shanty,  and  made  a  small 
improvement  on  the  shore  of  the  Connewango;  but  the  agent  of  the  Holland 
Company  refused  to  seU  him  the  land  ;  and  he  was  compelled  to  abandon  it. 

Hiram  Thayer,  from  Hampshire  Co.,  Mass.,  came  to  Jamestown  in  1819, 
and  to  this  town  in  1820.  In  1829  he  bought  a  part  of  lot  39,  where  he  has 
resided  till  the  present  time.  He  married  Mary  Eames,  and  has  had  9 
children  :  John  M.,  who  was  married  to  Margaret  Cowen,  and  resides  in 
Nebraska;  Isaac  W.,  to  Lucy  Cowen;  Mary  Ann,  to  Wm.  Mahan,  and  lives 
in  Penn.  ;  Lois  Eliza,  who  died  at  21,  unmarried  ;  Hiram  E.,  who  was  mar- 
ried to  Mary  Lawson,  and  lives  in  town ;  Sibyl  B.,  to  Wm.  H.  H.  Fenton, 
Jr. ;  EUen  M.,  to  Emery  Davenport,  Poland;  Orris  E.,  to  Emma  Markham; 
and  Frank  E. 

Veron  Eaton,  from  Vermont,  about  r823,  settled  lyi  miles  north-east 
from  Frewsburgh,  where  he  now  resides,  at  the  age  of  77.  His  children 
were :  Judson,  who  died  at  about  29 ;  Pauline ;  Elizabeth,  wife  of  Edwin 
Curtis,  both  deceased ;  Martha,  wife  of  Ebenezer  Thornton ;  Mary ;  and 
Sarah,  killed  by  lightning,  at  the  age  of  24. 

Dutee  Herrington  settled  early  on  lot  32,  and  has  long  owned  a  saw-mill 
on  Case's  run.  Orsino  Comstock  settled  on  lot  3r,  and  died  there,  leaving 
two  sons  :  Butler,  who  has  removed  to  Minn. ;  and  Philo,  whq  lives  in 
Frewsburgh.  Another  son,  Asa,  *  *  ».  Goodin  Staples  settled  early  in 
the  north-east  part  of  the  town,  on  lot  8.  His  sons,  Goodin  and  Elisha, 
reside  there.  John  Bragg  settled  in  that  part  of  the  town  where  his  sons 
Joshua,  Joseph,  Isaac,  and  James  reside.  Richard  Hiller  settled  on  lot  30. 
His  sons  were  :  Jedediah,  John,  Alexander,  and  Nicholas.  Jedediah  resides 
in  Pennsylvania ;  the  others,  in  town. 

John  Townsend  settled  near  the  center  of  the  town,  and  bought  the  saw- 
mill previously  built  by  Reuben  and  John  Thayer.  He  subsequently  rebuilt 
the  mill,  which  is  now  owned  by  his  son  Samuel.  Another  son,  William, 
lives  with  his  mother  in  the  neighborhood.     The  father  is  not  living. 

Christopher  Whitman,  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends,  settled  where 
his  son  Arthur  now  resides,  near  the  center  of  the  town.  Another  son, 
Dexter,  resides  in  Frewsburgh. 

The  first  town  meeting  was  held  at  the  house  of  Wm.  Sears,  March  6, 
1826,  [now  in  Kiantone,]  and  the  following  named  officers  were  elected: 

Supervisor — James  Hall.  Town  Clerk — John  Frew.  Assessors — ^James 
Parker,  Levi  Davis,  James  Frew.  Commissioners  of  Highways — E.  Kidder, 
Geo.  W.  Fenton,  Simeon  C.  Davis.  Overseers  of  Poor — E.  Kidder,  Geo.  W. 
Jones.  Collector — Asa  Moore.  Constables — Asa  Moore,  Hiram  Dickerson. 
Commissioners  of  Schools — John  Frew,  James  Hall,  James  Parker.  In- 
spectors of  Schools — Wm.  Sears,  Simeon  Covell,  Levi  Davis.  Pound-keepers — 
Geo.  W.  Fenton,  Wm.  Sears. 

Supervisors  from  1826  to  187J. 
James  Hall,  1826  to  '33,  and  1839 — 9  years.     James  Parker,  1834  to  '37, 

CARROLL.  247 

and  1856,  '57 — 6  years.  Esbai  Kidder,  1838.  Phineas  Spencer,  1840. 
Judiah  E.  Budlong,  r84i.  Gordon  Swift,  1842,  '43,  '44.  John  Frew,  1845. 
Reuben  E.  Fenton,  1846  to  '52 — 7  years.  Edwin  Eaton,  1853,  '73.  Wm. 
H.  H.  Fenton,  1854,  1865  to  '71 — 8  years.  Charles  L.  Norton,  1855,  1858 
to  '64 — 8  years.  Lucius  M.  Robertson,  1872.  Wm.  Sheldon,  '74.  Albert 
Fox,  1875. 

Perhaps  no  other  township  in  the  county  has  had  so  many  saw-mills  in 
operation  at  the  same  time,  as  that  which  constitutes  the  town  of  Carroll. 
We  find  on  the  county  may  of  1854,  the  names  of  five  proprietors  of  mills  on 
the  small  stream  which  rises  in  the  south-east  part  of  the  town,  and  enters  the 
Connewango  creek  near  Fentonville.  Within  about  a  mile  above  Fenton- 
ville  were  the  mills  of  L.  Forbush,  D.  WUtsie,  J.  Brokaw,  another  the  owner 
of  which  is  not  named,  and  S.  Smith's  miU  near  the  head  of  the  stream.  On 
Frew's  run  was  Frew's  saw-mill,  near  the  Connewango.  Above  this  were 
James  Wheeler's,  Otis  Moore's,  Job  Toby's,  John  Myers,  Jr.'s,  John  Town- 
send's,  Henry  Bennett's,  James  Frew's,  N.  Gavit's,  Cowen's,  and  one  or  two 
others.  Also  Hugh  A.  Frew's  flouring-mill,  at  Frewsburgh.  On  Case  run,  in 
the  north  and  north-east  part  of  the  town,  were  the  mills  of  Smith  Cass,  D. 
Harrington,  G.  W.  Fenton,  Jr.,  J.  &  C.  Pope,  Charles  Pope ;  and  on 
branches  of  the  stream,  the  mills  of  A.  Comstock  and  L.  Cowen.  There 
was  also,  in  the  north-east  comer  of  the  town,  a  steam  saw-mill  owned  by 
Franklin  Baker — the  whole  number  being  between  twenty  and  twenty-five. 
Probably  all  were  not  running  so  late  as  twenty  years  ago.  And  by  the 
diminution  of  water  and  timber,  the  number  has  been  greatly  diminished  ; 
the  number  at  present  in  operation  has  not  been  ascertained. 

Jeflferson  Frew  started  a  steam  saw-mill  at  Frewsburgh  about  2  years  ago, 
which  is  now  in  operation.  About  750,000  feet  of  lumber  are  made  in  a 
year  at  this  mill,  and  run  down  the  river. 

Edward  Hayward  and  Edwin  Moore  established,  in  1872,  a  hand-sled  fac- 
tory, and  made,  in  two  years,  about  18,000  sleds,  and  then  converted  it  into 
a  stave-mill — the  staves  to  be  used  for  butter  packages  and  kegs,  for  shipping 
to  the  eastern  market.  They  have  made  about  800,000  the  past  year.  This 
factory  was  begun  by  Moore,  Spink  &  Co.  Edwin  Eaton  bought  it  in  the 
spring  of  1874;  and  Edward  W.  Scowden  stocks  the  mill,  and  hires  the  pro- 
prietors to  manufacture  the  staves,  and  will  probably  keep  up  the.  amount 

Wood  &  White  established  a  stave-factory  about  1868  or  1869 ;  ran  it  a 
few  years;  then  [1872]  rented  it  to  Scowden,  who  ran  it  about  2  years, 
[to  the  fall  of  '74],  making  about  600,000  staves  the  first  year,  and  700,000 
the  next.     April  14,  1875,  it  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

^firkin-stave  factory  was  started  in  1864  or  '65,  by  Edward  Hayward.  In 
187 1,  it  was  bought  by  John,  Jr.,  and  Henry  Myers,  and  converted  into  a 
manufactory  for  barrel  staves,  and  is  now  in  operation. 


Biographical  and  Genealogical. 

George  W.  Fenton  was  bom  Jn  Hanover,  N.  H.,  Dec.  20,  1873.  In 
1804,  he  left  Broadalbin,  N.  Y.,  where  his  father  had  settled,  and  traveled  to 
Pittsburgh,  then  a  small  village,  and  thence  down  the  Ohio  on  an  exploring 
tour  to  Louisville,  Ky.  He  returned  to  Pittsburgh,  and  commenced  trading 
in  goods  and  provisions,  in  a  canoe,  up  the  Allegany  river  and  French  creek, 
which  business  he  followed  two  or  three  years.  In  the  winter  of  1805-6,  he 
taught  a  school  at  Warren,  Pa.,  the  first  ever  taught  there.  He  there  married 
Elsie  Owen,  who  was  bom  in  Lunenburg,  N.  Y.,  July  8,  1790.  He  is  said 
to  hive  removed  to  his  new  log  cabin  on  the  south  side  of  the  outlet  of 
Chautauqua  lake,  in  the  spring  of  1807,  where  the  only  settlers  on  the  outlet 
were  William  Wilson  and  James  Culbertson,  who  were  on  the  north  side. 
In  1809,  he  sold  his  farm,  and  removed  to  lot  52,  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Connewango.  [The  date  of  the  purchase  of  this  land  was  March,  18 10.] 
Mr.  Fenton  died  March  3,  i860.  His  widow  died  Feb.  26,  1875.  Their 
children  were :  i.  Roswell  O.,  who  married  Lenora  Akin,  and  had  4  sons 
and  4  daughters;  Mr.  Fenton  deceased.  2.  George  tV.,yr.,  who  married 
Mitta  Howard,  and  has  2  sons  and  4  daughters.  3.  William  If.  H.,  who 
married  Catherine  Edmonds,  and  has  a  son,  William  H.  H.,  Jr.,  and  had  4 
daughters,  of  whom  one  died  in  infancy.  4.  John  F.,  who  married  Maria 
Woodward,  and  is  deceased ;  he  had  3  sons  and  5  daughters ;  one  of  the 
sons  died  in  infancy.     5.  Reuben  E.,  [see  sketch.  Hist,  of  Jamestown.] 

Hugh  Frew  was  bom  in  Killyleagh,  county  of  Down,  Ireland,  about 
1758,  and  was  married  to  Mary  Russell,  in  the  same  place,  in  1787.  They 
sailed  from  Belfast,  Ireland,  in  May,  1794,  and  arrived  at  Wilmington,  Ches- 
ter Co.,  Pa.,  in  June.  Mr.  Frew  was  very  poor  when  he  landed.  He  worked 
at  ditching  the  first  six  months,  at  $4  a  month;  and  his  wife  supported  the 
family  by  spinning  flax  on  the  little  wheel.  With  the  money  received  for  the 
six  months'  wages,  he  bought  a  cow,  which  died  before  he  had  taken  fi-om 
her  a  single  mess  of  milk.  He  removed  to  Dansville,  North  Branch  of 
Susquehanna,  Pa.  Being  a  miller,  as  the  Frews  had  been  by  occupation  for 
generations,  he  obtained  a  situation  in  a  grist-mill  with  three  run  of  stones, 
at  $8  a  month.  In  1800,  the  family  emigrated  through  the  wilderness,  up 
the  Sinemahoning  creek  to  the  head  of  the  Allegany,  and  down  the  Allegany 
to  Warren,  and  up  the  Connewango  to  Beech  Woods,  now  Farmington,  Pa, 
where  they  located  and  endured  great  hardships.  There  was  not  then  a 
white  settler  in  Chautauqua  county.  Hugh  Frew  and  his  wife  and  sons,  after 
their  arrival  in  August,  cleared  5  acres  of  land  and  sowed  it  with  wheat  the 
first  fall,  by  working  day  and  night.  The  father  and  sons,  John  and  James, 
cleared  up  a  farm,  built  a  grist-mill,  and  were  in  comfortable  circumstances. 
David,  the  only  other,  and  the  youngest  son,  died  soon  after  landing  at  Wil- 
mington. John  and  James  subsequently  settled  in  Carroll.  The  family 
finally  sold  the  farm  in  Pennsylvania,  and  all  removed  to  Frewsburgh.  Hugh 
Frew  died  there  in  December,  1831,  aged  73.     [See  Russell  Family.] 

John  Frew,  son  of  Hugh,  was  bom  in  Killyleagh,  Ireland,  Aug.  2,  1789, 

CARROLL.  249 

and  emigrated  with  his  father  to  America,  and  to  Farmington,  Pa.  [See 
sketch  of  Hugh  Frew.]  In  1809,  John  Frew  bought  an  interest  in  lands  on 
the  east  side  of  the  Connewango,  in  the  present  town  of  Carroll,  at  Frews- 
burgh,  where  he  erected  mills  with  Thomas  Russell.  His  brother  James 
purcha.sed  the  interest  of  Thomas  Russell.  They  built  mills,  cleared  farms, 
and  prospered.  John  Frew  helped  Edward  Work  build  his  saw-mill  on  the 
outlet  of  Chautauqua  lake.  He  said  he  commenced  sawing  for  Work  on 
his  mill,  May  8,  1809,  and  worked  through  the  summer.  From  the  plank 
he  sawed,  12  salt-boats  were  made  to  take  salt  down  the  outlet  and  the 
Allegany  to  Pittsburgh.  Much  salt  was  taken  down  in  the  fall  of  1809. 
John  and  James  Frew  and  Thomas  Russell  erected  their  saw-mill  at  the 
mouth  of  Frew's  run,  on  the  east  side  of  the  Connewango,  in  18 11.  In  or 
about  the  year  18 14,  Russell  sold  his  interest  to  the  Frews,  who  erected  near 
the  saw-mill  a  grist-mill  from  the  remains  of  the  old  grist-mill  in  Pennsyl- 
vania, in  1817;  their  father  being  concerned  with  them.  It  was  an  overshot 
mill  and  did  much  grinding,  and  was  tended  by  their  father.  John  and 
James  Frew  had  all  their  property  in  common;  and  no  jealousy  ever  ap- 
peared to  exist  between  them.  They  were,  however,  advised  to  divide  their 
property  to  prevent  difficulty  in  their  families  in  case  of  the  death  of  either 
of  them.  This  was  amicably  done  not  long  before  the  death  of  James,  who 
was  killed  at  the  raising  of  a  building.  In  18 16,  John  Frew  was  elected 
supervisor  of  the  town  of  EUicott,  [then  embracing  Carroll,]  and  was  con- 
tinued in  that  office  by  reelection  until  1822,  inclusive,  after  which  he  de- 
clined a  reelection.  He  was  appointed  a  judge  and  justice  in  1820,  which 
offices  he  declined.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  sound  judgment  and 
strict  integrity,  and  a  friend  and  liberal  patron  of  the  early  improvements  of 
the  county.  Having  lived  to  see  the  wilderness  become  a  well  cultivated 
country,  and  the  site  of  his  residence  in  Carroll  a  prosperous  village  bearing 
his  own  name,  he  closed  his  life  in  September,  1865,  aged  76  years. 

James  Frew,  second  son  of  Hugh,  was  bom  in  Killyleagh,  Ireland,  about 
1791,  and  was  married  to  Rebecca,  daughter  of  Josiah  H.  Wheeler,  of 
Frewsburgh.  Mr.  Frew  resided  in  Frewsburgh  until  his  death.  He  was  killed 
in  assisting  to  raise  a  building,  by  the  falling  of  a  bent,  which  struck  him  on 
the  back  of  the  neck.  He  died  August  24,  1834,  aged  43  years.  While  in 
partnership  with  John,  he  seemed  to  choose  managing  business  at  home,  and 
having  his  brother  attend  to  business  out  of  town.  He  was  disinclined  to 
hold  any  public  office,  though  he  was  once  prevailed  on  to  accept  the  office 
of  assessor.  He  was  out  in  one  campaign  with  Gen.  Harrison's  army  in  the 
war  of  18 1 2,  and  endured  great  hardships  and  privations  at  Maumee,  River 
Raisin,  etc.  He  was  known  as  a  superior  marksman  with  a  rifle.  He  had  5 
sons:  John  H.,  Miles,  Josiah,  Jefferson,  and  David. 

RuFus  Greene,  bom  in  Amherst,  Mass.,  removed  from  Vermont  to  what 
is  now  Kiantone,  in  1827  ;  thence,  after  three  years,  to  this  town,  on  lot  51, 
near  the  Connewango,  on  the  farm  owned  by  the  late  Roswell  O.  Fenton. 
Mr.  Greene  was  for  many  years  a  justice  of  the  peace.     He  had  6  children  : 


Eunice  N.,  wife  of  Horatio  N.  Thornton;  Mary,  wife  of  Albert  M.  Thornton ; 
Sarah,  who  married  Wm.  Corkins,  and  is  deceased;  Lutheria,  who  married 
Perrin  Sampson,  and  lives  at  Springville,  Erie  Co.,  N.  Y.,  with  whom  her 
mother  now  resides;  Emily,  wife  of  Henry  W.  Sampson,  South  Valley,  Catt. 
Co.;  Rufus,  Jr.,  who  married  Kate  L.  Gould,  and  removed,  in  187 1,  to 
Newell,  Buena  Vista  Co.,  Iowa.     Rufus  Greene  died  Jan.,  r868. 

Joseph  Waite,  the  eldest  son  of  Silas  Waite,  was  bom  in  'Wardsborough, 
Vt.,  July  4,  1787,  and  was  married,  Oct.  17,  181 1,  to  Olive  Davis,  who  was 
born  in  the  same  town,  Sept.  16,  1786.  She  was  related  to  the  Davises  in 
Kiantone  and  Busti.  Mr.  Waite  was  a  thorough  "  Green  Mountaineer,"  over 
six  feet  high,  and  weighed  about  250  pounds.  The  town  was  rough  and 
mountainous,  and  his  parents  were  poor.  His  advantages  for  education  were 
very  limited.  He  learned  to  write  on  birch  bark.  He  learned  at  school 
simply  to  read,  write,  and  cypher.  He  learned  the  trade  of  saddle  and  har- 
ness-making, and  carried  it  on  for  a  brief  period.  He  was  appointed  a 
deputy  sheriff  in  his  native  county;  and,  by  attending  courts,  he  acquired  a 
taste  for  the  law  business.  In  1816,  he  came  with  his  wife,  two  children, 
and  his  worldly  goods,  in  a  two-horse  wagon,  to  the  south  part  of  Chautauqua 
county,  the  journey  occuppng  six  weeks.  He  purchased  the  "  betterments" 
on  a  small  farm  in  Carroll,  where  he  passed  through  the  usual  experiences  of 
early  pioneer  life.  He  went  into  the  lumbering  business,  in  which  he  was 
very  unsuccessful.  The  landing  on  the  Connewango  where  he  drew,  with 
ox-teams,  his  logs  and  shingles,  is  still  called  "  Waite's  Landing."  Being 
unfitted  for  manual  labor,  by  reason  of  a  rupture,  he  turned  to  the  profession 
of  law.  He  moved  to  Jamestown  in  1821,  and  commenced  the  study  in  his 
35th  year,  and  practiced  his  profession  there  about  30  years.  He  attained  a 
respectable  standing  at  the  bar,  and  served  in  the  offices  of  justice,  district- 
attorney,  examiner  in  chancery,  supreme  court  commissioner,  and  county 
superintendent  of  the  poor,  and  performed  the  duties  of  these  offices  with 
general  acceptance.  In  1854,  he  emigrated  to  Fond  du  Lac,  Wis.,  to  live 
with  his  children;  and  on  the  8th  of  January,  1855,  he  died  of  apoplexy, 
after  a  sickness  of  26  hours.  In  1870,  his  remains  were  removed  to  the  new 
cemetery  at  Jamestown,  and  deposited  by  the  side  of  those  of  his  wife,  who 
died  Feb.  27,  1851.  They  had  two  children,  besides  one  that  died  in  child- 
hood: Franklin  H.,  who  resides  in  Mankato,  Minn.;  and  Davis  H.,  editor 
and  pubUsher  of  the  Jamestown  Journal. 

JosiAH  H.  Wheeler  was  bom  in  Concord,  Mass.,  in  1762,  and  married 
Mary  Miles,  who  was  bom  Feb.  10,  1765.  They  came  with-a  large  family 
from  Wardsborough,  Vt.,  to  Ellicott,  [now  Carroll,]  and  purchased  the  land 
and  saw-mill  on  Frew's  ran,  belonging  to  Matthew  Turner,  lot  53,  tp.  i,  r.  10. 
Wheeler  and  his  sons  stocked  and  ran  the  mill  with  their  own  labor,  and 
soon  cleared  up  a  good  farm.  He  had  5  sons :  James,  Josiah,  Francis, 
Miles,  and  Daniel.  The  sons,  or  most  of  them,  as  they  came  of  age,  were 
helped  to  land  on  which  to  start  in  life.  The  daughters  were  :  Rebecca, 
wife  of  James  Frew ;  Polly,  wife  of  John  Rose,  of  Frewsburgh ;  and  Anna. 

^^^^c^^^:^    y^^Ct^, 


Josiah  H.  Wheeler  died,  [date  not  ascertained.]  His  wife  died  in  1857, 
aged  about  92  years.  She  well  remembered,  till  her  death,  the  time  when 
the  report  was  spread  that  the  British  were  coming  to  Concord  to  destroy 
the  military  stores  collected  there  by  the  colonists,  and  when,  at  the  age  of 
ten  years,  she  fled  wi